Introduction Avideo game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a userinterface to produce visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or acomputer monitor. In this 21st century, playing video games havebecome one of the famous trend (Geraldine et al. 2015). This activity hasbecome a popular activity to do since the after-part of 1970s (Krish 2003). Oneof the evidences that has shown playing video game is a modern trend innowadays society is that there are more than 23 educational courses launchingin United States but the programs which is related to information technologyfield and computer science field have consisted in a big part of the UnitedStates’ educational courses.
Moreover, game art and game design programs havebecome very popular courses in the world since the after-part in 1990s. The videogame production companies will always hire the students who graduated from thegame design and game art programs (Geraldine et al. 2015). Thepsychological group reports that more than 90% of children in the United Statesplay video games. The number rises to 97% among kids between the ages of 12 and17. More important, 85% or more of video games on the market contain some formof violence. The titles seem to say it all: “Manhunt,” “ThrillKill,” “Gears of War” and “Mortal Kombat.” However,even the seemingly benign “Pokemon Go” requires players to go tobattle.
Based on a survey thathas been done by E.S.A (Entertainment Software Association), there is a trendthat has shown that playing video games are not only for the kids and teenagersbecause according to the statistic, 35 years old is the mean age for the videogamers in year 2008. Approximately 1 quarter of the people who are 50 years oldand above said that they do play video games too (Geraldine et al. 2015).To maintain the video gamer’sinterest in playing video games, the video game production companies got plentyof ways to attract the interest of gamers to play their games. For example,they will use promotions to get new customers, retain existing ones and re-engageformer players who have stopped playing.
Promotions can be used when launchingnew games, to pique the players’ interest such as giving bonuses, allow playersto play the game for free, and give cashback promotions which return a portionof losses. The companies also have invented new gaming controller whichfrequently require player’s physical movements to control in the game. The mostsymbolic icon of this new video game remote controller is the Nintendo Wii remotecontroller. Game production companies invent these new remote controller isbecause as the players start to grow up, they will tend to stop playing computerizedgames. But this new gaming remote controller cause the players have to usetheir physical and mental energies at the same time in the game. New remotecontrollers have brought back the interest and attention of the players becauseplayers feel fresh about it (Geraldine et al.
2015).In addition, the research that have beendone by McLean & Griffiths (2013) has proven thereare benefits for youths to play video games such as an improvement inperceptual skills, concentration, spatial abilities and so on. However,according to You, Kim, & No (2015) video games havenegative impacts to human being. According to the researchers, the negativeeffects of video games and the relationship between video games and violentbehaviours have been a famous topic to discuss and is a concern in nowadayssociety. In this research paper, there are several evidences and facts haveproven and shown that video games do cause violent behaviours on youths. Abstract Videogame play has become a ubiquitous form of entertainment in modern society. Violent content video games such asMortal Kombat, Gears of Wars and Doom have become very popular among childrenand adolescents.
This has caused a very great concern for parents, teachers,and policy makers. The current chapter has several goals. The first isto describe the research findings regarding the most heavily studied topic invideo game research which is the effects of violent video game content onviolent behaviour affect, cognition, and aggressive behaviour. The second goalis to describe the psychological processes that give rise to aggressive (andnonaggressive) negative outcomes of video game play. This research cumulates findings across existing empiricalresearch on the effects of violent video games to estimate overall effect sizeand discern important trends and moderating variables.
Hence, Iam studying this topic which shows playing video games lead to violentbehaviour among youths because I want to investigate that is there anyrelationship between video games and violent behaviour. To study this topic, itcan lead to public understanding on whether playing video games will resultviolent behaviour among youths. Literature Reviewi) Definitionof video games and violenceDefinition of video games Thedefinition of video game is the game which is computerized which play from playthe monitor screen.
The most significant difference of video games to othermedia such as television program, newspaper, and poster is video game isco-operative. There are many type of video games such as shooting, competition,RPG, fighting, IQ, strategy, and so on. Most of the video games can play insingle player mode, multiplayer mode or even more than that (Granic et al. 2014). Furthermore,video games are designed for gamers to interact with each other. Definition of violent behaviour Forthe definition of violence, violence is the damage that due by using body partsto hurt someone mentally or physically (Gentile & Anderson 2006). Inadditional, violent behaviour can be classify in major 4 classifications whichis homicide, hitting, stealing, and rape. Natural behaviour call “homicide”.
Themeaning of homicide is a person trying to kill lives which is not being to himor her, basically it means killing others. Next, hitting, which means trying toassault other people. Furthermore, stealing.
