Quantitative research is the usage of facts and figures to bring forth scientific cognition. Quantitative faculty is characterized by aims, confirmations and generalisation. Here, Numberss are the key to do premises such as why a certain entity is distributed in a certain manner, possibilities, relation of Numberss and how these Numberss relate with other factors. Quantification explicating scientific phenomena focuses on the organisational procedures and airing of Numberss. This paper analyses the quantitative informations and statistics of altering environment from 1992 to 2012.The research was done by United Nations Environment Program and the study of the survey is called Keeping Path of Our Changing Environment: From Rio to Rio+20. This diary by the United Nations Environmental Program provides informations collected by celebrated research organic structures and international bureaus, which have been statistically analyzed and are used to find the future tendencies of the environment. The purposes of the study is to analyse the quantitative variables, both dependent and independent by demoing the cardinal premises, outlooks, and doctrines and measure the relationships between environment and factors like economic system every bit good as behavior a societal analysis and give my base on the survey. From the grounds derived, I can reason that theoretical environmental ends can non be made to worlds unless numeral and clip bound marks are made.
The survey variables
In quantitative research, one ought to find the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent result in a population. Harmonizing to Fink ( 2002 ) , a variable is a mensurable feature for illustration weight. An independent variable is an result that has been manipulated by the research worker including statistical informations while dependent variable is the response obtained from the information that has already been measured ( Fink, pp 31-33 ) .
The survey period
The survey was limited to twenty old ages because it is so that the greatest economic, societal, environmental and geopolitical alterations occurred. The 20 old ages are used because within so the alterations are important and varied increasing truth. Short periods for new phenomena ‘s like C trading are used to show a partial image of the activities to day of the month.
The informations used was globally collected to avoid geographical restrictions that would do the survey unrealistic by guaranting the full universe but non portion of it is represented. For illustration the entire population graph was concluded from amount of informations from western Asia, the North American part, Europe, Latin America and Caribbean, and Asia.
The beginnings of the informations were important and from dependable establishments. The defects in informations arose because non all statistics were available at the national degree. There is besides a possibility that the informations aggregation techniques had some signifier of clich & A ; eacute ; and therefore the information yielded was of hapless quality or outdated. For illustration the United Nations Population Division, Food and Agriculture Organization under the umbrella of the United Nations, the sustainable Europe research institute ( SERI ) , the compiled universe bank informations sing UNEP GEO Data Portal, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center ( UNEP, 101 ) . In add-on, the comparing of statistics over clip intrinsically nowadayss troubles. Using these studies, I will critically analyse the numerical aims of the research from grounds of clime alteration, loss of biodiversity, entire devastation of species, land surface debasement and decreased ocean quality. In my sentiment, despite the positive attempts to prolong the environment for illustration ; through the usage of renewable beginnings of energy, the usage of ozone friendly chemicals and while the environment is still degrading. However, informations for developing states is hapless due to gender disaggregation.
Data representation techniques
Figures, graphs like the Megacities and Gross Domestic Product graphs, satellite images like the Amazon rain forest, and the Mesopotamian Marshlands are used to explicate the figures, forms and tendencies in environmental alterations, economic growing and status of natural resources and landscapes. Charts are peculiarly used to show countries where all three informations demands were met to guarantee staunchness. Tendencies are non provided where one or another of the standard was non met, such as the handiness of fresh H2O, the depletion of land H2O, land debasement, chemicals and waste because analysis might non be dependable.
The diary on the topic of maintaining track negotiations about the emerging tendencies in the universe over the past 20 old ages. These alterations have swept the universe over the past 20 old ages and have been compiled in the signifier of statistical informations. The United Nations Environmental Program is responsible for bring forthing the study as portion of their Global Environmental Outlook series, which was conducted in the Brazil conference. Several promotions have taken topographic point since the conference. New engineering has brought about the promotion of many industrial establishments. Communication and research are one of the few countries that have benefited greatly from the technological promotions. During the early 1990 ‘s, there were certain technological stuffs that had non been developed like the nomadic telephones. Recently, about an estimation of approximately five billion persons have an entree to a nomadic French telephone therefore enabling the universe to go a planetary small town ( UNEP, 7 ) . With the rise in cyberspace subscriptions, communicating in the recent old ages has become an easy matter for people. Social networking has made it easy to pass on with people from all over the universe. A few old ages ago, world-wide communicating was a spot hard because such technological promotions were unavailable. However, recent societal communicating via the internet self-praises of an norm of about two billion users with a bulk of them utilizing societal sites like facebook and chirrup among others ( UNEP, 7 ) .
