1. Describe the qualities that make a good interviewer. Which of these do you think is more important and why? By having the ability to send and receive messages to the person that you are interviewing in a way that they can understand is a quality that an interviewer should possess (Gosselin, p- 13). An interviewer should not be cold and standoffish, or be on the defense or apathetic towards the person being interviewed. The person being interviewed may be going through some sort of personal conflict, be it anger or confusion. They need someone to guide them through the interview (Gosselin, p. 13).
A good interviewer should not be condescending or act as if he is superior to the interviewee. A good interviewer should not be prejudiced because of someone’s appearance, past criminal history, or intellect (Gosselin, p. 14). Lastly, a good interviewer should want to know everything about the case even if the interviewee’s morals and values are different from his own (Gosselin, p-14). Out of all these qualities, I think that it is most important to be able to talk to the interviewee in a way that he understands you and you understand him/her, while making them feel comfortable and willing to communicate with you.
2. What are some of the types of nonverbal communication that an interviewer/interrogator need to pay attention to and why? What cautions should interviewers take in regard to facial expressions during the interview? Kinesic is defined as a “form of nonverbal communication that includes body language, facial expressions, and gestures” (Sandoval & Adams, 2001). An interviewer should mimic the sitting position, motions of hand gestures, and tone and speed in speech of the interviewee, that way the interviewee feels that the two of you have something in common and that the whole interview process is making sense (Gosselin, p 17).
By nodding your head at what the interviewee is saying lets him or her know that you are paying attention to what they are saying (Gosselin, p. 17). A large nod shows that you agree with what is being said while a short nod let the interviewee know that more information is needed in order for the interviewer to understand (Gosselin, p. 17). “Facial expressions include both conscious and unconscious movement of the nose, lips, eyebrows, tongue, and eyes” (Ekman, 2001).
An interviewer can tell if the person being interviewed is surprised or excited, angry, if they are skeptical about what they are expressing, or do not believe an aspect of the event (Gosselin, p. 17). If an interviewer familiarizes himself/herself with these facial expressions he can began to create a rapport with the interviewee (Gosselin, p. – 18). If a person crosses his arms, look out, that means he is on the defense and the interviewer needs to put the interviewee at ease, in order for them to effectively communicate (Gosselin, p-18).
An officer’s proxemics (“study of our use of space and how differenced in that use make us feel more relaxed or more anxious”), should be at a distance that does make the interviewee feel as if he is being suffocated, especially during an interrogation (Gosselin, p-18). This strategy gives the interrogator a psychological edge (Gosselin, p-18). This strategy should not be used when you are trying to build rapport with the interviewee (Gosselin, p-18). 3. What is the significance of facial expressions?
According to Hogan, facial expression provides 50 percent of the overall message (Hogan, 2002). 4. What precautions should interviewers take in regard to facial expressions during the interview? An interviewer should be cautious of an interviewee who “narrows his lips, which signals anger” (Gosselin, P. -18). 5. How accurate are eyewitnesses? According to the learning module eyewitness are most likely to forget details relevant to the case and eyewitness accounts are not very good, without probing the memory.
Eyewitness testimony is very important in an investigation and very convincing in court. It is proven though that mistaken eyewitness identification is the single most harmful factor in wrongful conviction nationwide, only 25 percent are accurate, while 75 percent were cleared by DNA testing, according to the learning module. 6. What is the difference between open ended and closed ended questions? An open ended question should be asked in order to get the interviewee to expound on the question asked (Gosselin, p – 166).
A closed ended question requires a yes or no answer to a question and nothing else (Gosselin, p-166). Which are better used in an interview and why? An interviewer should not ask closed ended questions (Gosselin, p- 166), because those types of questions will not allow you to get any information out of the interviewee. The goal is to gather as much information as possible; this is why open ended questions are in order Reference Gosselin, D. K. (2007). Smart talk. Contemporary interviewing and interrogation. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, N. J. Learning Module, Keiser On-line