In this undertaking a survey is conducted on exports of Pakistan. This research is conducted to see the impact of nutrient exports and agricultural natural stuff exports on the net exports of Pakistan. For this intent, net exports are taken as dependent variable while nutrient exports and agricultural natural stuff exports are taken as independent variables. Secondary information is collected from World Bank site from the twelvemonth 1981 to 2010. To prove its relationship ordinary least square method is used. Result show that there is negative function of independent variables towards the dependant variable. One unit alteration in independent variable X1 a alteration of 0.44 in dependant variable one unit alteration in independent variable X2 alterations dependent variable by 0.53 % . It is suggested that Pakistan should export finished goods alternatively of primary merchandises to increase its net exports.
The theoretical sense of export is to transport the goods & A ; services out of the port of a state. In easy words exports quantify the sum of goods and services supplied by the domestic manufacturers to the abroad consumers. Exports are that measure of goods which are sent to the other state for sale. An export of a good occurs when there is a transportation of ownership from a occupant to a non-resident this does non needfully connote that the good in inquiry physically crosses the border.A Export of services consists of all services rendered by occupants to non-residents. In national histories any direct purchases by non-residents in theA economic territoryA of a state are recorded as exports of services ; hence all outgo by foreign tourers in the economic district of a state is considered as portion of the exports of services of that state.
International trade is turning every twenty-four hours. States who want to export goods produce extra than what they can utilize so that they can be easy able to merchandise them in the foreign market. The top exportation states play a really critical function in the international trade. The chief goods exported by some of the top exportation states consist of fabrics, vesture, consumables, crude oil and crude oil merchandises, machinery, electrical and plastics etc. The most of import exporting states of the universe are Germany, China, USA, Japan, France, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, United Kingdom and Canada is among major exporting states. Exports play a critical function in economic development of state. The mounting exports provide foreign exchange for the increased imports which is really of import to economic development. Higher exports assist to pass more in the other sectors of the economic system proficiently and increasing efficiency. The industries that make net income from exports make new investing bring in new engineering and managerial accomplishments and stimulate increased ingestion and make employment chances in the state.
There are different types of exports of every state. Pakistan largely exports natural stuffs alternatively of finished goods which is a chief cause of low exports for Pakistan. Pakistan is besides exporting nutrient points, athleticss points, surgical instruments, marbles and other different valuable merchandises. Most of the Pakistan ‘s exports come from the agribusiness sector as it contributes 22 % to the GDP and it employs 45 % of the labour associated with this sector. The agribusiness is a chief sector of Pakistani economic system and it has a major portion in the net exports of Pakistan and this sector chiefly exports agricultural natural stuffs and nutrient points such as rice, cotton, wheat out of Pakistan. So the research in this undertaking will be on the agricultural natural stuff exports on Pakistan and on nutrient exports from Pakistan. For this intent we have taken net exports as a dependant variable and agricultural natural stuff exports & A ; nutrient exports as the independent variables. The intent is to see the consequence of addition or lessening in these exports on the net exports and besides to see the comparative portion of these exports in the net exports of Pakistan. Agricultural natural stuff exports have a big portion in net exports of Pakistan. Food exports of Pakistan have besides increased really much in the last several old ages. Pakistan is the major exporter of fruits and different types of nutrient points in the Middle East and different European states and nutrient exports are besides a major beginning of foreign exchange net incomes of Pakistan. This research will be helpful for the pupils, research workers and people of different Fieldss of life to understand the construct of exports and importance of different types of along with major focal point on agricultural natural stuff exports and nutrient exports and to analyse the part of these sectors towards economic system of Pakistan. At last recommendations will besides be helpful to increase the net exports of Pakistan.
The aim of the survey was to see the effects of those factors that affect mango exports from Pakistan. The information was collected from a list of 40 mango exporters. After the aggregation of informations it was therefore modeled through dual log signifier of arrested development analysis. The consequences of the survey showed that different factors like instruction of mango exporters, experience of Mangifera indica exporters, mean purchase monetary value, mean selling cost, mean sale monetary value and ISO certificate significantly affected Mangifera indica exports nevertheless authorities policies affected positively and hot H2O intervention was found to be non important variables. The determination suggested that there is a demand to construct up the domestic production and aiming high monetary value markets and there should be a variegation in mango production with value add-on.
Another research is made on the challenges faced by the Pakistan ‘s fabric industry in the modern universe. The fabric industry contributes about 60 % to Pakistan ‘s entire exports but now this industry is confronting a diminution in its growing rate. The major grounds for this diminution are planetary recession, internal security concerns, high cost of production due to increase in cost of inputs. Devaluation of Pakistani rupee increased the cost of imported input and the high involvement rate proved to be another reverse. However fabric can be one time once more brought up to its degree if authorities takes serious actions in normalising the above mentioned hurdlings. The authorities should take down the involvement rates withdraw the withholding and gross revenues revenue enhancements. Further purchase of new machinery can be bought to increase the growing of fabric industry. However this research has some restrictions every bit good as no arrested development theoretical account or statistical technique is non applied in this survey.
