It is critical toconsider the limitations in this study for example only using elite academysoccer players could be a limitation as the players might already be accustomedto training or have naturally high levels of creatine kinase and might benon-responders to the protocol. It would be beneficial to use untrainedparticipants as well as elite academy players so you would be able to observelarger differences between groups. Sample size (N=28) could be considered toosmall and may not be representative of bigger populations. Additionally, onlymales recruited into the investigation and this could have affected the data inthat there was no variation that could be seen when comparing males and femalesand could potentially determine if there are any physiological differences thatcould affect the data.

 The use of CWI is still challenged as studiesshows that there is no significant difference in CK over the duration of theexperiment and suggests that the intervention could cause athletes to becomemore sore as there was a significant difference in pain markers at 24hrsshowing a greater increase in pain in the CWI treatment than control (Sellwood, Brukner, Williams, Nicol, & Hinman,2007). This could also be down to highindividualisation as some individuals have higher CK levels than others whenplaced under the same procedure (Baird, Graham, Baker, & Bickerstaff, 2011). In reference to peak power output (PPO) therewas statistical significance in both time effect (P<0.001 andtime*interaction effect (P<0.001) and they both peaked 24hrs post drop jump.

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This showed that there was a quicker return to baseline PPO in the CWI interventiongroup compared to control and shows a quicker return of muscle function andrepair. In a recent study it showed there was no significant difference in PPOin either control conditions or CWI which support our data when similar atbaseline but does not agree with our data as there was statistical significanceat 2hrs and 24hrs post exercise (Nunn & Tyler,2017). Some research also suggeststhat ice water (5?C) is more beneficial in returning PPO back to baseline thancold water (14?C) (Nunn & Tyler,2017) . The differencesin between time*interaction effects in both CK levels and PPO suggested that asingle bout of CWI treatment immediately after an intense series of drop jumpsis effective in treating indices of EIMD.

 However other studies have found that singlebout CWI has no effect on recovery to help relieve EIMD (Jakeman et al., 2009) as in single boutstudies you may not see a significance difference on the first try so need tobe repeated in order to see results. This could be down to differences inmethodologies for example temperature differences in water suggesting thatthere needs to be an optimum temperature required.The large peak in CKlevels at 24 hours also indicates that the drop jump protocol was intenseenough to cause muscle damage.

Creatine kinase was an EIMDmarker in this investigation and is largely accepted as an EIMD indicator asmany other studies have used CK levels to measure EIMD(Glasgow et al., 2014; Jakeman et al., 2009). There was a largesignificance in both time effect (P< 0.001) and time*interaction effect(P<0.001) in creatine kinase levels which peaked at 24hrs after the dropjump protocol.

Another study found that after inducing muscle damage CKactivity also peaked at 24hrs (Goodall & Howatson, 2008). Participantsreceiving treatment by way of CWI demonstrated a quicker return to baseline CKlevels than those in the control group. The main findings inrelation to muscle soreness across the duration of the experiment showed thatthere was a notable time effect which began to peak 2hrs after the drop jumpprotocol and reached its highest at 24hrs showing that participants reported lowerperceived muscle soreness in lower limbs in the CWI group. These findings areconsistent with those found in (Bailey et al., 2007) as perceivedmuscle soreness ratings were reduced at 24h post exercise.

However, he didn’tfind that there was a significant effect of CWI on blood CK levels whichrejects the findings of this study as there was found to be a significanteffect of the use CWI on CK levels. Furthermore, in a recent study it wasconcluded that there were no positive effects of CWI that were proved to besignificant regardless of depth of water (Leeder, van Someren, Bell, Spence,Jewell, Gaze & Howatson, 2015). It also seen that DOMS were highest 24hrspost exercise for both control and seated cold water immersion which does notagree with the evidence from the current experiment, this potentially could bedown to differences in method protocol as the duration of immersion weredifferent suggesting an optimum duration time is needed to see similar results (Leeder et al., 2002) FIX.

The main findings of thisstudy were that individuals who were in the intervention group that receivedCWI treatment post drop jump reported lower indices of muscle soreness(P>0.001), and quicker returns to baseline in peak power output (P>0.001)creatine kinase concentrations (P<0.001). From the dependent variablesmeasured, especially perceived muscle soreness suggested that the drop jumpprotocol was effective in causing EIMD. This investigationexamined the effect of an immediate single bout CWI on the markers of EIMDduring a 24- hour recovery period after repeated bouts of a series of dropjumps.