Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, also known as CPR, is a type of first aid administered to a person whose heart or breathing has stopped. CPR may be classified as an “emergency life-support procedure” (www. webhealthcentre. com). CPR requires the individual to learn the physical aspects of performing mouth- to- mouth breathing and closed chest compressions. CPR also requires the individual to know the “proper timing and specific sequence in which to use this skill” (www. crinigeria. com). The acronym ABC is used to represent three major functions in CPR. The meanings are as follows: “A” for airway, “B” for breathing, and “C” for circulation.
It is important that when performing emergency life-support the individual performs as quickly as possible, except under certain circumstances does the individual perform carefully. After four to six minutes has passed, it is likely for brain damage to occur after cardiopulmonary arrest and will increase in severity every minute after. In such cases, it is suggested to follow the following steps: call for help, restore breathing if breathing has stopped, (most importantly for children pulled from the water, restore circulation if there is no heartbeat or pulse, stop any bleeding, and treat for shock.
It is important for people to know and do CPR because CPR is considered to be a time saver. CPR keeps blood and oxygen circulating to the brain. Without the presence of oxygen and blood in the brain, brain damage could occur. CPR keeps the brain alive and prevents the brain from becoming damaged until further help arrives. CPR should be done to individuals who are unconscious and do not have breath or a heartbeat. It is important to establish unconsciousness before performing CPR.
It is also important to check the individual’s airway (passage between the mouth and lungs) to make sure that it is not blocked by an object or the individual’s tongue. A person will start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or chest compressions combined with breathing. CPR will be continued until the victim is revived, a trained person takes over, or the individual becomes tired. CPR varies for adults, children, and infants. For this paper, the student will be writing performing CPR on adults. Without further adieu, this is how to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
Begin with checking for responsiveness. This can be done by gently shaking the victim or shout out “Are you okay? ” When response is not given, instruct a bystander to call 911 or if the rescuer is alone, leave the victim and call for help and then return to the victim. Open the victim’s airway. After calling for help, the rescuer must determine whether the victim is breathing, only after the victim’s airway is open. In some cases, a victim who loses consciousness may have his airway blocked by his tongue. The tongue loses its muscle tone and falls to the back of the throat.
When this happens, the victim’s airway is obstructed and does not allow air to flow in and out of the lungs. To open the victim’s airway, place the heel of one hand on the victim’s forehead and place the fingertips of the other hand under the victim’s jawbone. Then, tilt the head back. This method is called the “head-tilt, Chin-lift method”. This method is most used but is not recommended for use on a victim with a neck injury. Check for breathing. When the airway is opened, the rescuer must check to see if the victim is breathing.
To check the victim’s breathing, the rescuer must place the side of his face over the victim’s mouth and focus his eyes on the victim’s chest. This is called “Look, Listen, and Feel”. The rescuer will remain in this position for about five minutes. The rescuer will look for the rise and fall of the victim’s chest, listen for the quality of the victim’s breath, and try to feel air movement from the victim’s cheek. If the victim’s is not breathing, the rescuer must give the victim two rescue breaths. This is done by pinching the victim’s nose and giving two slow breaths through the victim’s mouth.
A good seal must be established to ensure that there is no leakage of air while giving the breaths. The rescuer must give time between each breath for the chest to rise and fall. If the rescuer determines that the victim is breathing, turn the victim to his side. This is called the recovery position. If the victim does not have a pulse and no respiration, chest compressions should be administered to cause the heart to pump blood. This could be done by the rescuer placing the heel of the palm of one hand parallel to and over the lower part of the victim’s sternum or breastbone), 1 to 1. inches from its tip. The rescuer then puts the other hand on top of the first and brings the shoulders directly over the sternum. The rescuer’s fingers should not touch the victim’s chest. The rescuer must keep is arms locked and straight and push down forcefully on the sternum. The rescuer should alternately apply and release pressure at a rate of 80 to 100 compressions per minute. After every 15 compressions, the rescuer gives the victim artificial respirations. Breaths of three or four should be given. The ratio 15 compressions to 2 breaths are used on adults.
Chest compressions are continued for four full cycles of 15 to 2. When victim’s pulse and respiration is restored, discontinue CPR. Return victim to the recovery position and continue to monitor victim until help arrives. Remember, the significance of learning the process of CPR is not to bring a victim back to life but to give the victim time to increase the his chances of survival before advanced help arrives. Knowing CPR is very helpful and life saving. Now that the readers have an idea of how to perform CPR, get out there and apply these skills and SAVE LIVES!