In the idealized breakthrough curve as shown in Figure AAA, where C is the effluent concentration of the solute and V is total volume of solute-free effluent per unit cross-sectional area, there is generally a sharp rise of the breakthrough curve between the breakpoint CB and the exhaustion point CE, which are arbitrarily selected to represent the main portion of the adsorption process. (Yen, et al 1999)

In Figure AAA, is shown the idealized breakthrough curve. Here C is the effluent concentration of the solute and V is total volume of solute-free effluent per unit cross-sectional area. As such, there is generally a sharp rise of the breakthrough curve between the breakpoint CB and the exhaustion point CE. These are arbitrarily selected to represent the main portion of the adsorption process. (Yen, et al 1999)

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The purpose of analysis is to predict the total quantity of effluent (sulfur) at the breakpoint and to predict the shape of the breakthrough curve between CB and CE. With the help of the schematic shown in Figure BBB (page 1480 ref # 32-5), we can define some of the parameters that the formulations are based upon. First, the primary adsorption zone, which is defined as the part of the bed having a concentration reduction from CE to CB, has a constant height (depth) or length of ZA out of the total adsorbent bed length or height Z.

The rationale of the analysis is to predict the total quantity of the effluent (sulfur) at the cut-off point and to envisage the shape of the breakthrough curve between CB and CE. With the help of the scheme shown in Figure BBB (page 1480 ref # 32-5), some of the parameters can be defined upon which the formulations are based. First, the primary adsorption zone, defined as the part of the bed with a absorption diminution from CE to CB, has a constant height (depth) or length of ZA out of the total adsorbent bed length or height Z.

 

 

The total time, tE, for the primary adsorption zone to be established and to move down and out of the column is show in Equation 1:

Equation 1 below shows the total time, tE, for the primary adsorption zone which is to be established and moved down and out of the column:

 

(1)

 

Where VE is the volume at exhaustion and Qt is the flow rate to the adsorber. Equation 2 show the time required for movement of the entire zone in the column is tA,

Equation 2 below shows the time required for the shifting of the entire zone in the column is tA. Here VE is the volume at exhaustion and Qt is the flow rate to the absorber.

(2)

The total amount of adsorbate (solute) Ss that accumulates at the point of complete saturation (the entire column of adsorbent is in equilibrium with Co in the influent) can be written as Equation 3:

In Equation 3 below is written the total amount of adsorbate (solute) Ss which accrues at the point of whole dissemination (the entire column of adsorbent is in equilibrium with Co in the influent):

 

(3)

The shaded area above the breakthrough curve represents the amount of adsorbate (oxidized sulfur) adsorbed by the adarobent (alumina) between the breakpoint and the exhaustion. This amount of adsorbate can be calculated by integrating the quantity of (Co-C) over V between the limits of VE and VB. This integration can be done Microsoft Excel program with Equation 4:

The quantity of adsorbate (oxidized sulfur) is represented by the grey area on the breakthrough curve. It is adsorbed by the adarobent (alumina) between the breakpoint and the exhaustion. This total of adsorbate can be calculated by incorporating the quantity of (Co-C) over V between the limits of VE and VB. This integration can be done on Microsoft Excel application of Windows and is shown in Equation 4 below:

 

(4)

 

5.3.8.1

After adding passing F-76 Naval diesel through the fluidized bed, effluent samples were collected, the sample concentration was measured by SLFA-20 sulfur analyzer. Table AAA lists the relative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina:

The comparative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina is shown below in Table AAA:

 

Table AAA Effluent concentration of acidic alumina

Sample No.
Effluent Vol. (ml)
Effluent Conc. (ppm)
0
0
0
1
30
3
2
60
4
3
90
4
4
120
5
5
150
2
6
180
2
7
210
1
8
240
1
9
270
9
10
300
7
11
330
6
12
360
4
13
390
5
14
420
8
15
450
9
16
480
12
17
510
10
18
540
8
19
570
7
20
600
6
21
630
18
22
660
8
23
690
9
24
720
12
25
750
8
26
780
7
27
810
5
28
840
13
29
870
15
30
900
17
31
930
9
32
960
22
33
990
16
34
1020
12

Sample No.
Effluent Vol. (ml)
Effluent Conc. (ppm)
35
1050
15
36
1080
15
37
1110
9
38
1140
198
39
1170
1225
40
1200
1704
41
1230
2417
42
1260
2800
43
1290
3137
44
1320
3404
45
1350
3551
46
1380
3716
47
1410
3810
48
1440
3944
49
1470
4018
50
1500
4121
51
1530
4133
52
1560
4176
53
1590
4199
54
1620
4201
55
1650
4210
56
1680
4228

Figure BBB shows the breakthrough curve of acidic alumina for F-76  diesel.