The definition of stealing istrying to take others’ belonging without permission or questioning the owner.Moreover, the meaning of rape is trying to force other people to have sexualactivity with you (Gentile & Anderson 2006) ii) Videogame and its Negative EffectsPlaying video games will lead to aggressive behaviour Accordingto the research, the major negative impact that could cause by playing videogame among youths is a leading to aggressive behaviour. There are many studieshave been showed there is a relationship between playing video games which containviolence and aggressive behaviour (Gentile & Anderson 2006).
Some studieshas stated that video games which contain violence variable can cause a rise inviolent behaviour (Bushman & Anderson 2015). Playing video games will impact youths’ academicresultAccording to the researches that havebeen recorded by the researchers, there are some documents have shown thatplaying video game got other negative impact, especially negative impact on students’school result. Why playing video games will impact youths’ academic resul? Whatis the reason? It is because they play video games with no limit, which mean theyplay too much of video games (Gentile & Anderson 2006). Furthermore, students tend to use their studyand revision time to play video games (Anderson & Warburton 2012).According to studies, students who play a lot of video games will get a worseresult in exam compare to students who did not spend so much time on playingvideo games (Turner et al. 2015).
Playing video games will impact youths’ healthAccording to what Gentile (2006) have said, “There are also a number of concerns about thepotential effects of heavy video game play on children’s physical health,including obesity, video-induced seizures, and postural, muscular, and skeletaldisorders, such as tendinitis, nerve compression, and carpal tunnelsyndrome.” The reason for these sorts ofdiseases differ from the body position at the PC to the improper way of bodyactions used with the gaming gears. Even though most of the data is collectedfrom the grown-up. But unfortunately, there is still some data is taken fromthe people who are under 18 years old.
A main video game production companywhich named ‘Nintendo’ in America has agreed that children should wear glovesto play video game because the joy stick of the game could accidentally damage theirthumbs in March 2000 (Gentile & Anderson 2006). Furthermore, over playingvideo game may cause a hand disease named “Nintendinitis”. This disease iscaused by frequently using the thumbs to press the control of the joy stick andalso keyboard when the youths are playing video games (Gentile 2011). Moreover,there is a statistic has shown that children who always play video game willalways have an overweight body. Playing video games will lead to addictionThe addictiveness of video game hasbeen a popular topic to be study about since the early 1980s (Dill 2007).
Accordingto a statistic that has been done by Woog (2009), there are more than 12 milliongamers playing an online RPG PC game call “World of Warcraft” in the currentworld, this has revealed how many people are addicted in only one particular PCgame. Moreover, based on the MMORPG Survey, more than 70 per cent of the reportersclaim that they play more than 10 hours in a day and also they areself-addicted on PC game. Woog (2009) also observed that the younger gamerswill easily addict to PC game compare to the elder gamers. iii) Therelationship between Video Games and Violent BehaviourAccording to past research, the majornegative impact that could cause by playing video games among youths is leadingto aggressive behaviour. In addition, there are many studies also showed thatthere is relationship between playing video games, violence and aggressive behaviour(Anderson & Warbuton 2006). Bushman (2001) said that, video games containviolence elements lead to violent behaviour among youths.
Next, according to the research thathave been done by (Gentile & Anderson 2006), there are mainly 5 negative impactsthat could be done by playing violent video game on child which is an incrementin physiological arousal, aggressive cognition, aggressive feelings, aggressivebehaviours and lastly, a decrement in prosocial behaviour. Increment in physiological arousalExperiment has shown that no matterplaying violent or non-violent video games, it will still cause physiologicalarousal among youths such as an increment in blood pressure and heart beat (Paludi 2011, Gentile & Anderson 2006). Furthermore,Paludi (2011) also stated that playing violent video games will have a biggerchance to an increment in blood pressure and heart beat. These effects usuallywill last for 4~9 minutes, the feeling of aggressive will be less than 4minutes (Barlett et al. 2009). (Barlett et al. 2009).
Increment in aggressivecognition Researchers has proven that aggressivethinking can be initiated by conducting violent video games in a short periodof time (Bonus et al. 2015). Playing violentvideo games can be a way to make the aggressive thinking to be stronger in along period of time. The more violent video games youths play, the higherchance for youths to have an aggressive thinking (Anderson et al. 2010). Increment in aggressivefeelingsExperiments and researches have shown thatplaying aggressive video games will cause an increment in aggressive feelingssuch as irritation, unfriendliness in a short or long period of time (Gentile& Anderson 2006). Incrementin aggressive behaviour The investigational research on how doesviolent video games will cause aggressive behaviour on youths has been wellrecorded.
