Introduction The Grand Canyon’s Geological Cross Section consists of the the south rim geology and the formation of the Colorado river. This Geological attraction will be examined to see if the rock layers that have been showing up these past years are beneficial to the arrangement of the Grand Canyon. The point to find out is why the Grand Canyon is significant to our country and if the split matters in our course of subject. The discussion will involve all different rock layers and their importance, how our environment affects the formation of the cross section, and lastly, how the Colorado river went down a certain path to form this canyon. Finding out if the cross section was a good or bad thing is vitally important in research. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado river is a world known place of geology. Geologic evolution through time can be studied through the changes between different rock layers. This paper will examine how our environment affects rock formation and how the Colorado river chose this course and began craving the canyon.Rock Layers The Grand Canyon consists of many different rock layers. Rock layers such as: Igneous rocks, Sedimentary rocks, Metamorphic rocks, and etc. Rocks are continuously changing. Wind and water brings some down, and some rocks deep beneath the surface are being melted to the melting point. Movements can exert heat and pressure on to the rocks, this will affects all the characteristics of the rocks. As we can tell, rocks come in all different forms and shapes. Geologists have split up the rocks into three different groups as stated above. These three groups of rocks can be found today at the Grand Canyon. Igneous rocks are formed by melted rocks that have cooled down and became solid. The magma chamber allows buried rocks that are stuck down in the earth’s crust to melt because of the high temperatures forming an underground mass of molten rock. The magma that is present can perform a volcanic eruption or it can be cooled slowly underground. This way we won’t be seeing any form of eruption. Next, the igneous rock forms when the magma is cooled down to the lowest layer and we see large crystals formed from the molten liquid, and then the rock granite is formed. When the magma is explodes onto the earth’s surface, the molten rock moves quickly. This cooling does not give enough time for the crystals to form, therefore, the crystals this time around are small and a fine grained rock, Basalt is formed. Basalt is know as a volcanic rock. Sedimentary rocks are formed a the surface of earth, either by land or water. This rock is sometimes found more frequently than the others. They are layers of sediments which include: fragments of rocks, minerals, and animal/plant material. If a certain layer of sediment is buried beneath a rock, the layer will then become compacted and form this sedimentary rocks. The sediment comes together by the formation of minerals and chemicals. It can also come together as an electrical attraction. Sand and gravel we find on the beach may become this type of conglomerate. It happens often. Dried out mud flats harden into shale. Mud and shell settling on sea floors may be cemented into limestones. As we can see, so many different formation of rocks can appear within these three categorical groups. Metamorphic rocks are formed only when Igneous and Sedimentary rocks cannot take a certain pressure of heat and they are too intense for them. This way they are then completely changed. The process of metamorphism transforms and organizes their crystalline structure. New minerals are formed by rearrangement of mineral components or by different reactions that enter the rock right away. As we can see, pressure or change of some kind may influence metamorphosed rocks into new types of metamorphic rocks. Finally, young rocks are always piled over older rocks. The study of the sequence of these rock layers is our main source of knowledge about earth’s history. This includes the evolution of life and changes that appear in our climate. We see that with moisture in the air and humidity in the air, climate is affected. This goes hand in hand to affect our rock layers in the Grand Canyon as well. Environment effect (fossil fuels) on rock layers Rock layers that are formed in the Grand Canyon have an effect that connects with fossils. The canyon contains rock formations that we discussed above with the effect on them which is hidden. Those are the fossil fuels that are hundreds of million years old. Fossils are the preserved remains of ancient life a while back such as bones, teeth, wood, etc. The sedimentary rock that was stated as the most appeared in the Grand Canyon contains fossils because it was built layer upon layer. This trapped animal footprints so they can easily be looked upon. The effect that we see between the two is that if all goes right, the fossils are formed as the layers of sediment turn into pure rock. There are three types of fossils that will be discussed, such as: Marine Fossils, Terrestrial Fossils, and Recent Fossils. Marine fossils are found to be creating many of the sedimentary rock layers in the canyon over the past 525 million years. These types of fossils are ordinary. Similar fossils can be found in most of the marine based rocks in the grand canyon. One type of Marine fossil is the Stromatolites. Stromatolites are the oldest fossils in the Grand Canyon and are about thousands of million years old. They are the limestone structures formed by bacteria called cyanobacteria. In the canyon, the bacteria and lack of cleanliness attracted predators to this area. It included bacteria on top of water that was visible. Today stromatolites are only present in a shallow ocean areas with high salinity. The salt in the ocean goes to keep away predators because it’s not for them. This way some progress will be made. Terrestrial fossils are the mudstones and siltstones of the Hermit Shale and Supai group which were laid out by a system of rivers and streams in a semi climate about 280 million years ago. The sand grains of the Coconino Sandstone were affected by wind