( Mustafa, 2000 ) A research was conducted to analyse the negative effects of Phytosanitary ( SPS ) demands under WTO. It is rather apparent that Pakistan has a possible comparative advantage over developed states in the production of many agricultural merchandises, such as cotton, rice, fruits, flowers etc but the ability of the state to spread out its universe market portion is based on its abilities to run into the demands of the universe trading system, non merely in footings of monetary values but besides quality of exportable merchandises and their safety criterions. It is argued that Pakistan lacks the needful resources to take part efficaciously in the establishment of WTO, and therefore may be unable to to the full work the chances provided by the Sanitary and Phytosanitary ( SPS ) understanding. The paper seeks to place agencies by which any negative effects of SPS steps on Pakistan can be reduced. This paper suggests that progress survey on impact of SPS events on export of agricultural merchandises and nutrient merchandises from Pakistan, should be conducted to make exact and, if possible, quantified appraisal.
( Siddiqui, 2007 ) This paper surveies dynamic effects of agribusiness trade in the context of domestic and planetary liberalisation. Bing the largest sector of the economic system, the agribusiness sector contributes well to the growing procedure. Using a little CGE theoretical account for Pakistan and a 2002 Pakistan Social Accounting Matrix as informations base, the simulations are conducted to mensurate the effects of domestic agribusiness trade liberalisation in isolation and in concurrence with alterations in the universe economic system. The freshness of this paper is that it introduces kineticss in the Pakistani CGE theoretical account through capital accretion. The consequences illuminate the greater effectivity of agribusiness trade liberalisation in advancing the overall growing procedure, given increased market entree because of liberalisation in the universe economic system.
( Malik, 2007 ) This research has seen the trade chances for Pakistan ‘s fabric and vesture exports in the international market at the clip when it has been decided in the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing that the trade in this sector from the developing to developed states should be wholly free from quantitative limitations and governed by the normal GATT regulations by 2005. The paper has besides reviewed the current position of Pakistan ‘s fabric industry. Textile and vesture is the major subscriber to our entire exports. But in the international market the portion is fringy. The ground is the increasing universe competition. The quality every bit good as the scope of goods produced is the major failing for our fabric exports. Therefore, to last in a more liberalized and more competitory universe in which we are traveling to come in we need to travel for modern engineering and for the production of high value added goods.
( Syed Ali Raza, 2012 ) A recent research was conducted to see the impact of agribusiness on GDP of Pakistan. For this intent information was collected from 1980 t0 2010 from reliable web sites. Simple arrested development was applied to see the significance of agricultural bomber sectors with economic growing of Pakistan. Different variables used for this research were GDP, major harvests, minor harvests, farm animal, piscaries and forestry ‘s. The consequences showed a important function of agricultural bomber sectors with GDP except forestry. The consequences besides showed that both harvests and livestock contribute 91 % to the entire agricultural sum while piscaries and forestry have really less part. The grounds of less part found were low investing, no authorities support and untrained labour.
3.1 Exports of Pakistan
Pakistani exports were about 2240 million dollars in April 2012. In the epoch of 2003 to 2012 Pakistan ‘s exports remained at an norm of 1529.7400 million dollars with the highest of 2660.0000 million dollars in June 2011 and a record low of776.4000 million dollars in February of 2003. Pakistan exports rice, furniture, cotton fibre, cement, tiles, marble, fabrics, vesture, leather goods, athleticss goods, surgical instruments, electrical contraptions, package, rugs and carpets and nutrient merchandises. Pakistan now is being really good recognized for bring forthing and exporting cements in Asia and Mid-East. Main exports spouses are European Union ( UK ) , United States, UAE, and Afghanistan. The exports of Pakistan are increasing but there is a diminution in some sectors of exports because of energy crisis and unfavourable authorities policies. The fabric manufacturers are anticipating a lessening in textile exports of Pakistan due to miss of electricity and gas deficit. They say that diminution of fabric exports would hit the overall exports which might take the state towards economic bankruptcy. Other chief grounds of reduced exports international trade are limitations on Pakistan and the quality of goods exported by Pakistan. Exports of Pakistan chiefly consist of natural stuff goods non the finished goods which are chief cause of less export.
The balance of trade is the difference between the pecuniary value of exports and imports in an economic system over a certain period of clip. A positive balance of trade is known as a trade excess and consists of exporting more than is imported ; a negative balance of trade is known as a trade shortage or, informally, a trade gap.A Pakistan reported a trade shortage equivalent to 1517 Million USD in April of 2012. Historically, from 2003 until 2012, Pakistan Balance of Trade shortage averaged 818.6 Million USD making all clip high of 9.6 Million USD in August 2003 and a record depression of -1878 Million USD in October of 2008. There is a immense and terrible demand to increase exports in Pakistan. Pakistan should stress on exporting finished goods instead than exporting natural stuff. Furthermore Pakistan should research and work its oil and gas resources to heighten its exports. Political stableness and jurisprudence & A ; order state of affairs should be improved so that foreign investing can be made by the international companies. Pakistan should do friendly dealingss with India and should increase bilateral trade dealingss with India and other adjacent states like China, Iran and Afghanistan. The decrease in export revenue enhancements can actuate exporters to export more out of Pakistan. Furthermore the organisations which promote the export of Pakistan in international markets should be made like export publicity agency. Strict quality control should be ensured along with packaging of Pakistani merchandises to increase the demand of Pakistani merchandises in international markets.
