Jean de Dieu Kamiri12/20/2017TheComparison of the Three Main SociologicalPerspectives as Well as One the Main Theorists The Sociology is the science of society, social institutions, and socialrelationships; specifically : the systematic study of the development,structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of humanbeings or the study of groups and group interactions, from small andpersonal groups to very large groups. The Sociologists study developmentof societies, institutions, and the organization that they can identify causesof the changing relationships among groups and personals with a particularinterest. They believe that our social surroundings influencethought and action. Insociology, social facts are values, cultural norms, and social structuresthat transcend the individual and can exercise social control. Frenchsociologist Émile Durkheim defined the term, and argued that the discipline ofSociology should be understood as the empirical study of social facts (publisherby en.wikipedia.org). I am going to compare the three main SociologicalPerspectives (Structural Functionalist, Social Conflict Theory, andSymbolic Interactions) as well as one the main theorists (Emile Durkheim,Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Talcott Parsons).
Firstall, let’s see Karl Max (1818-1883) wasa German philosopher, author and economist famous for his theories aboutcapitalism and communism. He was a revolutionary socialist thinker whosetheories and ideas became popular during nineteenth century. Max ideas are considered the foundation ofcommunism. He was a strong opponent to capitalism because he believed it onlyincreased tensions, which would eventually lead to the destruction of asociety.
Example how Max ideas still showing the conflicts today, let’s see theimpact of the global Impact of Globalization on Small business is aclassic story, often used by socialists to highlight the “evils of acapitalist society” – the small town grocer gets mercilessly taken out bythe new Wal-Mart in town. The small town grocer may have an establishedcustomer base and friendly relations with the community, but it simply can’tmatch the low prices offered by Wal-Mart. Being a large national company,Wal-Mart has the sprawling global resources and is willing to sacrifice marginsto take out local competitors ( Leo Sun). second, Emile Durkheimdeveloped theories of social structure that included functionalism, thedivision of labor, and anomie. These theories were founded on the concept ofsocial facts, or societal norms, values, and structures.
Functionalism isa concept with three integral elements. it emphasizesa societal equilibrium. If something happens to disrupt the order and the flowof the system, society must adjust to achieve a stable state.
According toDurkheim, society should be analyzed and described in terms of functions.Society is a system of interrelated parts where no one part can functionwithout the other. These parts make up the whole of society. If one partchanges, it has an impact on society as a whole. ( slideshare.net)For example, the state provides public education forchildren. The family of the children pays taxes, which the state uses forpublic education.
The children who learn from public education go on to becomelaw-abiding and working citizens, who pay taxes to support the state.Let’slook at this example again. The state provides public education for children.But a disruption or disequilibrium in the system occurs – perhaps the educationis subpar, and the children drop out and become criminals. The system adjuststo improve the education and attempts to rehabilitate (through jail or othermeans) the criminals for them to become law-abiding and taxpaying citizens.Durkheimactually viewed crime and delinquent behavior as a normal and necessaryoccurrence in the social system.
He proposed that crime led to reactions fromsociety about the crime. These shared reactions were used to create commonconsensuses of what individuals felt were moral and ethical norms by which toabide. These commonly held norms and values led to boundaries and rules for thesociety. Third, the three-componenttheory of stratification, more widely known as Weberian stratification orthe three class system, wasdeveloped by German sociologist Max Weber with class, status, andpower as distinct ideal types.
Weber urbanized a multidimensionaltheory to social stratification that reflects the interaction among power,wealth, and prestige. Weber argued that power can take a different forms. Aperson’s power can be shown in the social order through their status, in theeconomic order through their class, and in the political order through theirparty. Thus, party, status, and class are each aspects of the distribution ofpower within a community. They have not only a huge deal of effect within theirindividual areas but also a huge deal of power over the other areas( publisherby en.wikipedia.
org). Weber’s sociologicaltheories had a great impact on twentieth-century sociology. He developed thenotion of “ideal types,”. Ideal type means ‘Ideal’ is a “conception or astandard of something in its highest perfection.” It refers to mental image orconception rather than a material object. It is a model. The term type means akind, class or group as distinguished by a particular character .
According toWeber, religion have a great role in human life and human development. • Ideas,beliefs, values and world view of human societies that guide the way theirmembers acted even in economic sphere.( Ammar Faroog) Fourth, Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) was an American sociologist who served onthe faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973.Parsons was one of the most influential structuralfunctionalists of the 1950s.
As a functionalist, he was concerned with howelements of society were functional for a society. Based on empirical data, Parsons’ social action theorywas the first broad, systematic, and generalizable theory of social systems developedin the United States. Some of Parsons’ largest contributions tosociology in the English-speaking world were his translations of MaxWeber’s work and his analyses of works by Weber,Emile Durkheim, and Vilfredopareto. Their work heavily influenced Parsons’ view and was the foundation forhis social action theory; Parsons viewed voluntaristic action through the lensof the cultural values and social structures that constrain choices andultimately determine all social actions, as opposed to actions that aredetermined based on internal psychological processes. AlthoughParsons is generally considered a Structural functionalist, towards theend of his career, in 1975, he published an article that stated that”functional” and “structural functionalist” wereinappropriate ways to describe the character of his theory. (Talcott persons) Last Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. ..
. Sociologists todayemploy three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interaction perspective, the functionalist perspective, and the conflict perspective. By comparing the three main SociologicalPerspectives (Structural Functionalist, Social Conflict Theory, andSymbolic Interactionist) . Structural functionalist Seessociety as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity andstability. Parts of society(such as businesses, families, and governments) work together in a systematicway that is usually good for the whole.
Each part helps to maintain thebalance that is needed for the system to operate smoothly. Example: deviancewhat is deviant may vary, but deviance is found in all societies; deviance andthe social response it provokes sustain the moral foundation of society. Deviance may also guide social change. Social conflict Sees society as an arenaof inequality that generates conflict and change.
Most sociologists thatuse this approach attempt not only to understand society, but also to reducethe social inequality in it. Thisemphasizes struggle over limited resources, power, and prestige as a permanentaspect of societies and a major source of social change. Example: devianceregulations and other norms reproduce the interests of powerful partnersof society; those who threaten the status quo are generally defined as deviant;social injury caused by powerful people is less likely to be consideredcriminal than is social injury that is caused by people who have little socialpower. Symbolic interaction Sees society as the product of the everydayinteractions of individuals. This is a more micro-level approach (smaller– focusing on patterns of social interaction in specific settings). Focuses on how people interact in theireveryday life and how they make sense of this interaction. Example:deviance nothing is inherently deviant but may become defined as suchthrough the responses of others; the reactions of others are highly variable;labeling someone as deviant may lead to the development of secondary devianceand deviant careers.References: -en.wikipedia.org -www.youarticlelibrary.com – quizlet.com