across large coast sand dunes hundreds of million years ago. Each of these layers had important and knowledgeable trace fossils. They were significant because it traced back to very long ago. The Surprise Canyon Formation may be the most fossil intended location with many different types of fossils found, going from teeth to even the legs. The dunes of sand of the Coconino Sandstone, helped us to visualize that their were so many animals found from millions of years ago, they were ancient. No tracks have been found. Although, with the creation of scorpions, millipedes, spiders, and etc. they passed over these dunes. The animals footprints that we know see today allow us to notice where they have moved in the dunes. It will specify if it’s just up and over or whichever path they may take. It can now be tracked. Recent fossils are found in semi climate and cool temperatures deep within canyon caves and have created a perfect environment for preservation. Pleistocene and Holocene remains have been discovered and investigated in many of these caves, including old sloth bones, hair, California condor bones, egg shell fragments, and pack rat middens. These recent discoveries allow us to see that the climate change and temperature was affecting the animals in the area. Therefore, we see that during this time in the grand canyon, heavy climates arose. As we can see, fossils fuels are the product that are hidden underneath these rocks and they are the ones to have the effect on the Grand Canyon Cross Section.Colorado River Path and formation of Canyon The Colorado River has carved the Grand Canyon into four plateaus of the Colorado Plateau Province. The Province is a large area in the Southwest and is displayed by horizontal sedimentary rocks which are 5,000 to 13,000 feet above sea level. The Plateau’s arid climate let out many striking forms of soil, rock, or any other essential material that from the earth’s crust is mixed in to affect the grand canyon’s representation. The Canyon’s mile-high walls explain to us the undisturbed cross section of the Earth’s crust which is a couple billion years old. Originally deposited as sediments and lava flows, these rocks were intensely metamorphosed about 1,750 million years ago. Magma rose into the rocks, cooling and crystallizing into granite, making the heat level rise, and then push together the region to the North American continent. This is a heavy process because of everything being pushed together, and it goes to show that the heat and magma are extremely strong in our case. Rock layers formed during the Paleozoic Era are the most significant in the Grand Canyon’s walls. Coast environments and several marine coastlines from the west between 550 and 250 million years ago deposited sandstone, shale and limestone layers totaling over thousands of feet thick. More of the grand canyon is represented as rocky layers since we see that that is where the cross section meets. Erosion has removed most Mesozoic Era evidence from the Park, although small remnants can be found, particularly in the western Grand Canyon. This is different than long ago because nowadays we cannot see all the remains that were included back in the old days. It is said to be that rocks that were nearby, rose thousands of feet up to cover and establish the height of the grand canyon. Cenozoic Era layers are limited to the western Grand Canyon and lie near the river itself. A few sedimentary releases formed in lakes, but that is not the big deal. The significant recent ones are the lava flows and cinder cones on the Shivwits and Uinkaret plateaus.These lava appearances have formed the grand canyon to be what it is today and carve the grand canyon’s cross section. The Grand Canyon itself is a late Cenozoic feature, characteristic of renewed subtractions of soil, rock , or any material that was once included in the perimeter of the grand canyon. The detail magnificently carved the canyon by the snow-fed Colorado River carved the Canyon’s depth. This gave the Canyon such a large size and length as well. Canyon is held in by always having dry climates. The climate up in the canyon is usually always hot and humid, which is why this canyon is such a large monument in our universe today. The structure that has been layed out between fast cutting and the results that have made slow length cuts forces us to believe in the Grand Canyon rather than having a more typical broad river valley. The canyon is famous for its structure and how all of these features came together to paint and carve this canyon. This is why we see so many cool and magnificent pictures from the canyon. Although distrubing storms may send heavy floods down narrow sides of canyons, the lack of moisture in the air has created a picture of just rocks. Therefore, when there is moisture, there is not much of it, which produces the climate it has today. More strong diverse rocks such as the Coconino Sandstone and the Redwall Limestone have appeared into bold cliffs. Softer layers turn into slopes like the Tonto Platform and the Hermit Shale because of the surrounding area, it allows it to sink in. This ties in again with the formation of the rocks within the canyon.Conclusion For the above discussion, geological roles play an essential part in our earth today. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado river is a world known place of geology. Geologic evolution through time can be studied through the changes between different rock layers. The Grand Canyon examination on how our environment affects rock formation and how the Colorado river chose this course and began craving the canyon was the ultimate goal in our research. Overall, the Grand Canyon is an exceptional feature in today’s geography, and therefore the discovery of old and new will continue to appear in our world today. The conditions of the site today will always determine the outcome of what will happen next within the Grand Canyon, and this will all depend on the three factors discussed in this paper; rock layers, environment affect (fossil fuels) on rock layers, and the Colorado river path and the formation of the canyon.