Figure BBB Breakthrough curve of acidic alumina for F-76 diesel

With the help of Equation 1, tE can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 1, tE can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

By using Equation 2, tA can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 2, tA can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

By using Equation 3, Ss can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 3, Ss can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

By using Equation 3, SSE can be calculate by Excel (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 3, SSE can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

 

From the data in Table AAA, the area behind the curve in Figure BBB is calculated (1,680 mL):

1,680 mL F-76 diesel x 0.8 g/mL = 1,344 g F-76

1,344 g F-76 / 480 g alumina = 2.8 g F-76 / g alumina

Original sulfur concentration in F-76 diesel is 4,220 ppm. Therefore in 2.8 g of F-76, total amount of sulfur can be adsorb per gram alumina is:

2.8 g x (4,220 /106) x (1000 mg/g) = 11.82 mg sulfur / g alumina

 

 

Can you write the following giving information into 12 to 14 lines paragraph.

 

From the calculation above, one gram of alumina can adsorb 11.82 mg of organic sulfur compound, the adsorption ability is very close to the previous Dr.yen’s PHD student (his name is Dr. Otemadi), he use packed column instead fluidized bed reactor, but according to his thesis and published literature on MGO diesel, his adsorption ability is 12.59 mg sufur per gram of alumina, the error percentage is 6.1%, this shows the results what I obtain (11.82 mg sulfur / g alumina) can be used for pilot study design consideration. The major advantages of using fluidized bed reactor is (1) the adsorb reaction time is less than the pack column, usually packed column take around 6 to 8 hours to adsorb, but, fluidized bed take less time, for F-76 diesel, it only take 3 hours. (2) it can treat large volume of diesel in liter volume instead of small volume on packed column.

 

As shown in the calculation above, it is to be noted that 1 gram of alumina can adsorb 11.82 mg of organic sulfur compound. The adsorption ability, as such is very close to the previous Dr. Yen’s PHD student (Dr. Otemadi). Dr. Otemadi used packed column instead of fluidized bed reactor. However, according to his thesis and published literature on MGO diesel, his adsorption ability is 12.59 mg sufur per gram of alumina. The error percentage is 6.1%. And to make it known, this shows the results obtained by the present researcher in this study (11.82 mg sulfur / g alumina). This can be used for pilot study design consideration. The major advantage of using fluidized bed reactor is: (1) the adsorb reaction time is less than the packed column procedure (usually the packed column procedure takes around 6 to 8 hours to adsorb). On the contrary, fluidized bed takes less time, for F-76 diesel: It takes only 3 hours. Another chief advantage is (2) it can treat large volumes of diesel in liter volumes, which is in contrast to the volume on packed column that takes small volumes for procedures.

 

From the picture AAA, it shows the increment of sulfur concentration by color change of solution, from left to right. As the alumina reach its saturation condition, oxidize sulfur can not be adsorb, therefore, the color of diesel become brownish. (please re-write the paragraph).

The pictorial illustration below AAA, shows the increment of sulfur concentration by change in color of solution, from left to right. As the alumina reaches its saturation point in the process, the oxidize sulfur cannot be adsorbed, therefore, the color of the diesel being processed tends to opt for a brownish shade.

 

5.3.8.2

After adding passing Valley oil through the fluidized bed, effluent samples were collected, the sample concentration was measured by SLFA-20 sulfur analyzer. Table AAA lists the relative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina:

In Table AAA are listed the relative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina:

 

Sample No.
Effluent Vol. (ml)
Effluent Conc. (ppm)
0
0
0
1
30
4
2
60
5
3
90
1
4
120
3
5
150
3
6
180
7
7
210
5
8
240
9
9
270
12
10
300
15
11
330
10
12
360
9
13
390
10
14
420
11
15
450
13
16
480
8
17
510
7
18
540
11
19
570
12
20
600
13
21
630
425
22
660
1879
23
690
2548
24
720
3604
25
750
4667
26
780
5111
27
810
5741
28
840
6112
29
870
6666
30
900
7225
31
930
7778
32
960
7989
33
990
8019
34
1020
8088
35
1050
8119
Figure BBB shows the breakthrough curve of acidic alumina for Valley oil

.

By using Equation 1, tE can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 1, tE can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

 

By using Equation 2, tA can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 2, tA can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

By using Equation 3, Ss can be calculate as (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation 3, Ss can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

By using Equation 3, SSE can be calculate by Excel (can you write this sentence a bit longer)

As shown below, with the help of Equation (on the Excel application program of Windows) 3, SSE can be put to a sound calculation of the quantities as:

 

 

From the data in Table AAA, the area behind the curve in Figure BBB is calculated (1,022 mL):

1,022 ml Valley x 0.8 g/ml = 817.8 g Valley oil

817.8 g Valley oil / 480 g alumina = 1.7 g Valley oil / g alumina

Original sulfur concentration in Valley oil diesel is 8,100 ppm. Therefore in 1.7 g of Valley oil, total amount of sulfur can be adsorb per gram alumina is:

1.7 g x (8,100 /106) x (1000 mg/g) = 13.8 mg sulfur / g alumina

 

Can you write the following giving information into 6-7 lines paragraph.