3.2 REVIEW ON PAKISTAN EXPORTS
Pakistan ‘s exports during July-June 2008-09 were US $ 17.688 billion as compared to US $ 19.052 billion in 2007-08 and US $ 16.976 billion in 2006-07 reflecting a lessening of ( 7.16 % ) , ( 12.2 % ) and ( 3.19 % ) severally.
3.3 SECTOR WISE EXPORTS
TEXTILE & A ; GARMENTS CATEGORIES
Textile & A ; Garments Sector contributed 54.16 % in Pak-exports and declined at US $ 9.579 billion in 2008-09 from US $ 10.670 billion deserving exports in 2007-08 registering a lessening of ( -10.22 % ) . Major classs that increased over the old twelvemonth were Towels, Knitwear ( Hosiery ) and other Textile Material etc. A lessening was witnessed in Textile points such as Cotton cloths, Textile made-ups, Cotton yarn, Garments, Readymade garments and Synthetic fabric.
3.4 PRODUCT WISE ANALYSIS
Export of Cotton Fabrics declined at US $ 1.955 Billion from US $ 2.011 billion in the twelvemonth 2008-09 as compared with 2007-08 demoing a lessening of ( -2.75 % ) and measure showed besides lessening to 1882 million SQM from 2035 million SQM. Major purchasers of the merchandise were Bangladesh, China, UAE, Russian federation, Egypt and Mexico.
Textile Made-ups including Towels
Bed ware fetched US $ 480.138 million in 2008-09 as against exports of US $ 537.868 million in 2007-08, demoing a lessening of ( -10.60 % ) . Major purchasers of the merchandise were UAE, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Chile, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
Towels exports increased at US $ 643 million in the twelvemonth 2008-09 as compared with 2007-08 exports of US $ 613 million which recorded an addition by ( 4.86 % ) . The measure of the merchandise increased to 165.638 million kilogram from 152.323 million kilogram. Major purchasers of the merchandise were USA, UAE, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Netherlands and Belgium.
During 2008-09 exports decreased by ( -14.31 % ) of US $ 112 million as against exports of US $ 131 million in 2007-08. Measure decreased by ( -5.59 % ) from 554.817 million kilogram to 523.790 million kilogram, nevertheless AUP came down ( -9.96 % ) . China remained figure one among the major purchasers of the merchandise, while Bangladesh obtained figure two place followed by Egypt, Philippines and Australia severally.
Export of garments decreased by ( -23.26 % ) during the twelvemonth 2008-09 and detail analysis of Knitwear and Readymade garments is given as follows: –
Knitwear ( Hosiery ) witnessed increasing tendency touching US $ 1741 million in the reappraisal period 2008-09 as compared to US $ 1732 million last twelvemonth. Upward tendency was besides seen in exports to United Kingdom, Belgium, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Sweden, while diminishing tendency was seen in the market of USA, Germany, Netherlands, Spain and Canada.
Readymade garments there was a lessening of US $ 362 million ( -22.76 % ) over the old twelvemonth. During the period under reappraisal exports came down to US $ 408 million from US $ 1442 million. However, it showed increased tendency in the exports to Belgium, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Sweden and Denmark. Major lessenings were witnessed in the markets of USA, Germany, UK, Spain and France.
There was a lessening of US $ 139 million i.e. ( -32.23 % ) over the old twelvemonth. During the period under reappraisal exports came down to US $ 278 million from US $ 410 million. Measure is besides decreased by ( -18.77 % ) from 442.5 million SQM of the old twelvemonth to 359.4 million SQM. AUP was US $ 0.89 per SQM while it was US $ 0.93 per SQM in 2007-08, therefore showed a lessening ( -4.14 % ) . Furthermore, Mexico, Malaysia, Indonesia, Srilanka and Kuwait were higher export markets. On the contrary, minor diminution in UAE, USA, South Africa, Saudi Arabia and UK were observed.
3.5 OTHER CORE CATEGORIES
This caput Contributed ( 25.60 % ) in Pak-Exports and came down to US $ 4.528 billion from US $ 5.177 billion demoing a lessening of ( -12.20 % ) over the last twelvemonth. The points witnessed increased tendency in Rice, Leather & A ; leather merchandises, leather industries and leather footwear. However, decreased tendency appeared in the merchandises of Leather garments ( excepting baseball mitts ) , Leather baseball mitts and Surgical Instruments and Sport goods. Therefore, it farther shown high tendency in the Molasses point.
This Commodity witnessed an increasing tendency by US $ 1983 million from US $ 1836 million demoing an addition of 8.02 % . Quantity felt down by ( -8.87 % ) . In footings of Quantity entire export of Rice which was 2809 thousand/MT in 2007-08 and in 2008-09 came down to 2560 1000 MT. However, AUP, which was US $ 653.60/MT in 2007-08, went up to US $ 776.06/MT in 2008-09.
Contributed US $ 1070.338 million in entire export of Rice, export of basmati was US $ 1068.86 million in 2007-08. Quantity exported 868577 MT in 2008-09 as against 1138093 MT in 2007-08. AUP sowed addition by 26.86 % per MT from US $ 939.17 per MT to US $ 1191.41 per MT.
Its portion is US $ 912.89 million in 2008-09 from US $ 767.200 million of 2007-08. AUP increased by 22.58 % and measure went up to 169.535 MT from 167.055 MT demoing an addition of 1.23 % . The purchaser of the Rice and Rice others was Iran obtained figure one followed by Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kenya and Mozambique.
