INTERNET OF THINGS OVERVIEW AND TRENDSV.MaharasiStudent of MCA,Sri Sarada College for Women, TirunelveliE-mail:[email protected] no: 7402548493B.VigneshwariStudent of MCA,Sri Sarada College for Women, TirunelveliE-mail:[email protected] no: 9944697502Abstract:The concept of Internet of Things is at where everyday objects can be able to identifying, sensing, networking and processing capabilities that will allow them to communicate with one another and their services over the Internet to complete some objective. The objective of this research is to report on the current state of IoT research by examining the literature, identifying current trends. IoT is still in a theoretical state and the field is very dynamic at this point, reviewing only journal articles that make a specific theoretical contribution to the IoT would give up a very limited review. The literature was classified according to its content into the following major categories which are technology, applications, challenges, business models, future directions and overview/survey. The domain of the application areas for the IoT is limited only by imagination at this point. The applications which are sub-classified into some of the domains such as smart infrastructure, healthcare, supply chains/logistics, and social applications. One of the possible application of IoT in a social context which is an interaction of IoT devices with existing social networking services such as Face book or Twitter. Using IoT devices to provide information about an individual’s activities and location that can save their user time. Challenges must be overcome in order to ensure IoT implementation and diffusion. Challenges were sub-classify into Security, Privacy, Legal/ Accountability and General. The IoT will certainly drive the development of new business models that capitalize on its occurrence and ubiquity. The Web of Things proposes the use of web standards to fully integrate smart objects into the World Wide Web. A large number of papers provided overviews of the IoT with varying degrees of depth and coverage. These general papers were classified as overview/survey papers. the geographic hotspots for academic research in IoT due to issues such as co-authorship, international journals, foreign graduate students, visiting professors, multiple funding sources and other confounding factors. The IoT holds the promise of improving people’s lives through both automation and augmentation. The IoT builds on existing technologies such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks along with standards and protocols to support machine-to-machine communication such as those envisioned for the semantic web.Keywords:Internet of Things, Technology, Applications, Communication, Sensor.Introduction:Internet connects all people – “Internet of People”Iot connects all things – “Internet of Things”The Internet of Things which means Interconnection of things or Objects or Machines, which are interact with each other via Internet. Eg: Sensors, mobile phones, electronic devices, Home appliances…The Internet is one of the most important and powerful creations in all of human history and an  internet becomes more encouraging to have a smart life in every aspects. IoT, sometimes it referred to as the Internet of Object. The Internet has an effect on education, communication, business, science, government, and humanity. IoT is a new technology of accessing an Internet. IoT, the core concept is that everyday objects can be equipped with identifying, sensing, networking and processing capabilities that will allow them to communicate with one another and with other devices and services over the Internet to achieve some useful objective.By the Internet of Things, objects recognize themselves and obtain intelligence performance by making or enabling related decisions thinks to the fact that they can communicate information about themselves. These objects can access information that has been aggregated by other things, or they can add to other services. It will provide many services such as notifications, security, energy saving, automation, communication, computers and entertainment. By developing the IoT technology, testing and deploying products it will be much close to implementing smart environments by 2020.  In the near future, storage and communication services will be highly pervasive and distributed: people, machines, smart objects, surrounding space and platforms connected with wireless/wired sensors, M2M devices.   IoT is a generic term and all objects can play an active role to their connection to the Internet by creating smart environments, where the role of the Internet has changed. The internet of things, anything’s will able to communicate to the internet at any time from any place to provide any services by any network to anyone. Applications:Internet of things promises many applications in human life, making their life easier, safe and smart. There are many applications such as smart cities, homes, transportation, and grid.2.1. Smart Cities:Smart cities may be viewed as cities of the future and smart life, and by the improvement rate of creating smart cities today’s, it will became possible to enter the IoT technology in cities to development. Smart cities demand require by careful planning in every stage, with their support of agreement from governments, and general public to implement the internet of things technology in every aspects. By using IoT the cities are improving an infrastructure, public transportation as reducing traffic congestion, and keeping citizens safe, and healthy. By connection of all systems in the cities like transportation system, healthcare system, weather monitoring systems and etc., to support people by the internet in every place to accessing the database of airports, railways, transportation tracking operating under specified protocols, cities will become smarter by internet of things.  