Introduction

Water is a natural resource values are preserved as the key of life
and human activity. Due to the wide resources of sea water, desalination of sea
water is the major leading way to compensate for water shortage. Thin ?lm
composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes with high permeability,
ability and selectivity of working at low pressures have become extremely important
in desalination of brackish and sea water, and in considerable areas of industrial
separations due to their higher water ?ux and good rejection abilities 1. However,
the currently available polymeric membranes are often limited because of the
differentiation between the water ?ux and selectivity 2-5. RO membranes with
higher water ?ux, improved salt rejection, and better fouling resistance are needed
in order to reduce both the cost and the energy consumption entailed in
producing a highly puri?ed product.

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PrakashRao, V.J. Shah, J.J. Trivedi, C.V. Devmurari, K. Singh, P.S. Bapat, H.D.
Raval, S.K. Jewrajka, N.K. Saha, A. Bhattacharya, P.S. Singh, Ray Paramita,
G.S. Trivedi, N. Pathak, A.V.R. Reddy, Thin ?lm composite reverse osmosis
membrane development and scale up at CSMCRI, Bhavnagar, Desalination 282 (2011)
68–77.

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Ultrafast permeation of water through protein-based membranes, Nat.
Nanotechnol. 4 (2009) 353–357.

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S.  Kulprathipanja, Novel
Ag+-zeolite/polymer mixed matrix membranes with a high CO2/CH4 selectivity,
AICHE J. 53 (2007) 610–616.

4 T.  Tsuru,  Inorganic 
porous  membranes  for 
liquid  phase  separation, 
Sep.  Purif. Meth. 30 (2001)
191–220.

5 B.D. Freeman, Basis of permeability/selectivity
tradeoff relations in polymeric gas separation membranes, Macromolecules 32
(1999) 375–380.