In the first six chapters the textintroduces us to the fundamental principles of psychology. It not only providesstudents with the tools necessary for the study of psychology but present us witha sampling of the major areas of psychology research. The course begins with ashort overview of how psychology developed as an academic discipline and anintroduction to a number of the principle methodologies most commonly deployedin its study. The subsequent units are arranged around broad areas of research,including emotion, development, memory, and psychopathology. Below are the following topics listedin order that I found interesting:The History of PsychologyIt wasvery surprising to learn that the science of psychology only became inexistence in the 19th century.

One of the founding fathers ofpsychology was Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) who introduced us to structuralism. Wundt regarded psychologyas a scientific study of conscious understanding. The theorist believed thatthe goal of psychology was to identify components of consciousness and how thoseelements unite to result in our conscious experience. William James (1842–1910)an American psychologist believed that psychology’s purpose was to study thefunction of behavior in the world, and as such, his perspective was known as functionalism. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)psychoanalytic theory states that the unconscious mind was a repository offeelings and urges of which we have no awareness.

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Max Wertheimer (1880–1943),Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) were three Germanpsychologists who introduce to the world various Gestalt principles.   Gestalt psychology deals with the fact thatalthough a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, each partsremains related. Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) studied a form of learningbehavior called conditioned reflex. Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) developed the theory hierarchy of human needsin motivating behaviors.Influenceof Research on PsychologyBecausePsychology deals with as individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior, none ofwhom are always predictable and reliable it is not an absolute science and isoften referred to as a ‘Social Science’ or a ‘Soft Science.

‘  Accordingto Heffner, research is extremely essential to the field of psychology. Researchaids us in recognizing how individuals think, feel, or perform in certain ways.This allows researchers to classify psychological disorders in order tounderstand the symptoms and impact on the individual and society. Heffnerexplained that it also helps others to understand how intimate relationships,development, schools, family, peers, and religion affect us as individuals andas a society; and to develop effective treatments to improve the quality oflife of individuals and groups.(Heffner 2016). The following are the types ofresearch methods used by psychologists. Descriptivedesigns are utilized to offer an instant picture of the current state ofaffairs.  The advantage of thisdesign is that is provides a relatively complete picture of what is occurringat a given time and allows the development of questions for further study.

Thedrawbacks are that it does not assess relationships among variables. It may be immoralif participants do not know they are being watched.  Another familiar design that are used is Correlationaldesign.

This is utilized to assess the relationships between and among two ormore variables. The advantages of using this method is that it allows testingof expected relationships between and among variables and the making ofpredictions. It also can assess these relationships in everyday lifeevents.  The disadvantages are that itcannot be used to draw inferences about the causal relationships between andamong the variables. Experimental designs allow researchers to assess thecausal impact of one or more experimental manipulations on a dependent variableby allowing drawing of conclusions about the causal relationships.

(     ).  The disadvantage of this method is that it cannotexperimentally manipulate many important variables and it may be expensive andtime consuming TheFuture of Psychology: Connecting Mind to BrainPsychologyis the scientific study of people’s behaviors and their minds. Therefore, forpsychologists studying the brain and nervous system will always be a crucialelement for psychological study.  Psychologists’analyses the brain and the nervous system because these organs are essential to the way peoplebehave, think and feel. Patients suffering from  brain damagesdue to atraumatic brain injury may experience some form of mental and physicalincapacity as such injuries often interfere with the way the brain normallyworks. When nerve cells in the brain are damaged, they can no longer sendinformation to each other in the normal way. The injury may cause different problems, depending uponwhich parts of the brain were damaged most. There are three general types of problems that can happen after TBI:physical, cognitive and emotional/ behavioral problems.

This may cause changesin the person’s behavior and abilities to think rationally or perform activitiesof daily living. It is impossible totell early on which specific problems a person will have after a TBI. Problemstypically improve as the person recovers, but this may take weeks or months.With some severe injuries changes can take many years.Applying ClassicalConditioning to Everyday life According toPavloc n behaviorism, classical conditioning is a kind of learning in which aperson or animal comes to associate two kinds of stimuli, one that naturallyprompts a given behavior and one that does not. Illustrating classicalconditioning through experiments with dogs,  the theorist states that when food waspresented to a dog, the dog naturally salivated. After repeatedly hearing abell when food was presented, the dog salivated upon hearing the bell even inthe absence of food.

Although the bell initially meant nothing to the dog, itbegan associating the bell with food. Sometimes classical conditioning dependson the frequency of paired stimuli (infrequent pairing may be less likely tolead to association). Some psychologists believe classical conditioning helpsexplain learning.I can relate to the animal story,our dog upon hearing certain noises coming from the kitchen or dining area  often comes  running  looking for scrapings or treats.

 He is usually fed twice a day where he hearsthis ruffling sound and comes to investigate. He has come to recognize  this sound with the appearance of food, thus anynoise he hears coming from the area  heimmediately will run to and look for food and sniff, regardless of what time itis or whether he is hungry or not.  .

 UnderstandingTBI: Part 2 – Brain injury impact on individuals functioningWritten by Thomas Novack, PhD and TamaraBushnik, PhD in collaboration with the MSKTC