Humanism philosophy has developed many theories
about cultures worldwide over thousands of years. As we will look at different beliefs
of existentialism in humanism, including Kant’s Theory, Sartre Theory,
Christian Ethics, Protestant Ethics, and Jewish Ethics, we will learn the likes
and differences. Humanism is known as how phycologist observes a person and
studies the way humans behave, not only through the eyes of the observer, but
through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.

While
both Sartre and Kant appreciate the unity in equal application of morality
among humans, Kant is more of a rule whereas Sartre is more of a guideline. Kant’s
way is an imperative way for example; if you break it, you have done evil. Sartre’s
leaves the judgment for you to determine whether it is bad or good. Kant theory
states that you can never lie, and doesn’t explain when lies might be acceptable
under certain circumstance. On the contrast Sartre allows you to do either, as
long as you recognize that it is creating a ripple effect and will now be something
people will do without thinking whether it is bad or good or the consequence. Another
distinguishing factor, Kant’s account of moral rules is applied to everyone as
they are humans and should have the same outcome every time, In his view, we
have a type of practical rationality, but the questions of what we will make
our choices based are on largely left up to our belief that if it is right or
wrong.  

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Buddhism
is unlike the Sartre theory; they believe that you are reborn into a new
existence caused by karma. This cycle will only come to an end through personal
state where there is no desires, suffering or hatred.   Once Nirvana has been reached there is no
need for rebirth and deaths, by doing this all the karmic debts have been
settled.  Like Sartre, Buddhism do not
believe in a God believe that everyone was in charge of themselves, however
they believe that each human is important, that all have the potential to
develop into a Buddha – a perfected human being. Buddhism lives by a set of
percepts to live by which basically states not to cause harm or suffering to
anything around you.             

Contrary
to Sartre, who is an atheist, Christians believe in the humanity of Jesus
Christ, the son of God. They assumed that the ability to reason and improve
yourself through the workings of Jesus by free will and making our own choice.
Like Christians, Sartre believes we have the freedom to make our own choice but
the choices we make will create a ripple, a choice that other humans will
follow. However, Christians may have the freewill but under the teachings of
God. Jesus will lead them to their choice of right and wrong. Christians
believe that, in order to change society around them, they would need to first change
humans. However, Sartre believes that once you are born, you are thrown into
the world of suffering and are now responsible for everything you do and the
choices you make. He believes that you are alone on this world to determine
right from wrong and whichever you choose a consequence will follow. Sartre
feels that you are not asked to be brought into this world, which causes
suffering not knowing what to expect and pain for not knowing what you are
living for. Believe that God puts suffering in their life to show at the end
the eternal joy and glory.

            Albert
Camus, like Sartre, was believed to be an atheist. Camus did not believe in God
or the afterlife. He believes that death and suffering had played an important
role in rational meaning. Because he did not believe in God or an afterlife, Camus
felt that once we are born we are living just to die at the end. Camus did
not believe we had a reason for living but just to live the life the best we
could. Our choices in life will determine what kind of person we were while we
are on Earth.

Jewish, like Christianity, believed that only
God will judge everyone by what they have done in their life. Judaism allows
people to see one situation on many different ways. Judaism, unlike
Christianity, which rejected the continued lawfulness of the ritual laws,
Judaism believes in the eternally binding validity of the covenant of law contained
in the Torah. The rabbis will never distinguish between moral or ethical and
the difference between ritual and sacral commandments.  Rabbinical Judaism thus takes a holistic view
of the halakhic system, according to which no greater importance is place on
any one mitzvah, or commandment, over the other. Unlike Sartre, and Kant’s
beliefs Jewish people believe that they suffer in order to redeem the wicked of
humanity. In Judaism there is not one source of code and ethical thought of
behavior, outside if halakha. However, like other theory’s, to prevent certain
obvious ethical principles an understanding of the Torah’s prohibitions forced.
These include sanctions against killing, stealing, coveting, adultery, cruelty
to animals, and interfering with nature’s course.

After learning more about each religion and their beliefs I have
come up with my own opinion about each one. To me Existentialism Philosophers
focus more on what should be on a person inside, as far as thoughts, beliefs,
responsibilities, and emotions. Existentialists should understand that we control
our own lives’ and what paths we may take. This, to an Existentialist, is true
down to even very specific things. If we are depressed or upset at any
particular moment, it is because we choose to be. They also argue that because
we can choose to be or to feel anything at any particular time that we are not
intuitive to any of those things to begin with. Sartre took these things to
something of an extreme and broadened it to indicate that our own choices are
made freely. Every human, according to Sartre, is completely free and are bound
only by the results of choices they have already made. It shows that experiences
that we have had in our lives can have an influence on our personality as well
as our actions later on in life. It basically shows that nurture does play an
influence in the way that we behave and the only way to change our behavior is
to understand why we behave a certain way in the first place.