 

From the calculation above, one gram of alumina can adsorb 13.8 mg of organic sulfur compound. Again, this is very close to the previous Dr.yen’s PHD student (his name is Dr. Otemadi), his results is 12.59 mg sulfur per gram of alumina, the error percentage is 8.7%. It is obviously that higher sulfur content diesel, the adsorption become saturate at shorter time.

 

As has been discussed and shown from the calculation above, 1 gram of alumina can adsorb 13.8 mg of organic sulfur compound. This is to be noted once again that this is very close to the previous Dr. Yen’s PHD student (Dr. Otemadi). According to Dr. Otemadi experiment the result is 12.59 mg sulfur per gram of alumina and the error percentage is 8.7%. Here it is to be registered that it is obvious at that higher sulfur content diesel, the adsorption becomes saturated in a shorter span of time.

 

 

Can you write the following giving information into 14-16 lines paragraph.

Another sets or experiments has also been done with alumina recycle, The comparison in this study has been done without considering the ability of alumina to be regenerated for several times and still keep its adsorption capacity in a reasonable range. Preliminary studies of regenerating alumina through clacining at 550 ºC have confirmed that alumina will keep more than 91% of its capacity. The above statement has been confirmed by two time recycle, Table XXX lists the relative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina with 2 recycle. Figure XXX shows the breakthrough curve with recycles. The result shows that after 2 times recycle, the adsorption ability remains the same compare to the fresh alumina, the alumina structure do not decompose or loss after calcine stage. This can reduce great amount of adsorbent cost when consider commercialize scale study, with care handle, the alumina can recycle many times

In addition to the above, other sets or experiments have also been conducted with alumina recycle. The comparison in this study has been undertaken without considering the ability of alumina to be regenerated for several times and which still keeps its adsorption capacity in a reasonable range. Preliminary studies of regenerating alumina through clacining at 550 ºC have confirmed that alumina will keep more than 91% of its capacity. The above statement has been confirmed by 2 time recycles. Table XXX illustrates the relative concentration of the effluents from the acidic alumina with 2 recycles. In Figure XXX is illustrated the breakthrough curve with recycles. Moving along the same line of our analysis, it is found that the result shows that after 2 times of recycling, the adsorption ability remains constant as compared to the fresh alumina. Henceforth, the alumina structure does not become decomposed or is not lost after calcine stage. This shows that the process can reduce great amount of adsorbent cost when it is to be considered for a commercialized (large) scale study. If handled with care, the alumina can be recycled many times.

 

Sample No.
Effluent Vol. (ml)

Effluent Conc. (ppm)

Fresh
Recycle 1
Recycle 2
0
0
0
0
2
1
30
4
0
2
2
60
5
1
1
3
90
1
4
0
4
120
3
7
2
5
150
3
9
3
6
180
7
5
7
7
210
5
4
5
8
240
9
8
11
9
270
12
8
12
10
300
15
7
15
11
330
10
6
9
12
360
9
5
7
13
390
10
12
5
14
420
11
7
4
15
450
13
2
8
16
480
8
9
9
17
510
7
8
18
18
540
11
22
12
19
570
12
14
8
20
600
13
22
17
21
630
425
501
478
22
660
1879
1944
1789
23
690
2548
2640
2341
24
720
3604
3714
3588
25
750
4667
4799
4479
26
780
5111
5325
5219
27
810
5741
5688
5510
28
840
6112
6344
6071
29
870
6666
6798
6547
30
900
7225
7410
7100
31
930
7778
7912
7691
32
960
7989
8014
7880
33
990
8019Kinetic study
8088
7994
34
1020
8088
8079
8048
35
1050
8119
8158
8088
 

 
Alumina is in powder form that is much safer to handle in naval ships. It is not flammable and it will not leak in storage rooms and therefore it has little amount of loss during shipment. According to the consumption rates mentioned in this study, alumina is feasible to be used as a packed column system instead of acetonitrile for extraction.

The alumina which is used in powder form is much safer to handle in naval ships. The reason being that it is not flammable, nor is there chance for it to leak in storage rooms. Therefore, the chances for the loss of it during shipments is of little amount. According to the consumption rates mentioned in this study, alumina is feasible to be used as a packed column system instead of acetonitrile for extraction.