2.2. Smart Home and Buildings:Homes and buildings may operate many devices and objects as a smartly.  The most interesting application of IoT is smart homes and buildings are smart lighting, smart environmental and media, air control and central heating, energy management and security. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with integration to the internet of things technology will provide an intelligent energy management in buildings, and environmental gains. Internet together with energy management systems also offers an opportunity to access a buildings energy information and control systems from a laptop or a Smartphone placed anywhere in the world. The future Internet of Things will provide intelligent building management systems which can be considered as a part of a much larger information system used by facilities managers in buildings to manage energy use and energy procurement and to maintain buildings systems.2.3. Smart Grid: Smart Grid is a promising solution for minimizing the storage of electrical energy and to solve the problems of traditional power grids. The possible advances in smart grid are efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, security, stability and increasing demand of electrical energy. The attributes of Smart Grid are self-healing. Improve electrical quality, distributed generation and demand response, common operation and user participants and effective asset management. The four sub-systems in SG completely transform the Energy generation, transmission, distributed and consumption. It comprised of three types of Network, they areHome Area Network (HAN) – is the first layer of SG, it manages the consumer demand on power requirements such as home appliances, electrical devices as well as renewable energy sources.Neighbourhood Area Network (NAN) – is the second layer of SG, which is also called as a Field Area Network (FAN). NAN supports the communication between distribution substations and field electrical devices for power distribution systems.Wide Area Network (WAN) – is the third layer of SG, it serves as a communication between network gateway or aggregation points. The communication among power transmission systems, bulk generation systems, renewable energy sources and control centers.2.4. Smart Transportation and Mobility:A road condition is monitoring and alert application is one of the most important of IoT is a transformation application. The main idea of this concept is to apply the principles of crowd sourcing and sensing. The process began with user identified the route wishes and marked some points as hole in the smart phone’s application. Government in many countries has supported researches on systems to monitor performance of Lithium-ion (Li-on) battery for electric vehicle as explored. Protocols:The Internet of Things (IoT) will provide a technology to creating the means of smart action for machines to communicate with one another and with many different types of information. The success of IoT depends on consistency, which provides interoperability, compatibility, reliability, and effective operations on a global scale. Today more than 60 companies for leading technology in communications and energy, working with standards, such as IETF, IEEE and ITU to specify new IP based technologies for the Internet of Things.  The main focus of the IEEE standardization activities are on the Physical and MAC layer. The IEEE provides an early foundation for the IoT with the IEEE802.15.4 standard for short range low power radios, typically operating in the industrial, scientific and medical band in addition to use ZigBee technology. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is troubled with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet and known as large, open to international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers. IETF provides its own description of IoT which provides a most familiar enhancement to support IPv6, with the 6LoWPAN. ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) considered as a first organization of standards development and coordination of the Internet of ThingsClassification methods:Technology is the most important method in IoT.Technology:Any information system, the IoT will rely on a combination of hardware, software and architectures. Although many of the articles reviewed contained references to the technological components that support the IoT, only the articles that focused specifically on technology were placed in this category.Hardware:Hardware infrastructure includes: RFID, NFC and Sensor Networks. RFID: Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a short range communication technology where an RFID tag communicates with an RFID reader via radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. NFC: Near Field Communication (NFC) is a new technology that builds on the RFID standard. NFC is a short-range communication standard where devices are able to engage in radio communication with one another when touched together or brought into close proximity to one another. Each NFC tag contains a Unique Identification (UID) that is associated with the tag.             