In software industry,
any software must have purpose and users. These users could be human end users
or other systems, and the software could be user drivern or data drivern etc. Nevertheless,
the software must achive it’s purpose and acceptance by the users. For example,
in all recent IT company acusition to other company, the acquisition price
depend mainly on the number of user (10$ per user). The technology, complexity
or how cool is the software doesn’t matter if it doesn’t have user acceptance. This
mean in order to build perfect software you must adher to users expectation and
satisfaction. These could be measured by how accurte you implement what they
require, hence “requirments”. The requirement of software is elicite during
analysis phase of SDLC and then designed and implemented. The QA team at the
end make sure the team implement and complete all the requirments. This work is
not straight forwared as you may imagine and main cause of software
implementation failure is due to wrong requirment or simply forgeeting the


The software project
team needs an easier and systematic way of requirement and traciablity, hence “requirement
tracability matrix” to make sure their product fullfile the customer need. BRSD
and SRSD some times is huge and individulaes (designer, front end/back end developer
and QA) may not easily get his part and as a result will not fully address
business requirement.

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Requiment tracibility
matrix is created for this purpose and if implementd right (not complex,
comperhiniseive and systematic) then the likelihood of project success is
maximized. The diversity of technology and team in today software project makes
the communication harder and the importance of meeting the deadline of project makes
people underestimate and using RTM although they know its’ important. To overcome
this obstacle, RTM must be desing in easy and systematic way and as early as
possilble and one must be responsible to creat it. This role is business
delivery as oppse to business analyst who just deliver the requirement document
where business delivery role is to work in both direction of delivering requirement
document and then deliver the product to customer at the end.


Despite who creat the
RTM, the importance of it is now so clear for today software reuirments, and
the softwere system itself will ineviably change over the development life
cycle. In the early stage of analysis the requirmemt is initially defined and
presented by clinets to the developer in high-level business viewpoint throoug
the business analyst. Then gradullay the requiment become clear and more
precise and at the same time these requirement may change by clinet due to
change in the customer needs, organization, envroment, or simple because the requirement
captured inaccurately in the elicitation phase.this requirement evolution is
further concerned with capturing the context and the desing decisions
associated with each change during SDLC or especially between different
releases of the system which produce requirments successors or variants. RTM help
in the  estimation of software projects and
determine how big the system is, and what is required in regarding human effort
and technology to build the system.






II research problem


Making review of
current tool of RTM is not the aimed since there are many researcher about
tools being used. The RTM methods and model is the focus in this paper and the
ultimate benifate of using RTM that assure buling the software which client
want in an effective way and to verify this befor delivery. The simplicity and usability
of RTM in both direction is what make client accept the product by making
verification and validation phase easier and expressing requirement in well
defined and comperhinsive model. Spanoudakis and Zisman 1 states

However, despite its
importance and the work resulted from numerous years of research, empirical
studies of traceability needs and practices in industrial organizations have
indicated that traceability support is not always satisfactory. As a result,
traceability is rarely established in existing industrial settings. RTM model
should be simple as traceability is a tool, not an aim. In addition IT industry
first aim is to satisfy cients needs without missing the deadlines. RTM with
effective measurement and analysis is not enough.


Software project has
vertical desing but software reqirments are not. The model and traceability must
be standardized and integrated to internal processes and the requirement structure
should modeled and linked to the design.the updateof the requirement is very
important to get client  acceptance and conformance
for the software requirement specification SRS. Unlike software desing change
request which is not critical as requirmentand and can be done in relase to
relase maner. Traceabily model is required to achive analysis of the impact of
any change request in requirments. The client requrirment must be atomic
fashion near to their sources (customer) to make it easier for understanding
and easier for adaption.

The majority of client
requirments are business rules and the best way to collect them is to model
them in business rules and trace them as soon as possible. This early defining
and traceability of requirment model is important factor to manage succefully
complex project. Ambler 36 states that Part of managing complexity is
being able to respond quickly when your environment changes. Business needs
change and you need to be able to react quickly to those changes. … By
implementing complicated concepts and business rules in objects, you can build
complex systems much more quickly.