Leather and leather merchandises
Showed lessening of ( -22.65 % ) exports of leather and leather merchandises which came down to US $ 943.788 million from US $ 1220.119 million. Leather tanned contributed 2.18 % ; Leather garments/manufactured 2.77 % and leather footwear 0.65 % in the group of leather & A ; leather merchandises.
Leather showed a lessening of ( -27.88 % ) . The export of Leather fetched US $ 299 million as against US $ 415 million in old twelvemonth. Quantity besides decreased by ( -21.57 % ) from 24,258 thousand SQM to 19, 026 1000 SQM. Major purchasers of the merchandise were Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and UAE.
Leather garments ( Excluding baseball mitts ) registered lessening of ( -25.68 % ) to US $ 392.537 million from US $ 528.154 million. The major purchasers of this merchandise were Germany, USA, Spain, France, Turkey and Brazil.
Leather gloves a downward tendency of ( -5.53 % ) from US $ 161.168 million to US $ 152.258 million. The major purchasers of the merchandise were Belgium, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Norway and Poland. The merchandise market of USA, Germany and Sweden and France registered lessening during 2008-09.
Leather Manufacture registered addition of 17.66 % from US $ 10.177 million 2007-08 to US $ 11.974 million 2008-09. The major purchasers of the merchandise were USA, Germany, UK, Netherlands, France and South Africa.
Leather footwear obtained addition by 3.54 % from US $ 124.135 million of the old twelvemonth to US $ 128.531 million. The major markets of the merchandise were UAE, Germany, Italy, Afghanistan, Oman and South Africa.
Exports during 2008-09 were US $ 145.77 million as Compared to US $ 216.620 million of the old twelvemonth, demoing a lessening of ( -32.71 % ) . Major Buyers of the merchandise were Afghanistan, Thailand, Mexico and China while USA, Germany, Italy, Turkey, France & A ; UK remained on diminishing side during 2008-09. Pertinently, merely 10 Countries were purchasers in the export sphere of Rug from Pakistan in the twelvemonth 2008-09.
Petroleum & A ; its Merchandises
Decreased ( 35.41 % ) in value and ( 4.57 % ) in term of AUP. Value has varied between US $ 1259.33 million to US $ 813.458 million and AUP from US $ 804.85 MT to 768.05 MT. However, Quantity wise is besides lessening from 592,758 MT to 583,827 MT. The major purchasers of the merchandises were besides six Countries i.e. India, Korea, Netherlands, Singapore, Kenya and South Africa.
The exports which were US $ 261.072 million in 2007-08 came down to US $ 253.554 million in 2008-09 showed a lessening of ( -2.88 % ) , although exports to USA, Australia, India, Korea, China & A ; Turkey have increased. The top purchaser of this merchandise was USA.
Exports from US $ 302.723 million in 2007-08 declined to US $ 273.318 million in 2008-09, showed a lessening of ( -9.71 % ) while export addition took topographic point in USA, Belgium, Italy, UAE and Turkey. Offset in markets of Germany, UK, Spain, Netherlands and Denmark where worsening tendency has appeared.
3.6 DEVELOPMENTAL AND OTHER CATEGORIES
This caput Contributed 15.51 % ) in Pak-Exports and went-up to US $ 2.743 billion in 2008-09 from US $ 2.365 billion demoing an addition of ( 16.01 % ) over the last twelvemonth 2007-08. Major classs that increased over the old twelvemonth were fish & A ; fish readyings, fruits & A ; veggies, technology goods, jewelry, marble rocks and onyx industries, cement and oil seeds. A lessening was witnessed in same developmental classs such as chemical and its merchandises, cutter, treasures ( Cherished Rocks ) and furniture.
Fish & A ; Fish Preparation
In footings of Quantity and value exports increased by ( 1.58 % ) and ( 10.41 % ) severally and AUP is besides increased from US $ 1.60/Kg to US $ 1.76/Kg. Exports of fish and fish readying came-up to US $ 234 million 2008-09 from US $ 213 million 2007-08. Major purchasers were Thailand, China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Korea and Egypt. Decline was noticed in purchaser Countries i.e. UAE, Kuwait, Japan, Sri Lanka and Hong Kong.
Exports were US $ 157 million during the period under reappraisal, compared to US $ 146 million in the old Corresponding period demoing an addition of 7.84 % . The major purchasers of the fruits were India, Afghanistan, Russia, Germany and USA.
Vegetables ( Excl: Leguminous )
Exports were US $ 72.92 million during 2008-09 as against US $ 56.39 million of the twelvemonth 2007-08 showed an addition by 29.31 % . The major purchasers of the Vegetables were Afghanistan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Canada.
Chemical and its Merchandises
The exports which were US $ 619 million in 2007-08 have decreased to US $ 604 million in 2008-09 demoing a lessening of ( 2.40 % ) . However, exports of Pharmaceutical Merchandises rose to US $ 116.286 million from US $ 110.531 million. Italy, Afghanistan, Philippines, China, USA and Sri Lanka are the major purchasers of the Product and among these major purchasers lessenings are recorded in the markets of Netherlands, UAE, Turkey, Korea and France.
Engineering goods ( Machinery & A ; Transport equipment )
There was an addition of ( 25.35 % ) and exports came-up to US $ 264.898 million from US $ 211.329 million. Imports in the markets like Afghanistan, Djibouti, Bangladesh, Sudan and Iran were higher over last twelvemonth. However there was a major diminution in UAE, Saudi Arabia, USA and UK.
