& # 8217 ; s Impetus Essay, Research PaperI do non hold with Frankl. I do non believe Man & # 8217 ; s primary drive force is a hunt for significance. Nor do I profess with his critics that propose alternate & # 8216 ; motives & # 8217 ; , such as power, or pleasance. I believe that adult male has the capacity to be driven by many motivational factors, non merely any individual 1. Furthermore, I believe that these motives represent themselves in a predictable, patterned manner. In three of the books we read this summer, it is possible to follow the development of the supporter & # 8217 ; s motives, and their subsequent philosophical province of consciousness.
Miller & # 8217 ; s Willy Loman, Tolstoy & # 8217 ; s Ivan Ilych, and Victor Frankl himself all follow a similar way of self-philosophy, each character demoing us a small of the writer & # 8217 ; s ain doctrine.Freud, who was the first to specify a psychological & # 8216 ; actuating force & # 8217 ; , was the first to near the topic as a scientist. As a scientist, he felt obligated to happen the simplest account for adult male & # 8217 ; s behaviour, a General Rule that would use to every individual. As can be attested to by the likes of Victor Frankl, though, Freud & # 8217 ; s suggestion that & # 8220 ; adult male is driven by a hunt for pleasance & # 8221 ; isn & # 8217 ; t ever accurate.
I commend Freud & # 8217 ; s attempts, nevertheless, for I would venture to state that it is accurate most of the clip. It is my belief that in Man & # 8217 ; s initial phases of philosophical and psychological development, pleasance is the individual greatest motivational factor. Kierkegaard cited a similar thought in his & # 8220 ; Child & # 8221 ; phase of development, that when Man is in his psychological babyhood, he is driven entirely by pleasance and wages.
-2-This thrust for pleasance may ne’er discontinue to be Man & # 8217 ; s primary motive. One may remain in this phase of development for good. It all depends on whether or non this pleasance ceases.I follow the thought that, ab initio, Man lives his life as a rider. As Kierkegaard noted, in early life, a Man & # 8217 ; s determinations are made for him. His parents and household, instructors, and society, all make his determinations. Unlike Kierkegaard, I do non see any necessary connexion with Age in relationship to this rule. Man may ne’er populate his life actively.
Man may populate his full life passively. Passivity is non something Man needfully grows out of. The ground for this, is that passiveness, and a thrust for pleasance, are closely connected.( I am non stating Man can non populate for his ain pleasance in an active mode, but instead, that in the earliest phases of one & # 8217 ; s development, adult male is both of course inactive, and of course pleasure-seeking. ) The displacement in consciousness from a passive, to an active life, is dependent on a loss of this pleasance. If Man is populating passively, and is besides having a satisfactory sum of pleasance, there is no philosophical, nor psychological motive for activity. If passiveness works, there is no ground for Man & # 8217 ; s mind to alter.
However, if gradual or sudden alterations in circumstance create a deficiency of pleasance in a Man & # 8217 ; s life, a natural, instinctual response forces Man to populate actively.For many people, this alteration is the specifying minute in people & # 8217 ; s lives. It can be honoring and eye-opening, or it can be helter-skelter and dismaying. It all depends on the individual, and the state of affairs. As Man & # 8217 ; s alteration in circumstance can be either gradual or-3-sudden, so can his alteration from passiveness to activity. As can be expected, a sudden alteration to activity can be lay waste toing. Peoples unaccustomed or unprepared for the sudden devastation of their inactive microcosm can be destroyed by the alteration. I believe that is what happened to Willy Loman and Ivan Ilych.
Both had lived lives predetermined by their society, populating as an foreigner, a witness. Neither lived actively. Willy & # 8217 ; s microcosm was shattered comparatively rapidly, and he was overwhelmed by his ain deficiency of control.
Ivan & # 8217 ; s universe fell apart piece by piece, both externally and internally, and his deficiency of pick, his deficiency of control, his deficiency of power, destroyed him bit by bit. Victor Frankl was able to acquire through his alteration, nevertheless. When his inactive universe was destroyed, thrown into pandemonium by the Nazi invasion, Victor was about destroyed. However, as he stated in his book, his desire for significance, his & # 8220 ; ground to populate & # 8221 ; was what saved his organic structure and head from decease. He was able to re-direct his life actively, and survived his crisis.