Investigational research has proven that playing violent video gamescould cause violent behaviour among youths in short and long period of time.The researches Gentile and Anderson (2006) used some efficient ways such asobserve through the fighting of youths in school or see whether they have anyaggressive behaviour during the time that they play violent video games. Fromthe past research, there is an increment in aggressive behaviour such asattacking others in standard five students (Gentile & Anderson 2006). Moreover,some violent video games are promoting violent behaviour by rewarding playerswho do vicious actions in the game. Research has proven when gamers getrewarded in the game, they will have a bigger chance to get violent behaviourin a long period of time (Gentile 2014). Decrementin prosocial behaviour Investigational research has provenplaying violent video games does cause a decrement in prosocial behaviour(Gentile & Anderson 2006). A short period of playing video games couldcause prosocial behaviour in a short period of time (Anderson et al. 2010).
Furthermore, based on the negativeimpacts as stated above, we can see that playing violent video games do lead toaggressive behaviour such as all the negative effect as stated above (Gentile& Anderson 2006). Conclusion Playing video games is a behaviourwhich will lead youths into positive and negative behaviour in life. Researcheshave proven playing video games could benefits youths. However, based on theabove discussion, researches showed that there is a positive relationship amongplaying video games and youth behaviour. Hence, this study has proven thatplaying games can lead to violent behaviour on youths in many different aspectssuch as an increase in aggressive behaviours, feelings, cognition, addiction ora decrease in school performance, prosocial behaviour, youths’ health, and soon. In this research, we have discussed about the definition of video games andviolent behaviour, video games and its negative effects, and the relationshipbetween video games and violent behaviour.
In addition, we have concluded thatvideo games do cause negative impacts on youths. Therefore, we as a member of humanityshould learn how to control ourselves when playing video games. Once again,playing video games will lead to violent behaviour among youths (Anderson et al. 2010). ReferencesAnderson, C, &Bushman, B 2001, ‘Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior,Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and ProsocialBehavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature’, Psychological Science,5, p.
353, JSTOR Journals, EBSCOhost, viewed 29November 2015.Anderson,C.A. et al.
, 2010. Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, andprosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. PsychologicalBulletin, 136(2), pp.151–173. Available at: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.
cfm?doi=10.1037/a0018251.Anderson, C. a., 2004.
An update on the effects ofplaying violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), pp.113–122.
Anderson,C. a, & Warburton, W. a. (2012). The impact of violent video games?: Anoverview.
Growing Up Fast and Furious, 1999, 56–84. Retrievedfrom http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/170731965Barlett,C.P., Anderson, C.A.
& Swing, E.L., 2009. Video Game Effects–Confirmed,Suspected, and Speculative: A Review of the Evidence. Simulation &Gaming, 40, pp.377–403.
Bonus,J.A., Peebles, A. & Riddle, K., 2015. The influence of violent video gameenjoyment on hostile attributions. Computers in Human Behavior, 52,pp.
472–483. Available at:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215004252.
Bushman,B, & Anderson, C 2015, ‘Understanding Causality in the Effects of MediaViolence’, American Behavioral Scientist,59, 14, pp. 1807-1821, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 November 2015Dill,K. (2015). The Influence ofVideo Games on Youth: Implications for Learning in theNew Millennium.
Granic, I., Lobel, A. & Engels, R.C.
M.E., 2014. Thebenefits of playing video games. American Psychologist, 69(1), pp.66–78.Available at: http://doi.apa.
org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0034857. Geraldine,C, & Wagner, B 2015, ‘Video Games debate’, SalemPress Encyclopedia, ResearchStarters, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 November 2015.Gentile, D.A. Media Violence and Children: AComplete Guide for Parents and Professionals, 2014Gentile,D.A.
& Anderson, C 2006, Video games. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Development, Vol 3, pp.1303-1307, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gentile,D.A (2011). The Multiple Dimensions of Video Game Effects.
CHILD DEVELOPMENTPERSPECTIVES, 5(2), pp.75-81. Kirsh,S. (2003). The effects of violent video games on adolescents The overlookedinfluence of development. Aggressionand Violent Behavior, (8), pp.
377-389.McLean, L. & Griffiths, M., 2013. The psychologicaleffects of videogames on young people?: Areview. Aloma, 31(1), pp.119–133.
Paludi,M. A. Ed. (2011). The psychology of teen violence. (2011).
Turner, N, Paglia-Boak, A, Ballon, B,Cheung, J, Adlaf, E, Henderson, J, Chan, V, Rehm,J, Hamilton, H, & Mann, R 2012, ‘Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents’, InternationalJournal Of Mental Health AndAddiction, 10, 6, pp. 877-889, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 November 2015.Woog,K.
(2015). Computer Gaming Addiction in Adolescents andYoung Adults, Solutionsfor Moderating and Motivating for Success.You, S., Kim, E.
&No, U., 2015. Impact of violent video games on the social behaviors ofadolescents: The mediating role of emotional competence. School PsychologyInternational, 36(1), pp.
94–111. Available at:http://spi.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.