Export of this point is US $ 48.681 million during 2008-09 compared to the US $ 54.856 million in the old twelvemonth demoing a lessening of ( 11.26 % ) .The major purchasers of cutter were France, Italy, Saudi Arabia, China and Netherlands.
Gems & A ; Jewellery
Precious & A ; Semi Precious Stones ( Gems )
Decreased by ( -54.84 % ) during 2008-09 and export was US $ 3.386 million from US $ 7.497 million ( 2007-08 ) . The major markets of Gems were Canada, Japan, Russian federation, Belgium and Iran while declined tendency was witnessed in USA, Hong Kong, Germany, UAE and Thailand.
The exports increased by 33.90 % . Export came up to US $ 285.684 million in 2008-09 from US $ 213.364 million 2007-08. The exports of jewelry maker major purchasers were UAE, UK, Afghanistan, Turkey France, Netherlands and India.
Marble & A ; Stones / Onyx Manufactures
Exports increased by 46.35 % from US $ 22.119 million 2007-08 to US $ 32.371 million ( 2008-09 ) . However the major purchasers of the merchandises were China, Russian federation, Ukraine, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Germany.
There was an addition of 39.21 % . Export grew up from US $ 416.977 million during 2007-08 to US $ 580.479 million in 2008-09. Major purchasers of the merchandise were Afghanistan, Qatar, Oman, Iraq, Djibouti and Sri Lanka.
The Exports were US $ 39.379 million in 2007-08, came up to US $ 41.746 million in 2008-09, demoing an addition of 6.01 % . Increase took topographic point in exports to Korea, Turkey, Iran, China, India, UAE, Singapore, Netherlands and Saudi Arabia.
The Exports were US $ 11.035 million in 2007-08 came down to US $ 8.455 million in 2008-09, demoing a lessening of ( -23.38 % ) . The chief purchasers of the merchandise were Afghanistan, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Australia and Denmark.
3.7 Geographic Analysis
JULY-JUNE ( 2008-09 )
Pakistan ‘s exports during July-June 2008-09 as compared to the corresponding period of the last twelvemonth decreased by ( -7.16 % ) to Middle East Region, ( -9.60 % ) , to Eastern European Region ( -14.78 % ) , to African Region, grew by ( +5.55 % ) , Asiatic Region, increased by 5.28 % Oceania part and Western European Region decreased by ( -9.47 % ) and ( -14.49 % ) severally. Decrease is recorded in exports to American part by ( -10.63 % ) .
This part accounted for US $ 3,941.128 million demoing a lessening of ( -10.63 % ) over the last twelvemonth ‘s exports.
Accounted for US $ 3,587.674 million, which is less by ( -10.07 % ) over last twelvemonth. Decrease in exports took topographic point in the states of North America ( -10.07 % ) . Exports to Central America decreased by US $ 109.160 million ( 15.49 % ) in 2008-09.
Shown lessening in exports by ( -16.18 % ) in this part over the old twelvemonth, the value, which was US $ 244.294 million during 2008-09 whereas the exports in 2007-08 were US $ 291.464 million.
The exports to this part were US $ 4299.722 million. 16 EU States accounted for ( -14.53 % ) at US $ 4234.844 million and showed a lessening of ( -14-.49 % ) every bit good over old twelvemonth ‘s exports. In footings of value exports decreased to US $ 4234.844 million from US $ 4954.684 million. Major lending states are UK US $ 874 million, Germany US $ 738 million, Italy US $ 580 million, Netherlands US $ 465 million, Spain US $ 404 million, Belgium US $ 393 million and France US $ 313 million. EFTA decreased to US $ 63 million from US $ 72 million, showed a lessening of ( -12.50 % ) , whereas Norway and Switzerland were remained major purchasers among the EFTA Countries.
Export in this part accounted for US $ 324.401 million which declined at ( -14.78 % ) over the corresponding period of last twelvemonth. Russian federation, Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary and Czech Republic were major lending markets to US $ 105.5 million, US $ 45.09 million, US $ 32.43 million, US $ 23.89 million, US $ 19.80 million, US $ 15.48 million and US $ 16.19 million severally.
Middle East Region
In this part Exports accounted for US $ 3491.468 million. UAE exports was US $ 1469.990 million in 2008-09 and US $ 2070.953 million was in 2007-08 which decreased at ( -29.02 % ) . Exports to Iraq came up to US $ 71.75 million from US $ 23.95 million which recorded addition up to 199.59 % in 2008-09. Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iran, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait were the major markets contributed US $ 455.634 million, US $ 403.198 million, US $ 399.619 million, US $ 187.545 million, US $ 172.112 million and US $ 104.220 million severally.
Exports in this part were US $ 1197.247 million in 2008-09 and gained 5.55 % over the corresponding period of last twelvemonth. In the African Region, South Africa contributed US $ 193.742 million from US $ 318.461 demoing lessening of ( -39.16 % ) followed by Kenya US $ 119.939 million, Egypt US $ 101.685 million, Sudan US $ 60.596 million, Mozambique US $ 60.104 million, Benin US $ 58.328 million, Co, TE D’Ivoire US $ 55.837 and Somalia US $ 50.737 million severally.
