Introduction Water is a natural resource values are preserved as the key of lifeand human activity. Due to the wide resources of sea water, desalination of seawater is the major leading way to compensate for water shortage. Thin ?lmcomposite (TFC) aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes with high permeability,ability and selectivity of working at low pressures have become extremely importantin desalination of brackish and sea water, and in considerable areas of industrialseparations due to their higher water ?ux and good rejection abilities 1. However,the currently available polymeric membranes are often limited because of thedifferentiation between the water ?ux and selectivity 2-5.

RO membranes withhigher water ?ux, improved salt rejection, and better fouling resistance are neededin order to reduce both the cost and the energy consumption entailed inproducing a highly puri?ed product.1 R. Rangarajan, N.V. Desai, S.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

L. Daga, S.V.

Joshi, A.PrakashRao, V.J.

Shah, J.J. Trivedi, C.

V. Devmurari, K. Singh, P.S. Bapat, H.

D.Raval, S.K.

Jewrajka, N.K. Saha, A. Bhattacharya, P.

S. Singh, Ray Paramita,G.S. Trivedi, N. Pathak, A.V.

R. Reddy, Thin ?lm composite reverse osmosismembrane development and scale up at CSMCRI, Bhavnagar, Desalination 282 (2011)68–77.2 X.S. Peng, J. Jin, Y.

Nakamura, T. Ohno, L. Ichinose,Ultrafast permeation of water through protein-based membranes, Nat.

Nanotechnol. 4 (2009) 353–357. 3 Y.  Li, T.S.

Chung,S.  Kulprathipanja, NovelAg+-zeolite/polymer mixed matrix membranes with a high CO2/CH4 selectivity,AICHE J. 53 (2007) 610–616. 4 T.  Tsuru,  Inorganic porous  membranes  for liquid  phase  separation, Sep.  Purif.

Meth. 30 (2001)191–220.5 B.

D. Freeman, Basis of permeability/selectivitytradeoff relations in polymeric gas separation membranes, Macromolecules 32(1999) 375–380.