Last updated: May 12, 2019
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This experiment was performed to place microtubules in Nb2a cells through immune staining utilizing ? tubulin antibodies and enzymatic reaction. In this experiment Nb2a cells were fixed utilizing the 4 % paraformaldehyde. Cells were permeabilized with the 0.2 % Triton X-100. Cells were blocked utilizing the 3 % bovine serum albumen ( BSA ) . Adding the primary antibody cells were incubated for the 45 min. Alkaline solution and BCIP/NBT added to the cells and cells were viewed under the microscope. In the consequence we detected the dark brown precipitate in the positive cells. This was the reaction of the alkalic phosphatase linked to the secondary antibody with the BCIP/NBT reagents. Most staining was in the cytol and the extensions that protrude off the cell organic structure.


Immunocytochemistry methods are used to place the proteins and other molecules in the cells by utilizing the specific antibody that bids to it and identifies the protein. In immune staining normally there two antibodies involved ; primary and secondary. Primary antibody is targeted to an antigenic determinant of the protein of involvement. The usage of antibodies in the multipart and assorted environment of the cell at times gives unexpected adhering non dependent on specific binding of the primary antibody to the right antigen [ 1 ] .

Immunocytochemistry started in 1942 when Albert coons and carbon monoxide worker reported utilizing the fluorescence labeled antibody in the liver section. Researcher stated utilizing the control from the usage of other antibodies. Primary antibody is utile to alterations in degree and alterations in the phosphorylation. Secondary antibody binds to the primary antibody and they detect the proteins or other molecules. The secondary antibody is conjugated to a sensing system that encodes an enzyme that yields to colourise merchandise. It is an of import tool for the resoluteness of cellular contents from different cells.

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Material and Method:

Students will have 3 home bases with the Nb2a cells and one home base will be the negative control and pupils will execute immunocytochemistry on other two home bases. First measure is to repair the cells. To repair the cell take all the media from the home bases and easy add the 4 % paraformaldehyde and allow the home bases sit for 5 proceedingss at room temperature. After 5 proceedingss take out the paraformaldehyde and rinse the home base with the 1X PBS. Let the home base sit for twosome of minute and take the PBS. Second measure is to permeabilize the cells add 1 milliliter of 0.2 % Triton X-100 and allow the cell sit for 5 proceedingss at room temperature. Wash the cells with the PBS and allow the home base sit for 2 proceedingss and take out the PBS. Third measure is to barricade the cells by adding the block antigens by adding 1ml of 3 % BSA in Trish buffered saline and allow the home bases sit for 30 proceedingss at room temperature. This barricading agent will barricade any non specific binding of the primary antibody to non tublin proteins. To adhere the antibody add 1ml of primary antibody to each positive home bases incubate the pates for 45 proceedingss at 37 & A ; deg ; C. Add 1 milliliter of barricading solution to merely negative home base. After 45 proceedingss of incubation take out the primary antibody and reassign it back in to the original tubing. Rinse the cells 3X with 1X PBS and each clip incubate the home bases 5 proceedingss at room temperature. When you rinsing the cells be careful with taking the media and adding the media to the home bases. Add 1 milliliter of secondary antibody to both positive and negative control home bases and incubate the home bases for 45 proceedingss at 37 & A ; deg ; C. Secondary antibody is diluted in 3 % BSA at 1:2000. Rinse the cells 3X with 1X PBS and incubate the home bases for 5 proceedingss at room temperature. Once more rinse the cells with 1 milliliters of alkaline buffer. This alkaline buffer will assist in keeping the optimal pH for the conjugated enzyme alkaline phosphate. To detect the enzymatic reaction take the alkalic solution and add 1 milliliter of substrate solution BCIP/NBT. Add this trustee to the both positive and negative control home bases. After the home bases are observed by the T.A halt the reaction with by taking the substrate and adding the distilled H2O to the home bases.


Degree centigrades: UsersMadviyaDownloadsG9-P1-pos.jpgC: UsersMadviyaDownloadsG9-P1-neg.jpg

Fig 1: Negative Control home base Fig 2: Positive Control home base

Table 1: Cell confluency at gazing and at the terminal after substrate solution is added.

Plate #

Confluency at get downing

Confluency at terminal

Positive control # 1

75 % – 80 %

35 %

Positive control # 2

70 %

40 %

Negative control

95 %

40 %

Table 2: Efficiency of stained cells demoing the immunoreactivity to antibody.

Plate #

Stained Cell #

Positive Control # 1


Positive Control # 2


Negative Control



As you can see in the tabular array 1 the confluency of the cell went down at the terminal of the experiment. Cells confluency went down because the cells were washed so many times and that clip some cells might be pipette out from the home base by error. Fig1 shows that negative control did n’t had that much immunoreactivity with the antibody. There were merely twosome of the cells were stained. Fig 2 shows that positive control had immune responsiveness and most of the cells were stained bluish. In Fig 2 you can see the cells are stained around the karyon. Cells are most stained in the cytol. Table 2 shows the efficiency of the cells that stained cells in both controls that had immunoreactivity with the antibody.


During this lab period we have learned that how the primary and secondary antibodies are targets the specific protein of involvement and how it is bind to the protein. We besides learned about how cells are fixed, permeabilize, blocked, and how they bind to specific antibody. Immunostaining is used to observe the distribution and localisation of the specific protein within single cells [ 2 ] . The consequence for this lab was as expected. We expected that positive control home base cells will adhere to the substrate solution and cells will be stained bluish and negative control home base cells will non adhere to the substrate. But we besides found some cells stained in the negative control home base. Positive control home base ‘s cells showed the innunoreactivity to the antibody and the cells were stained bluish. Stained portion of the cells were cytols and outside the karyon. Microtubules that form the cytoskeleton are made up of a protein called tubulin and are present copiously in nerve cell. For this experiment primary antibody was anti tubulin. Secondary antibody provides the cosmopolitan labeling and label elaboration. The cell confluncy went low because by the terminal of the experiment I think cell started to decease and some cells are stuck on the side of the home base. Both positive controls had immunoreactivity to the antibody and the negative control home base did non hold immunoreactivity to the antibody.