Exports in this part accounted for US $ 4272.615 million in 2008-09 which showed addition of 5.28 % over the last twelvemonth. Afghanistan contributed US $ 1397.518 million, China US $ 701.043 million, Bangladesh US $ 383.373 million, Hong Kong US $ 378.658 million, India US $ 319.619 million and Malaysia US $ 124.378 million severally.
In this part the exports were US $ 161.426 million in 2008-09 and shown lessening of ( -9.47 % ) over the old twelvemonth. Austria and New Zealand are major purchasers of the part which contributed US $ 128.926 million and US $ 29.640 million during 2008-09 severally.
Top 20 States
The top 20 states / major purchasers export accounted for US $ 13,645 million and grew by +8.44 % . Exports to 6 of these states increased, to Afghanistan by +22.20 % , China by +2.37 % , Saudi Arabia by +19.88 % , Iran by +86.91 % , Bangladesh by +12.11 % , India by +25.41 % and Korea Republic by +22.77 % whereas diminution tendency was noticed in USA by 10.21 % , UK 15.09 % and UAE by 29.02 % severally.
Top 5 Countries Analysis
Exports have decreased by US $ ( -379.907 million ) or ( -10.21 % ) in the twelvemonth 2008-09. However, USA, contributed US $ 3339.453 million during 2008-09, whereas it was increased by +19.52 % in 2007-08. Decline was recorded in Knitwear ( US $ 1069 million ) , Bed ware ( US $ 625 million ) , Readymade garments ( US $ 404 million ) , Textile made up ( US $ 302 million ) , Cotton fabric ( US $ 97 million ) , Wool Carpet & A ; Rugs ( US $ 51 million ) , Leather gloves ( US $ 32 million ) , Cotton yarn ( US $ 28 million ) , Rice Basmati ( US $ 19 million ) , Art Silk & A ; Synthetic fabric ( US $ 17 million ) , Footballs complete ( US $ 14 million ) , Cutlery ( US $ 12 million ) , Guar and Guar merchandises ( US $ 7 million ) and Jewellery ( US $ 7 million ) .
United Arab Emirates
Exports have decreased by US $ 600.963 million or -29.02 % in 2008-09 and fetched sum exports US $ 1469.990 million compared US $ 2070.953 million of 2007-08. Main diminution was recorded in Petroleum Merchandises ( US $ 234.488 million ) , Rice Basmati ( US $ 215.408 million ) , Readymade garments ( US $ 39 million ) , Art Silk & A ; Synthetic Textile ( US $ 32 million ) , Fruits ( US $ 16 million ) , Plastic stuff ( US $ 9 million ) and Vegetables ( US $ 6 million ) .
During 2008-09, the entire exports to Afghanistan were US $ 1397.518 million showed an addition by 22.20 % . Exports increased in the points like Rice other assortments ( US $ 142.686 million ) , Rice Basmati ( US $ 82.25 million ) , Article of Plastic ( US $ 46.78 million ) , Vegetables ( US $ 39.76 ) , Wheat ( US $ 39.41 million ) , Fruits ( US $ 27.64 million ) , other Chemicals ( US $ 25.12 million ) , Pharmaceutical Products ( US $ 18.44 million ) . However, important lessenings appeared in exports of Petroleum Merchandises ( US $ 363.7 million ) , Household equipments ( US $ 8.43 million ) , Fruits & A ; Vegetables ( US $ 8.32 million ) , Electric fans ( US $ 2.640 million ) and Paper & A ; Products ( US $ 1.01 million ) .
During the twelvemonth 2008-09 the exports to UK came down by ( -15.09 % ) worth US $ 874.588 million compared to US $ 1030.028 million ( +5.41 % ) over the old twelvemonth. Exports decreased in the points like Bed ware ( US $ 185.502 million ) , Readymade garments ( US $ 136.027 million ) , Textile made ups ( US $ 53.01 million ) , Cotton Cloth ( US $ 46.064 million ) , Rice Basmati ( US $ 35.868 million ) , Towels ( US $ 32.88 million ) , Apparel and Clothing ( US $ 32.73 million ) , Surgical goods ( US $ 27.07 million ) , Art Silk & A ; Synthetic Textile ( US $ 12.088 million ) and fruits ( US $ 10.76 million ) .
Germany contributed US $ 737.988 million exports with lessening of ( -9.63 % ) during 2008-09 compared with last twelvemonth US $ 816.615 million ( +4.29 % ) . Worsening tendency in exports was recorded in Readymade garments ( US $ 174.50 million ) , Bed ware ( US $ 114.103 million ) , Cotton Cloth ( US $ 72.96 million ) , Knitwear ( US $ 72.22 million ) , Surgical goods ( US $ 36.60 million ) , Towels ( US $ 23.74 million ) , Footballs complete ( US $ 18.21 million ) , Leather gloves ( US $ 16.23 million ) , Textile made ups ( US $ 15.60 million ) , Wool Carpets & A ; Rugs ( US $ 15.135 million ) , Leather ( US $ 12.79 million ) Leather footwear ( US $ 11.05 million ) and Rice Basmati ( US $ 9.39 million ) . However, addition was seen in Apparel and Clothing ( US $ 59.883 million ) , Gloves Sports ( US $ 9.03 million ) , Fruits ( US $ 7.56 million ) , Crude carnal stuff ( US $ 6.55 million ) , Other leather industry ( US $ 2.535 million ) and other machinery ( US $ 2.015 million ) .
