The definition of intelligence has been debated for old ages within the psychological science field.
Intelligence does non hold a standard definition of which it comprises. Psychologists such as Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg established their ain definitions of intelligence. Howard Gardner focused on multiple intelligences which described eight dissimilar intelligences that are constructed on expertness and aptitudes that are appreciated among diverse civilizations. Gardner’s eight distinct intelligences consisted of visual-spatial intelligence. verbal-linguistic intelligence. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
logical mathematical intelligence. interpersonal intelligence. musical intelligence. intra personal intelligence. and realistic intelligence ( Cherry.
20313 ) .Robert Sternberg founded the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. He described intelligence as “mental activity directed toward purposive version to.
choice and defining of. real-world environments relevant to one’s life” ( Cherry. 2013 ) .
Sternberg referred to intelligence as successful which includes three dissimilar characteristics. Sternberg’s three characteristics of successful intelligence includes analytical intelligence which refers to problem-solving. originative intelligence which refers to being able to accommodate to new conditions by utilizing anterior experiences and bing expertness. and practical intelligence which refers to power to set to an changing environment.
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test ( KBIT )The Kaufman Brief Intelligence trial is used to prove the intelligence of persons from the ages of 4-90. This trial can be used administered in a variableness of ways such as for testing purposes and measuring cognitive operation. The trial presents an IQ compound mark. made up of undertakings mensurating verbal ability and gestural job resolution.
Harmonizing to Kaufman & A ; Kaufman ( 2012 ) . the verbal mark is made up of two undertakings. one which assess receptive vocabulary/general cognition ( Verbal cognition ) and the other measuring comprehension. logical thinking. and vocabulary cognition ( Riddles ) . A pro side of this trial is that it can be administered in dissimilar linguistic communications and the trial provides cultural equity. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test besides provides dependability and cogency.
The internal consistence dependabilities were effectual by demoing. 89 to 96 with consistence intensifying with age. The verbal and gestural coefficients were lesser but they were still accepted.
However. the test-retest consistence was. 90 which resulted in intensifying public presentation by 4 points. The cogency scrutinies profited sensible to above mean correspondences in necessities of concept and coincident cogency. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test ( UNIT )The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test intended usage is to supply a merely.
inclusive. standardized. and norm-referenced rating of overall mind with lone mute disposal and retort formats.
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test wanted to do certain that the trial provided merely to all students. regardless of cultural group. civilization. gender. idiom. state of foundation and earshot status. The trial can be administered to ages runing from Kindergarten to senior twelvemonth of high school. Harmonizing to Bracken & A ; McCallum ( 1998 ) .
the Universal Nonverbal Test is a multidimensional step of intelligence. giving several broad-based indices of intelligence.The trial can besides be given in three different facets which include the brief battery. standard battery. and the drawn-out battery. The brief battery is 10-15 proceedingss long and it is used as the screener.
the standard battery is 30 proceedingss long and its intent is to prove diagnostic determinations. and the drawn-out battery is 45 proceedingss and the intent of it is to prove diagnostic eligibility. The test-retest dependabilities plummet short of the suggested degree of.
90 at the ages of 5-7 ( . 78 ) . ages 8-10 ( .
85 ) . ages 11-13 ( . 89 ) . and ages 14-17 ( . 87 ) . Coincident cogency surveies with the WISC-III.
KBIT. and TONI-2 showed good correlativity in mid to high. 80’s ( Bracken & A ; McCallum. 1998 ) . Comparison and ContrastThe Kaufman Intelligence Test and the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test both have similarities within each other.
Both trials can be administered in different facets and besides the intent of both trials is to prove for cognitive operation without cultural prejudice. The Kaufman Intelligence Test is merely based on two quotients while the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test is based on eight quotients. The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test can besides be graded by manus or by utilizing a scantron.
The Kaufman Intelligence Test is based on verbal abilities while the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test is a gestural mediation. The Kaufman Intelligence trial can be administered to persons runing from ages 4-90 while the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test can merely be administered to kids and striplings from the classs of kindergarten to the twelfth class. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition ( WIAT-II )The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test is used to measure the accomplishment of an person that scope from the ages of 4-85. The trial consists of countries such as reading. math. written and unwritten linguistic communication.
and 9 subtests. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test is a alteration of the former Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. The countries covered by the trial remain the same. but the deepness and scope of capable affair has been increased. with some new points. and updates of content to reflect alterations in course of study criterions and integrated cutting-edge research in the acquisition and appraisal of educational accomplishments Specifically. the Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression subtests have been modified to co-occur with accomplishments demanded of the pupil in the schoolroom ( Wechsler.
2005 ) . The dependability of the trial is usually increasing above. 85 with the exclusion of the written looks part and the listening comprehension part. The internal consistences of the trials were high every bit good except for the unwritten linguistic communication. The cogency of the old version and the 2nd edition of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test correlative with each other. Kaufman Test of Educational AchievementThe Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement can be administered to kids and striplings from classs 1-12. Comprehensive and Brief are the signifiers on the trial.
The Brief Form globally samples the countries of reading. mathematics. and spelling. whereas the Comprehensive Form measures more specific accomplishments in the countries of reading decryption and comprehension. mathematics applications and calculation. and spelling ( Kaufman & A ; Kaufman. 1985 ) .
The dependability coefficients range from. 87 to. 95 for all ages. Internal consistence revealed powerful consistence. The cogency of the trials compared with other trials showed powerful correlativities of steps. Compare and ContrastThe Wechsler Individual Achievement Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement both show consequences of an individual’s accomplishment.
Both trials can be used in a research environment. The trials are besides used for reading and mathematics. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.
Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression subtests have been modified to co-occur with accomplishments demanded of the pupil in the schoolroom while the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement merely has the Comprehensive Form measures more specific accomplishments in the countries of reading decryption and comprehension. mathematics applications and calculation. and spelling.MentionBracken.
B. . & A ; McCallum. S. ( 1998 ) .
Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //assess. Nelson. com/test-ind/unit. hypertext markup languageCherry. K. ( 2013 ) . Theories of Intelligence.
Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //psychology. about. com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/intelligence. htmKaufman. A.
. & A ; Kaufman. N. ( 1985 ) . Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ecasd. k12.
Wisconsin. us/student_services/assessments/KTEA-II. pdfKaufman. A. .
& A ; Kaufman. N. ( 2012 ) . Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Second Edition ( KBIT-2 ) .
Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ecasd. k12. Wisconsin. us/student_services/assessments/KBIT-2.
pdfWechsler. D. ( 2005 ) . Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – Second Edition ( WIAT-II ) .
Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ecasd. k12. Wisconsin.