Environmental debasement is another issue being addressed and is an emerging tendency highlighted in the article. Environmental debasement is defined as the quantitative and qualitative wear and tear of the environment ( Kirch, 333 ) . Degradation occurs by agencies of homo or natural ruinous procedure. Harmonizing to a study by the World Bank ‘s universe development study in 1992, some of the environmental jobs we face today include debasement, H2O deficit, pollution and loss of biodiversity ( Duraiappah, 3 ) . The study cites that debasement to a larger extent comprises the subjectiveness on the portion of the agents involved or who owns the resources beforehand ( Duraiappah, 4 ) . The UNEP Rio study shows that debasement has been taking topographic point over clip with the depletion of certain of import minerals and cherished metals. The turning populations have been a major factor that has brought about the instantaneous high demand for resources such as H2O, energy and nutrient ( UNEP, 7 ) . An addition in population consequences to a lessening in the handiness of natural resources. This means the ecosystem becomes constrained by the limited resources available. Water is an illustration of a natural resource that becomes restrained by the of all time turning figure of people. Due to the quickly altering environmental jobs in the universe, there have been several issues refering the environment that have been addressed over the past 20 old ages ( UNEP, 7 ) . One issue is sing the C trading ( UNEP, 8 ) . While turn toing clime alteration, seting an accent on the pecuniary value towards the emanation of nursery gases has been a major measure in battling the issue. Harmonizing to statistics carried out about clime alteration within the European Union, there has been a bead in the emanation of nursery gasses from 1990 by about 17.4 per centum ( Eurostat, 2012 ) . Using the figure below, there has been a downward tendency in emanation from 1990 and the following seven old ages to 1997. This lessening is attributed to the diminution in the economic crisis, which brought about minimum industrial activities. The European Union ‘s attack to achieving their vision 2020 was adopted in 2008 and its most of import docket was to intrust the EU-27 to cut down their overall conservatory gas productions by about 20 per centum their initial degrees in 1990 by the terminal of 2020 ( Eurostat, 2012 ) . This will enable Europe as a state alteration wholly into a low-carbon economic system and at the same clip increase its power security through other agencies of clean fuels.
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Nanotechnology as discussed in the UNEP diary ( p 8 ) , 2012 purposes at guaranting there is a clean beginning of energy for the population. Even though it is related to presenting future menaces and possible environmental exposures, it provides a much safer beginning of energy to be used in the industries, wellness attention, production of clean H2O. The other importance of nanotechnology is employment. Harmonizing to an early estimation, approximately two million occupations will be created by 2015 in the field of nanotechnology ( Industry Canada, 2009 ) .
Population and human development in relation to human ecology is the other statement presented in the diary. Population can be influenced by each and everything that can act upon or be influenced by how many people live in a given location, the rate at which people in a vicinity alteration over clip, population distribution, population procedures, the construction that defines a population in footings of sex and age, and what defines people populating in a certain topographic point in footings of instruction, household, business, income among the many other separating characteristics that add up to who persons are ( Weeks, 3 ) . Taking a expression at the past population will assist in finding the future tendency of the population.
Population around the universe has been increasing over the past decennaries. Since the twelvemonth 1992, the universe population has increased by the rate of 1.3 per centum per annum ( UNEP, 12 ) . The figure of people rose from about five billion to about seven billion within 10 old ages. This amounts to about 26 per centum addition ( UNEP, 12 ) . This can be attributed to a bead in the mortality degrees over the decennaries and the addition in life anticipation degrees ( Weeks, 4 ) . Taking a closer expression at the entire statistical population tendency in the diary maintaining path of our altering environment, different parts have different growing rates. There are certain continents holding a greater figure of dwellers. About 80 per centum of the entire population inhabits the Asiatic continent ( UNEP, 12 ) . Population in Asia has grown enormously over the past decennaries. The rates of growing have been high because in 1950, Asia had a population of 1.4 billion people ( Taeuber, 1958 ) , which has risen to about 7 billion people. One of the factors that can be attributed to the turning tendency is the betterment in the wellness sector. New and improved sanitation in peculiar incorporated with the debut of a better diet and proficient promotions have made certain there is the attainment of the increased population ( Taeuber, 1958 ) . This tendency is risky because as the population grows, the economic position of the state remains partial with the societal alteration being muted ( Taeuber, 1958 ) .