3.8 Agricultural Raw Material Exports
Agribusiness is the solo taking sector of Pakistan ‘s economic system. Agriculture sector contributes 21 % of GDP and employs about half of the labour force. Agribusiness contributes to GDP as it supplies natural stuffs for the industrial production and is a big beginning of Pakistan ‘s foreign exchange net incomes. Agricultural natural stuff exports have a big portion in Pakistan ‘s exports. The Agricultural natural stuffs exports ( % of ware exports ) in Pakistan was last reported at 1.80 in 2010, harmonizing to a World Bank study released in 2011. The Agricultural natural stuffs exports ( % of ware exports ) in Pakistan was 1.72 in 2009, harmonizing to a World Bank study, published in 2010. The Agricultural natural stuffs exports ( % of ware exports ) in Pakistan were reported at 1.21 in 2008, harmonizing to the World Bank. Agricultural natural stuffs comprise SITC subdivision 2 ( rough stuffs except fuels ) excepting divisions 22, 27 ( petroleum fertilisers and minerals excepting coal, crude oil, and cherished rocks ) , and 28 ( metalliferous ores and bit ) .
3.9 Food Exports
The Food exports ( % of entire exports ) in Pakistan were last reported at 16.79 in 2010, harmonizing to a World Bank study released in 2011. The Food exports ( % of entire exports ) in Pakistan were 16.67 in 2009, harmonizing to a World Bank study, published in 2010. The Food exports ( % of ware exports ) in Pakistan were reported at 18.20 in 2008, harmonizing to the World Bank. Food comprises the trade goods in SITC subdivisions 0 ( nutrient and unrecorded animate beings ) , 1 ( drinks and baccy ) , and 4 ( animate being and vegetable oils and fats ) and SITC division 22 ( oil seeds, oil nuts, and oil meats ) .
3.10 Reasons of Exports Instability
There are assorted grounds of exports instability in Pakistan. Pakistan chiefly exports primary nature goods to the universe. This is one of the chief grounds of instability in the exports of Pakistan. Primary trade goods frequently experience supply side trade good. Assorted sectors play a function in these supply displacements. In instance of agricultural merchandises a major ground is harvest failure due to adverse conditions alterations, plague onslaughts, diseases and cobweb supply effects. Changes in commercial policies originating due to duties and revenue enhancements can besides do supply displacements. In the instance of agricultural trade goods Pakistan specializes in agricultural and primary merchandises. The trust of agricultural sector on the nature causes fluctuations in supply conditions of primary merchandises, which makes export grosss unstable. Primary merchandises are known to hold small supply and demand snap ‘s, therefore doing the export grosss unstable. These are divided into nutrient and natural stuffs. The nutrient points are known to hold low income snap ‘s whereas these points have different nutrient and supply fortunes. The nutrient points are known to hold low income snap ‘s nevertheless cyclical fluctuations in income degrees affect demand for natural stuffs. Harmonizing to a study, states with more dependance on natural stuff exports tend to see above the mean instability in their export grosss. However nutrient exporting states experience less instability in their net incomes. The import demand conditions of primary and agricultural merchandises besides cause the export grosss of a state discrepancy. Every state in the universe faces a net foreign demand curve which is based on aggregative universe supply and demand. This demand curve may switch due to monetary value alterations of viing goods, or due to the cyclical fluctuations in the income of importing states. The merchandise attending is on a regular basis regarded as the chief ground of export net incomes in diverse economic systems. It is understood that because of the deliberation, fluctuations in several exports in one path may non be balance by counter-fluctuations by other trade goods in the other manner. The ricketiness of export net incomes besides depends on the instability of single trade goods every bit good as the relationship among different braces of trade goods. Goods that are exaggerated by related market forces have a leaning to travel together. However, dissimilar goods may change autonomously. A state whose export consists of merely a few trade goods is projected to hold unsteady export net incomes. However, a state with diversified exports will see greater export net incomes immovableness. Besides if a states exports are traveling merely to a few states export net incomes may change a batch. However, if exports go to many different states, demand displacements in some importing states can be equalize by contrasting demand displacements in other states, thereby doing the entire export gross more house.
In short, Pakistan has focused in primary goods exports, and it is assumed that the exports of primary goods are capable to greater short-term fluctuations as compared to finished goods. Second, states that export primary merchandises tend to hold a high trade good deliberation than industrialised states. Finally, the geographic concentration besides makes export net incomes unstable.
Data & A ; Methodology
The undermentioned methodological analysis will be used to see the impact of independent variables on dependent variables.
Y = I?0 + I?1 X1 + I?2 X2 + a‚¬
The above explanatory variables have been selected for the measuring of the impact of nutrient exports and agricultural natural stuffs exports on net exports. The information is taken in clip series from the period of 1981 to 2010. Two independent variables are selected for this intent which is denoted by X1 and X2 in this theoretical account while Y is the independent variable. The independent and dependent variables are denoted as such:
Y = Net Exports
X1 = Food Exports
X2 = Agricultural Raw Material Exports
The information for this intent is taken from the web sites of the World Bank from1981 to 2010.
