Informed consent is a fundamental ethical requirements for research with human subjects. Itis when a subject voluntarily agrees to participate in a research study in which he or she has fullunderstanding of the study before the study begins (Nieswiadomy, 2014). The informed consentprocess is where the participant is informed regarding all aspects of the trial, which are importantfor the participant to make a decision and after studying all aspects of the trial, the participantvoluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular clinical trial and significanceof the research for advancement of medical knowledge and social welfare (Nijhawan et al., 2013)The informed consent process might create or result several ethical issues if it is not being doneproperly. Misunderstandings between the researchers and the participants will result due tocommunication barriers such as language differences and religous dogma. The individual whosigned the informed consent is assumed to have fully understand the information that is stated in theconsent form but it is difficult to evaluate the level of understanding in the individual’s point ofview.

Therefore, there might some degree of misunderstanding that might occur. Besides that, otherissue is the participants may have a false expectation regarding the research. Moreover, theparticipants might get involved in research projects that they did not approve of due tomisunderstandings or misinterpretation concerning the experimental procedures (Escobedo et al.,2007). In addition the participant’s perception regarding the research might affect the process ofobtaining the informed consent because they afraid of the consequences of the research on them. Inthis case, disclosing information to them might scare them away.In order to prevent issues related to informed consent to occur when doing research, themajor element of informed consent need to be included which are researcher is identified andcredentials presented; subject selection process is described; purpose of study is described; studyprocedures are discussed; potential risks are described; potential benefits are described;compensation, if any, is discussed; alternative procedures are disclosed, if any; anonymity orconfidentiality is assured; right to refuse to participate or to withdraw from study without penalty isassured; offer to answer all question is made; and means of obtaining study results is presented.2.

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Discuss the major ethical principles that guide researchers in their works.There are three fundamental principles of research ethics according to Swiss Academy ofMedical Sciences (2015) which are respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice. Theprinciple of respect for person or autonomy consists of two requirements which is first, theindividuals should be treated as autonomous which means that the individual capable of makingtheir own decision about important personal matters. The individual should only be involved inresearch if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully informed about the nature,purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore the individuals’ right need to be respected sothat they can make their own decision whether to participate in the research. The secondrequirements in the principle of autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected.This protection needs to be adapted to individual circumstances, ensuring that the personsconcerned are not involved in research which could be harmful for them with regard to a researchproject.

This is because some people in society may not have the capacity to make fully informeddecisions.Beneficence is the act that is done for the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare ofthe persons concerned. This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximizebenefits for participants and minimize risks for participants. The purpose of the research is todiscover new information that would be helpful for the society in future. It should never cause harmto anyone or find out information at the expense of other people. There is dilemma arises from theresearcher in this case because to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. Theevidence obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or not. In order to identifywhat can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposed them to risks although the researchersare obligated to do their best to minimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits forparticpants.

The last fundamenrtal principal is justice which is deals with the concept of fairness that isthe distribution of burdens, risks, chances and benefits. Several elements need to be considered bythe researcher when doing their research. All the participants need to be treated with equal respectand concern where the benefits of the research will be shared, where feasible, with all of thoseaffected by its results. Other than that, the participants also will not be excluded from research forreasons unrelated to the research.

Researchers will be cognizant of, and works to mitigate,imbalances in power between themselves and participants, among individual participants , orbetween participants and the groups to which they belong.Other than the three previously mentioned fundamental principles of research ethics, thereare also five basic ethical principal (Laerd, 2012) which are minimising the risk of harm, obtaininginformed consent, protecting anonymity and confidentiality, avoiding deceptive practices andproviding the right to withdraw. The first principal is minimising the risk of harm.

The research thatwill be conducted must not give harm to the participants’ physically, psychologically, socially,financially and/or affect their privacy and anonymity. Researchers need to focus on these elementsin order to minimising the risk of harm.Obtaining the informed consent from the participant is essential for the researcher for theirstudy. Informed consent is needed to make sure the participants is fully understand that they aretaking part in the research study and what the research requires of them. All the elements thatshould be included in the informed consent need to be fully delivered to the participants and theyshould fully understand the consent. The participation of the individuals should be voluntarywithout being influence by any person or subjects. The anonymity and confidentiality of theparticipant need to be protected as previously mentioned in the anonymity principal in thefundamental of research ethics.The fourth principal is to avoid deceptive practices.

This can occur when the researcherprovide false or incomplete information to the participants for the purpose of misleading researchsubjects. Dissertation research should avoid any kinds of deceptive practice while in the covertresearch, deception is sometimes a necessary components. Coverts research reflects research wherethe identity of the observer and/or the purpose of the research is not known to participants. The lastprincipal is providing the participants the right to withdraw from the research study. Theparticipants should have the right to withdraw themselves from the research study anytime.

Theyshould not be pressured or coerced in any way to try and stop them from withdrawing