In the African, European and North American continents combined, about 15 per centum of the universe population lives at that place. In America, agribusiness has become advanced in the past century. Over the past decennary, the universe nutrient production has increased by about 24 per centum. This figure has outnumbered the population growing ( Kinder, 1998 ) . However, this addition is non equally distributed over the African continent where the nutrient production decreased, while population increased. This is attributed to the high degrees of poorness. In the African society, adult females suffer from malnutrition while the work forces feed healthily on whatever nutrient is available ( Kindler, 1998 ) . The little sums of resources are available to adult females, who are responsible for supplying the nutrient supply. Even though there is plentifulness of nutrient, and there is sufficient just distribution to run into the demands of the future coevalss, this deficit of nutrient supply is attributed to the fact that there is deficiency of adequate financess to purchase the nutrient.
Harmonizing to the diary about the Rio acme, with an addition in population, there comes about a lessening in the population growing rate ( UNEP, 13 ) . The graph shows a bead in the one-year per centum from 1.65 per centum to about 1.2 per centum in the past 10 old ages from the 1990 ‘s until 2000 ‘s. Over the last eight old ages between 1992 and 2010, there has been a diminution in the growing rate by 27 per centum worldwide ( UNEP, 13 ) . This rate can be related to the rate at which a state grows economically. When there is an addition in the population growing rate, the economic position of the state improves every bit good. One confirmed study about this relationship is through the huge alteration across the universe in footings of the international trade and the outgrowth of communicating engineerings including the cyberspace ( Notaras, 2011 ) . When it comes to population addition, the graph shows a 67 per centum increase since 1992 in Asia particularly the western portion of Asia while in Africa ; there has been a per centum increase of 53 over the past decennaries. In Europe, the population addition is somewhat turning at a rate of 4 per centum ( UNEP, 13 ) .
Over the past 20 old ages from 1992, the rate of urban population has risen by about 2 billion. In the twelvemonth 1992, the urban population was about 2.5 billion people and by the terminal of 2009, the figure had increased by about 45 per centum to about 3.5 billion people ( UNEP ) . Harmonizing to Brinkhoff ( 2011 ) , the figure of people traveling to urban countries is about one billion. This figure is tantamount to about 30 two times the population of Tokyo, Japan and approximately 110 times the population of Paris, France. One property to the rapid growing of urban countries is migration. Migration is the long term resettlement from one topographic point to the other by an person or a group of people from their original topographic point ( Oberai, 28 ) . The most marked signifier of migration is rural to urban migration. This net migration exceeds the figure of people traveling from the urban Centres ( Gizewski and Dixon, 1995 ) . This unprecedented augmentation of the metropolitan Centres is projected to go on in the coming old ages even though the rate will hold a downward tendency ( UNEP, 14 ) . In order to do it more feasible and environmentally sustainable, particular attending ought to be given in footings of the economic system, societal life style and politically. About 50 per centum of the populations in urban countries consume about 75 per centum of the planetary energy produced ( UNEP, 14 ) . This population is besides responsible for bring forthing approximately 80 per centum of the C emanations globally when ingestion becomes the chief topic to reference ( Satterthwaite, 2011 ) . The other factor that causes an addition in the urban population is the natural addition if population where the figure of births exceed the figure of deceases ( Gizewski and Dixon, 1995 ) .