Calculation on Datas
Calculation on informations has been done with the aid of application package “ EVIEWS ” . And following consequences are obtained:
Dependent Variable: Yttrium
Method: Least Squares
Date: 07/20/12 Time: 00:01
Sample: 1981 2010
Included observations: 30
A A A A Mean dependant vary
A A A A S.D. dependant volt-ampere
S.E. of arrested development
A A A A Akaike info standard
Sum squared reside
A A A A Schwarz standard
A A A A F-statistic
A A A A Probe ( F-statistic )
LS Y C X1 X2
Y = C ( 1 ) + C ( 2 ) *X1 + C ( 3 ) *X2
Y = 2.750873464 – 0.4418110012*X1 – 0.5382713213*X2
Null Hypothesis: D ( X1 ) has a unit root
Lag Length: 2 ( Automatic based on SIC, MAXLAG=7 )
Augmented Dickey-Fuller trial statistic
Test critical values:
1 % degree
5 % degree
10 % degree
*MacKinnon ( 1996 ) nonreversible p-values.
Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test Equation
Dependent Variable: D ( X1,2 )
Method: Least Squares
Date: 07/20/12 Time: 00:03
Sample ( adjusted ) : 1985 2010
Included observations: 26 after accommodations
D ( X1 ( -1 ) )
D ( X1 ( -1 ) ,2 )
D ( X1 ( -2 ) ,2 )
A A A A Mean dependant volt-ampere
A A A A S.D. dependant volt-ampere
S.E. of arrested development
A A A A Akaike info standard
Sum squared resid
A A A A Schwarz standard
A A A A F-statistic
A A A A Prob ( F-statistic )
Interpretations of the Consequences
The value of I?1 = -0.44 is negative so it shows the negative relation between net exports and nutrient exports of Pakistan. If nutrient exports alterations 1 percent net exports will demo a alteration of 0.44 per centum.
The value of I?2= -0.5382 so it shows negative relation between net export and agricultural natural stuff exports. If agricultural natural stuff exports changes 1 per centum cyberspace exports will demo a alteration of 0.5382.
I?0 is 2.75 which show that value of exports will be 2.75 % if there is no independent variable.
R2 tells that what per centum of fluctuations in dependent variable are due to independent variables. It besides tells us that whether a theoretical account is a good tantrum or non. If value of R2 is less than 30 per centum we can state that theoretical account is non a good tantrum but if value of R2 is more than 30 per centum we can state that theoretical account is a good tantrum.
The value of R2 is 79.9 per centum, which shows that 79.9 % of the fluctuations are coming from independent variables in the dependant variable and staying are due to error term. As value of R2 is more than 30 % so we can state that theoretical account is a good tantrum.
T-statistic represents that either an independent variable is important or non. If value of T-statistic is greater than 2, the variable will be important. And if the value of T-statistic is less than 2 the variable will be undistinguished.
T-statistic value for X1 or nutrient exports is less than 2 so we can state that this variable will be undistinguished.
T-statistic value for X2 for agricultural natural stuff exports is less than 2 so this variable is besides undistinguished.
F-statistic Tells us about the overall significance of a theoretical account. If F-statistic value is greater than 10, our theoretical account will be important, but if value of F-statistic is less than 10, it shows that our theoretical account is undistinguished.
As the value of F-statistic is more than 10 so we can state that our theoretical account is important.
Durbin-Watson trial Tells us that either car correlativity is present in the theoretical account or non. If value of Durbin-Watson trial is less than 2, it shows that theoretical account has positive car correlativity. If the value of Durbin-Watson trial is greater than 2, it represents that negative car correlativity exists in the theoretical account. And if the value of Durban-Watson trial is near to 2, it shows that no car correlativity is in the theoretical account.
Durban-Watson stat value is less than 2 ; it means positive car correlativity is present in the theoretical account.
Standard mistake shows the truth of the theoretical account. The standard mistake of X1 is 0.2014 where every bit standard mistake of X2 is 0.0589.
In this research undertaking our consequences have showed negative relation between our independent and dependent variables. However in existent life nutrient exports and agricultural natural stuffs exports are portion of net exports and must hold a positive relation between them. This is due to so much fluctuations and uses in the information of Pakistani exports. Pakistan is exporting largely primary merchandises or natural merchandises which do non acquire high market value in the international market which is a chief cause of low export net incomes. Second Pakistan exports natural agricultural merchandises and there is ever high variableness in their production due to hard conditions of Pakistan like conditions conditions, less rain autumn or governmental policies towards a peculiar harvest. Another major ground of fewer exports is less production as compared to its population and Pakistan itself consumes most of its production and there is really less left of production to exports in the international market. Pakistan major exports goes into merely a few countries or parts of the universe and due to alterations in their internal conditions like income of people or alterations in their behavior affects its export net incomes and stableness. Pakistan should increase its exports through bettering methods of production and should besides look to export finished goods after treating so that net exports value can be increased. Pakistan should besides concentrate on constructing new ties with other European states and should research new markets in the universe.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.google.com.pk/
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.docstoc.com/docs/19885525/factors-that-influence-exports-of-pakistan
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.blurtit.com/q592935.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.technologytimes.pk/2011/04/02/food-problem-in-pakistan/
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.indexmundi.com/pakistan/
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optional-subjects/group-b/agriculture/41777-pakistan-agriculture-economy-policy.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //databank.worldbank.org/ddp/home.do? CNO=2 & A ; Step=12 & A ; id=4
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