Frankl would hold said that a & # 8220 ; deficiency of intending & # 8221 ; destroyed the lives of Ilych and Loman. I disagree & # 8211 ; for several grounds. The first is for something Frankl himself should hold noticed. Before he entered Auschwitz, he did non needfully hold a & # 8216 ; intending & # 8217 ; to his life. He was composing a specific work, and this did function as a thesis for much of his life & # 8217 ; s work, but it did non become the significance of his life until this self-same life fell apart. Frankl made his premise about Man’s motive because of what he saw in Auschwitz.
When people had no significance in a clip of crisis, they were lost. Those with a significance could maintain traveling. What Frankl did non see in his premise, though, are the cardinal words “…in a clip-4-of crisis & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; . He did non recognize that these people were all right and healthy without significance, up until the clip they entered Auschwitz. Merely at the very clip of crisis does the deficiency of intending have any significance. When Man is in his early phase of development, populating passively and merrily, he has no necessary demand for intending. The demand for intending occurs merely when passiveness fails, and pleasance exists no longer. A deficiency of significance is non the crisis itself ; it is non the disease which destroys Man.
Rather, it is the deficiency of pleasance, the deficiency of control, and the deficiency of apprehension activity which causes the crisis. The subsequent desperation is the disease which destroys Man. A deficiency of significance is a symptom of Man & # 8217 ; s ain immune response to this desperation.It is my belief that a hunt for significance, a hunt for faith, a hunt for some steering factor in one & # 8217 ; s life is a manner for Man to modulate his ain saneness. When Man alterations from passiveness to activity, he loses the counsel and order inherent in a inactive life style.
He is surrounded by what seems to be pandemonium, what seems to be without order, and can non calculate out how to recover the pleasance they lost. When Man has ne’er lived actively, he is filled with a fright of his ain insufficiency, a fright of being without the protection of passiveness. To protect himself from this fright, I believe that Man creates within himself an instinctual, natural desire for intending. Man hopes to utilize this significance as protection and counsel, a manner back to pleasance.
This significance can take any signifier, from a life & # 8217 ; s work, to religion, to an credence of insufficiency, sometimes even a life of passiveness. ( Passivity must non be dismissed wholly as a doctrine, even after it has been lost. Many people do travel back to a-5-inactive life, if they can happen it. Aged people, for illustration, frequently go back to the passiveness oftheir young person. ) Existentialists call this period of new-found intending their & # 8220 ; Leap of Faith & # 8221 ; . Kierkegaard refers to the hunt and pandemonium as the & # 8220 ; Adolescent Stage & # 8221 ; and the concluding credence of activity and significance as the & # 8220 ; Adult Stage & # 8221 ; .
I would venture to state that each of these three writers has reached the & # 8220 ; Adult Stage & # 8221 ; of their development, or has, at least, gone through the prostration of a inactive being at least one time. The cognition they have of the experience points to a past crisis, and the fact that they remained around long plenty to compose their books is a testament to their endurance. Arthur Miller married Marilyn Monroe, so we know everything turned out all right. Heh Heh.
In & # 8220 ; Man & # 8217 ; s Search for Meaning & # 8221 ; we even see the completion of Frankl & # 8217 ; s rhythm. From what I know of Tolstoy & # 8217 ; s history, he had the same types of quandary written about in & # 8220 ; Ivan Ilych & # 8221 ; and several other short narratives. He was Russian Aristocracy and felt highly guilty about his wealth and the unjust nature of his position. He attempted celibacy ( I say attempted because he had many kids ) and gave up his money to learn peasant kids in a little hut. The point is, he saw significance, and actively followed his ain ends.
That he changed his life so drastically is neither good or bad, simply a testament to his philosophical alteration.I have waxed dictatorial legion times throughout the above paper, so I write now an afterwarning to the reader. I do non compose this paper as a statement, nor even a suggestion, but instead as a inquiry. I propose this as a possibility, a unsmooth belief of myain that is capable to alter. Whatever decisions about life have been made, bear in head their transiency.-6-( As to the demand of Summer Reading, yes, I did read the Art of Loving.
However, I found the information within it merely hardly relevant to the specific above message I wanted to convey. As for my personal sentiments of the work, I think Fromm was right on in his societal observations, but I found the latter half of the book to be a big sum of Freud-bashing, and unsupported pontification. In a book speech production of something as timeless anduniversal as love, one would hold expected something less like a period piece. The male-female love he spoke of was based on a existent stereotype, but non needfully a world.
Overall, I found the book merely indirectly congruent with the other two plants, and have left it out to be as an reconsideration of the summer reading )353