Urbanization and urban colonies has brought about the rise of slums and environmentally delicate states ( UN, 2 ) . The rate at which mega metropoliss have grown since the 1990 ‘s is dual. Harmonizing to the UNEP diary on maintaining path of Our Changing Environment, a mega metropolis has been defined as the high denseness metropolitan countries that have at least 10 million dwellers. Harmonizing to informations study by the International Labour Organization, ILO and from the United Nation Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, which was collected in 1990, the information indicates that rural to urban migration contributed to the current growing in urban Centres particularly in developing states ( Oberai, 27 ) . The tabular array below illustrates the information that was obtained. Even though the degree of migration is below the 50 per centum grade for rather a figure of the big metropoliss in the development states, it is still a major subscriber of the big portion. When one compares both migration and the natural growing in the phases of a society ‘s growing with respects to the economic system, migration is the figure one subscriber of urban growing
Net Migration Contribution to Urban Growth for Selected Cities between 1960-85
( 1960-76 )
( 1975-80 )
Rio de Janeiro
Capital of south korea
( 1981-88 )
The rapid urbanisation shows a greater opportunity of turn toing this vulnerable issue of colony. This is because approximately about 40 per centum of the urban colony is found populating in milieus that are prone to deluging, hapless lodging that lack the basic demands for endurance and have a hapless environment every bit good ( UNEP, 14 ) . Both Internal and external migrations contribute to the high rate of urbanisation. The latest research work suggests that rural migration can besides stem from displacements in farming production, the low economic growing rates, and differences in the rural land term of office system ( Gizewski and Dixon, 1995 ) . When it comes to finding the extent of how much the rural economic system can absorb and absorb its economic and labour growing ; the strength of engineering used in agribusiness, handiness of land, contributing climatic conditions, the degree of demand for the agricultural green goods, fertilisers and aid provided by agricultural extension officers come in ready to hand ( Gizewski and Dixon, 1995 ) .
Ever since the Rio acme in Brazil, 1992, the universe ‘s overall gross domestic merchandise has had a important addition. This addition has risen from US $ 36 to 63 million 1000000s in the twelvemonth 2010 ( UNEP, 23 ) . This signified an addition of about 75 per centum, which can be interpreted as an norm of 3.2 per centum per annum. The gross domestic merchandise per capita has risen by about 40 per centum within the same period from 1992 to 2010. In the twelvemonth 2011, the fiscal status was really bad, which resulted to a ruin in the economic system. With the betterment of the American activities and the improved policies in the euro country have brought about the betterment of the economic information ( IMF, 22 ) . The tendency as projected by analysts indicate that a bulk of the advanced economic systems together with their activities will stay comparatively solid in the better portion of the development and emerging economic systems ( IMF, xiii ) . In a command to back up growing and the execution of the cardinal alterations in order to accomplish a healthy growing, the ordinance of policies by the policy shapers is cardinal.
Ever since the Rio acme in Brazil, 1992, the universe ‘s overall gross domestic merchandise has had a important addition. This addition has risen from US $ 36 to 63 million 1000000s in the twelvemonth 2010 ( UNEP, 23 ) . This signified an addition of about 75 per centum, which can be interpreted as an norm of 3.2 per centum per annum. The gross domestic merchandise per capita has risen by about 40 per centum within the same period from 1992 to 2010. In the twelvemonth 2011, the fiscal status was really bad, which resulted to a ruin in the economic system. With the betterment of the American activities and the improved policies in the euro country have brought about the betterment of the economic information ( IMF, 22 ) . The tendency as projected by analysts indicate that a bulk of the advanced economic systems together with their activities will stay comparatively solid in the better portion of the development and emerging economic systems ( IMF, xiii ) . In a command to back up growing and the execution of the cardinal alterations in order to accomplish a healthy growing, the ordinance of policies by the policy shapers is cardinal. There has been a significant addition in the GDP per capita in many developing states due to their strong economic growing rate. This addition projected a high of about 80 per centum since 1992 and about 45 per centum since 2002. The gross domestic merchandise shows the strength of economic activities by a state ( UNEP, 23 ) . This term in most instances is normally misinterpreted for the step of a peculiar state ‘s criterions of life.