++ req. evolution

conventional SDLC ( such as waterfall and spiral
methodologies) are linear and proceed from requirment analysis to design and
implementation phase. While agile methodologies forego requirement analysis and
have smaller pices of processes and use user stories instead of formal
documentation.however, in both methodologies fixed set of requirments is needed
prior to desing and implementation . the problem is that requirment change
during the the project require re-evaluation of the desing and implementation
to make sure the system is adopt to the modified requirments. To prevent this,
some development team may opt to freeze the the requirment after completing the
requirement analysis phase and any change will be considered as change request
in next release. RTM provide more flexible way to address the impact of the requirement
change and allow for quickly gauge the feasibility of applying the change in
the current development cycle.


However, the majority of requirement
engineering community focus on managing the impact of the change and not to
understand the change itself. There are few RTM model which systematically
manage the requirement evolution (Lam and Loomes, 1998).

Traditional Requirement
engineering approach can be improved. (Harker et al., 1993) – if project
management understand what types of changes occur in their project, as well as
when and where those changes are likely to occur, then perhaps existing
development processes can be modified to accomodate requirement changes that
naturally arise during system development. Alternatively, if the developer is
able to identify which portions of the system are prone to changes using a body
of knowledge compiled from analyzing similar systems, then it would enable the
developer to re-evaluate whether his/her software design is able to cope with
such changes, preferably early in the project.


iii. LITERATURE review

one of first reasons to
model RTM appeared in Ramesh and Edwards paper 199310. They determine
the primary people, software artifacts and entities in order to create a
requirements traceability model. In their paper, requirements were entities
that can impact on each other. in 1994 7 Gotel and
Finkelstein provide an overview and descriptions of requirements traceability
problem. They reported that, inadequate pre – requirements specification
traceability is the major problem of the requirements traceability and they
classified requirements traceability into two groups as shown in Figure 1:

Pre – RS

The aspects of a requirement’s life prior to its inclusion
in the requirements specification.

Post – RS

The aspects of a requirement’s life that result from
inclusion in the requirements specification.

Pre – RS traceability                                            Post
– RS traceability



Figure 1 . Pre-RS and Post-RS


Pre and post requirements
specification classification is not optimized and developers find out software
requirements on their own understanding of the problem. The clients can not provide
all what he needs. These two reasons illustrate why change requests of software
requirements and business rules, have been evolved. Since there are many
requirements changes in today’s software projects, this classification develop multiple
lifecycles for each requirement. Today, pre and post requirements specificati
on can be re-presented as lazy and eager generation of software requirements.

Eager generation is creation of software requirements before
using them . These requirements may be changed during design and other phases.

Lazy generation is creation of software requirements during
use of other software requirements. These requirements are generated due to
change requests or different prototypes.

in 1995 34 Wieringa classify
traceability into two groups as shown in Figure 2:


The traceability of a requirement to components of a design
or implementation.

Backward traceability

The traceability of a requirement to its source (i.e. person,
organization, law, etc).

Backward traceability                                             Forward



Figure 2 . Backward and Forward Traceability


Lindval and Sandahl classified
traceability to two groups, in 1996 25 as shown
in Figure 2:

Vertical traceability

Tracing dependent items within a model .

Horizontal traceability

Tracing correspondent items between different models .



Figure 3 . Vertical and Horizontal Traceability


Traceability model (Backward
and forward) are similar to horizontal model. Most of the requirements
traceability research focused on horizontal traceability as its granularity
level is upper than vertical traceability.

In 1998 4, a survey
was conducted about the understanding of traceability by the people in the
software industry. The author said that ” Managers of one organization that
moved from Level 1 to Level 3 of the SEI CMM strongly believe their
comprehensive traceability practice (“well beyond the narrow interpretation of
CMM requirements”) was an important factor in achieving this goal. ” Moreover,
he called mature managers as ” high – end user managers ” and stated that High – end user managers, in contrast, are
committed to traceability as a mechanism for improving and maintaining the
quality of the systems development process and see strategic benefits of
incorporating traceability, even when it is not required by the project