Sensor networks: Sensor is a device that observes characteristics of the environment or other objects such as temperature, humidity, movement, and quantity. When multiple sensors are used together and interact, which are referred to as a wireless sensor network (WSN). Software:New software must be written to support the interoperability between numerous heterogeneous devices and searching the data generated by them. IoT middleware helps bring together a multitude of devices and data in a way that enables developers to create and deploy new IoT services without having to write different code for each kind of device or data format. Many researchers have proposed the use of semantic middleware to interoperate the different classes of devices communicating through different communication formats.Architecture:Architectures are needed to represent, organize and structure the IoT in a way that enables it to function effectively. In particular, the distributed, heterogeneous nature of the IoT requires the application of hardware/network, software, and process architectures are capable of supporting these devices, their services, and the work flows they will affect. Architecture is further classified into, hardware/network, software, process.Hardware/network architecture: A number of hardware/ network architectures have been proposed to support the distributed computing environments required by the IoT. These architectures include peer-to-peer, EPC global, and autonomic. The varying architectures that may be used to support the IoT also highlight the importance of the issue of standardization. Software architecture:Software architecture is necessary to provide access to and enable the sharing of services offered by IoT devices. In particular, service oriented architectures (SOA) and the representational state transfer (REST) model are frequently proposed for IoT use due to their focus on services and flexibility. Process architecture:The IoT will certainly affect business processes. Process architectures are necessary to effectively structure the business processes that will incorporate the IoT .In particular; researchers have looked at how to structure workflows to support the pervasive computing environments. IoT Trends to watch in the Future:IT Services (Business Consulting)-Major Driver.IoT drives demand for DATA ANALYTICS:    Data must be managed, integrated and analyzed.IoT drives demand on Cloud ComputingIoT generated data is bought analyzed and sold.Eg: IBM buys the weather company dataInteroperability Problems.Security.Internet of Things Challenges:The expectation of IoT that the technology must be available at low cost with a large number of objects. IoT are having many challenges, such as: 6.1. Scalability: Internet of Things has a big concept than the conventional Internet of computers, because of things are cooperated within an open environment. The functionality such as communication and service finding there need to function equally efficiently in both small scale and large scale environments. The IoT requires a new functions and methods to gain an efficient operation for scalability. 6.2. Data volumes: Some application scenarios of the internet of things will involve to irregular communication, and gathering information’s form sensor networks, or form logistics and large scale networks, will collect a huge volumes of data on central network nodes or servers. 6.3. Interoperability: Each type of smart objects in Internet of Things has different information, processing and communication capabilities. Different smart objects would also be subjected to different conditions such as the energy availability and the communications bandwidth requirements. To facilitate communication and cooperation of these objects, common standards are required.6.4. Automatic Discovery: In dynamic environments, suitable services for things must be automatically identified, which requires appropriate semantic means of describing their functionality. 6.5. Software complexity: A more extensive software infrastructure will be needed on the network and on background servers in order to manage the smart objects and provide services to support them, because the software systems in smart objects will have to function with minimal resources, as in conventional embedded systems. 6.6. Security and privacy: In addition to the security and protection aspects of the Internet such in communications confidentiality, the authenticity and trustworthiness of communication partners, and message integrity, other requirements would also be important in an Internet of Things.6.7. Wireless communications: From an energy point of view, established wireless technologies such as GSM, UMTS, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are far less suitable; more recent WPAN standards such as ZigBee and others still under development may have a narrower bandwidth, but they do use significantly less power. Trends of Internet of Things: Digital TwinA Key tool to improve operations with digital data is the Digital Twin. Digital Twins are a huge next step in the world of IoT. In software everywhere world, Digital Twin technology will help Organizations Bridge the divide between the physical and digital. The digital twin serves as a looking glass into what’s happening within physical assets. They also give insight into changes required for the future. Unfortunately, the digital twin accelerates the product development timeline at reduced costs. The digital twin