Trade, which can be defined as the exchange of goods for goods or goods for services has been there since antediluvian human history. The economic importance incorporated with its societal and political importance to hold increased enormously over the past old ages, and in the terminal, have contributed towards globalisation ( UNEP, 25 ) . Trade is the other country that affects the GDP. Harmonizing to the United Nations Environmental Journal from the universe acme in Rio, the value of internationally traded good has tripled between the past 20 old ages from 1992 to 2009 ( UNEP, 25 ) . The value increased from 9 billion dollars up to 28 billion dollars. Before the economic crisis in 2008, the portion of the GDP trade had been on the addition of about 10 per centum. This rose from 39 per centum to 49 per centum to make a upper limit of 60 per centum ( UNEP, 25 ) . The largest subscribers to this growing even after 2008 has been attributed to merchandise in oil and mineral fuels by about 15 per centum, vehicle industry by about 7 per centum and machinery by about 12 per centum ( ITC, 2011 ) . The end of UNEP is to advance resource efficiency and the sustainable ingestion and production in developing and developed states ( UNEP, 2012 ) . Their major purpose is to guarantee there is an increased perceptual experience and realisation by the public and private sector every bit good as the civil society with purpose of advancing sustainable resource direction ( UNEP, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to the diary about the Rio acme, there has been a diminution the emanations, material per unit of end product consumed and energy even though there has been a growing in the overall energy and stuff usage ( UNEP, 27 ) . The resource extraction per capita has been on a little addition and other times stable over the old ages since 1992. Eco taxing is one solution that has enabled minimum emanation of C ( IV ) oxide together with the other signifiers of pollutions such as deforestation and overfishing in a command to supplement the inducements of decoupling and the green economic system ( UNEP, 27 ) .
Since 1990, there has been a diminution in the sum of forest screen worldwide. The entire coverage of woods is about 30 per centum of the entire land mass ( UNEP, 47 ) . In between 2000 and 2010, approximately 13 million hectares of forested land was converted to other signifiers of activity by adult male and in other cases through natural catastrophes. A study by the Food and Agricultural Organization indicates that this value has declined as compared to the old old ages where the entire mass of land converted was about 16 million hectares per twelvemonth ( FAO, 2010 ) . Global heating besides arises from this loss of biodiversity because about 14 per centum of the gases released into the environment include C ( IV ) oxide. This approximative per centum value of the C ( IV ) oxide gas emitted means a high opportunity of planetary heating because there would be no forest screen to absorb the emitted gases ( UNEP, 47 ) . Satellite exposure in the UNEP diary, p 48 show the countries of cleared land in the Amazonian jungle in Brazil. The trees cut down are a major beginning of lumber, firewood, and mush production. There has been an outward one-year growing of 2.2 per centum towards the betterment of the about endangered watershed. This fraction is a significance of the one-year increase of forested land by about 265 million hectares from the 170 hectares internationally ( UNEP, 49 ) .
Water is the other country that shows great betterments over the past two decennaries even though approximately 2.5 billion people worldwide particularly those populating in developed states still lack improved hygienic coverage. In 1992, approximately 54 per centum of the population had entree to improved sanitation ( UNEP, 52 ) . This has improved by about 6 per centum to make the 60 per centum grade. With the current millenary development ends, it would take another 20 decennaries to make the mark of guaranting about 75 per centum of families worldwide would hold a hygienic coverage of clean H2O. In instance the preservation degrees improve as they have been, as per the Rio conference, this mark would make the about 90 per centum of the entire population in 2015 from the 77 per centum in 1990 ( UNEP, 52 ) . With an betterment in H2O supply, the planetary nutrient production would better over the old ages ( UNEP, 71 ) .there has been a 42 per centum increase since 1992 in footings of nutrient production. This has been attributed to improved outputs from the new agricultural lands. In the development states, agricultural production is non every bit developed as in the developed states with their nutrient securities being ill managed. intensive production techniques, and spread outing the farm land would be really helpful in accomplishing effectual agriculture but their effects, which tends to take to loss of biodiversity are inauspicious and good known ( UNEP, 71 ) .
Summarily, this paper has discussed the jobs that affect human existences in the universe as they have been addressed in the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference. The diary maintaining path of our altering environment: from Rio to Rio+20 negotiations about the statistical information that is of import in finding a conclusive solution towards the emerging tendencies that affect the environment and how these information had been obtained.