empowers organizations to shift to an operations- centric view.Block Chain: Block chain play a major role by enhancing security, making transactions more seamless and creating efficiencies in the supply chain.There are three key ways in Block chain.7.2.1. Build Trust:Block chain can help build trust between the people and parties that transact together. While person A may not know device B and may not trust it implicitly, the indelible record of transactions and data from devices stored on the block chain provide proof and command necessary trust for business and people to cooperate.7.2.2. Reduce Costs: IoT and block chain enable participants to reduce monetary and time commitment costs by ultimately removing the “Middle man” from the process.7.2.3. Accelerate Transactions: Block chain for IoT can transform the way business transactions are conducted globally by providing a trustworthy environment. These transactions are automated and encoded while enterprise level privacy is preserved. Security All participants in the IoT ecosystem are responsible for the security of the devices, data and solutions. This means that device manufactures application developers, consumers, and operators. IoT security requires a multi-layered approach. SaaS Many IoT implementations still require implementations. But in 2018, there will be more instances where software as a service (SaaS) is a viable option. Next year, if believe we’ll see more companies choose the SaaS approach to quickly create and prove out a variety of IoT scenarios at lower investment levels. Cognitive Computing Last but not Least, Cognitive Computing. The Internet of Things is at the threshold of a tremendous opportunity. For over a decade we’ve connected things with unique IP addresses. But the commoditizations of sensors, processors and memory now make it possible to makes everyday things more than just connected.Conclusions:Internet of things is a new technology which provides many applications to connect the things to things and human to things through the internet. Each object in the world can be identified, connected to each other through internet taking decisions independently. IoT requires standardized approach for architectures, identification schemes, protocols and frequencies will happen parallels, each one targeted for a particular and specific use. by the internet of things many smart applications becomes real in our life , which enable us to reach and contact with every things in addition to facilities many important aspects for human life such as smart healthcare, smart homes, smart energy , smart cities and smart environments. This paper surveyed some of the most important applications of IoT with particular focus on what is being actually done in addition to the challenges that facing the implementation the internet of things concept, and the other future technologies make the concept of IoT feasible. This article reported on the current state of IoT research by examining the literature, identifying current trends, describing challenges that threaten IoT diffusion, presenting open research questions and future directions, and compiling a comprehensive reference list to assist researchers. The IoT builds on existing technologies such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks along with standards and protocols to support machine-to-machine communication such as those envisioned for the semantic web.Future Enhancements:One of the future visions for the IoT is the Web of Things. The Web of Things which proposes the use of web standards to fully integrate smart objects into the World Wide Web. Using web technologies can make it easy for developers to build an application using smart objects and existing web protocols can more easily enable the interoperability and communication of different devices.  Another future vision that involves integrating even more devices into the IoT is the Internet of Nano-Things.The Internet of Nano-Things can be described as the interconnection of nanoscale devices with communication networks and the Internet. While these devices are proposed to communicate through electromagnetic communication, there are numerous technical challenges that must be overcome before the idea becomes possibleReferences:https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/top-5-iot-trends-in-2018Internet of Things for Smart Cities, Andrea Zanella, Senior Member, IEEE, Nicola Bui, Angelo Castellani, Lorenzo Vangelista, Senior Member, IEEE, and Michele Zorzi, Fellow, IEEE.The Internet of Things-A Survey of Topics and Trends, Andrew Whitmore-Anurag Agarwal-Li Da Xuhttp://www.meraevents.com/event/for-workshophttp://www.nxp.com/assets/documents/data/en/white-papers/INTOTHINGSWP.pdfInternet of Things Applications, challenges and Related Future Technologies, Zeinab Kamal Aldein Mohammed, Elmustafa Sayed Ali Ahmed, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Red Sea University, Sudan.Internet of Things: Trends, Directions, Opportunities, Challenges, I.F.Akyildiz, Ken Byers Chair Professor in Telecommunications, Georia Institute of Technology school of Electrical and Computer Engineering BWN(Broadband Wireless Networking) Lab,http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn.Internet of Things-aided Smart Grid: Technologies, Architectures, Applications, Prototypes, and Future Research Directions, Yasir Saleem, Student Member, IEEE, Noel Crespi, Senior Member, IEEE, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, Senior Member, IEEE and Rebecca Copeland.