Last updated: February 12, 2019
Topic: ArtDesign
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Abstract

 

The aim of this study is to examine and determine impact of leadership style on employee performance in the food industry of different countries (UK and France) and the two main objectives are: determine the impact of leadership style on the performance of the employees and to examine if leadership style and employees performance are interrelated. The study gathered secondary data in order to discuss and answer the specific objectives stated above. At the end of the study, after an in depth conclusion, it is proven that leadership style has a direct impact to the performance of the employees within the food industry of U.K. and France.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface

 

The only problem that this study had encountered is that the concept of leadership and the food industry is very broad. There are limited resources on leadership style in the food industry in U.K. and especially in France. Another limitation of the data is that the method of research and data gathering is through the discussion of secondary data only.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Introduction

 

Background to the Research

 

This paper will focus on the impact of leadership style on employee performance in the food industry of different countries (UK and France). Leadership can refer both to the process of leading, and to those entities that do the leading. Leadership has been a central, and sometimes controversial, topic in the study of organizations (Adler, 1991). In spite of claims to the contrary, there is substantial evidence that leadership is positively related to a variety of individual and organizational outcomes. Leaders, by their very roles, are responsible for making decisions that help their organizations adapt and succeed in competitive environments. Leaders do not merely impose goals on followers, but work with others to create a shared sense of purpose and direction (Bass and Stogdill, 1989). Leaders primarily work through and with other people. They also help to establish the conditions that enable others to be effective. Leadership is a function more than a role. Although leadership is often invested in – or expected of – persons in positions of formal authority, leadership encompasses a set of functions that may be performed by any different persons in different roles throughout a community (Bass, 1985).
General overview and history of the topic

 

Leadership comprises the aptitude and ability to inspire and influence the thinking, attitudes, and behavior of other people (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Kotter, 1988). Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of other individuals in the achievement of a common task (Chemers, 1997). The major points of this definition are that leadership is a group activity, is based on social influence, and revolves around a common task. Although this specification seems relatively simple, the reality of leadership is very complex. The leadership styles sometimes can make an organizational change be successful or be a total failure.

Leadership style is the pattern of behavior used by a leader in attempting to influence group members and make decision regarding the mission, strategy, and operations of group activities (Levine, 1995). Applying the right leadership style in the right moment and situation is the best approach in effectively managing a change or decision situation. The transformational leadership style is the right one and the most used during the organizational change of strategies, and culture.

In line with the performance management process within an organization, the leaders who will be responsible for the whole process must encourage and support innovation and open discussion of issues and ideas among the members so that challenges may become opportunities rather than threats (Bass 1998). The leadership in a performance management process creates a strategic vision, communicate that vision, model the vision, and build commitment to the vision by being consistently involved in the process of changing. By acting as role models, these chosen leaders must inspire employees to put the good of the whole organization above self interest. In addition, upon the implementation of the change process the team leader must also stimulate employees to be more innovative, and they themselves take personal risks and are not afraid to use different types of methods in order to achieve the collective vision.

 

Provide a rationale (reasons) for its study.

 

It is important that leaders have the sufficient skills to manage the team and know which leadership style is most appropriate for the company. The members of the organization must be informed and trained well on how quality management systems work; thus, mentoring and coaching are also important. Human and communication skills must also be used in management. These skills enable the project members to exchange ideas and work as a team. The use of different types of leadership requires the support of various resources; it needs the effective collaboration of talents, knowledge and skills. Thus, it is important that the task management team recognize these needs and resources and know how to coordinate them effectively. Most importantly, employees should realize that success of the management is not dependent on a single sector but on the company as a whole.
Explanation of the significance and the importance of the topic
This study will be a significant endeavour in understanding the importance of leadership style in a certain organisation.  This study will be helpful to management practitioners for this will be a guide for them when they employ effective leadership style to their organisation. By examining the risks and other factors involved in leadership style, administrators and management practitioners will be able to design measures to minimise the risks. Further, through the understanding of the needs of their employees in terms of performance, this study will help different organization in the food industry to guide their employees.

 

 

 

 

 

Research Aim and Objectives:

The aim of this study is to examine and determine impact of leadership style on employee performance in the food industry of different countries (UK and France). Moreover, this study will focus leadership styles and employees performance.

The objectives of this study will be to:

Determine the impact of leadership style on the performance of the employees.
Determine if leadership style and employees performance are interrelated.
Apparently, a survey is conducted to the consumers to determine what attributes affects their criteria in impact of leadership style on employee performance in the food industry of different countries (UK and France). An interview takes place to know what are their problems and concerns regarding the leadership styles. Finally, this research comes up with pertinent findings, and provides insightful recommendations on the leadership styles.

 

 

Proposed Research Methodology:
According to Saunders, Mark; Lewis, Philip & Thornhill, Adrian (2004), all research will possibly involve categorical or numerical data or data that can be use for analysis to help the researcher answer the research questions.  In connection to this, Saunders, Mark; Lewis, Philip & Thornhill, Adrian (2004; p.327) defined quantitative as a type of empirical knowledge. Actually, qualitative data are described in expressions of quality. Qualitative is the converse of quantitative, which more precisely describes data in terms of quantity (that is, using ‘formal’ numerical measurement).

In connection to this, this part of the paper will discuss the significance of the study, method of research to be used, the respondents of the study, the sampling technique, the instrument to be used, the validation of the instrument, and the administration of the of the instrument.

For this study, secondary research will be used. Moreover, the descriptive research method will be utilised. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study will use the descriptive approach. This descriptive type of research utilises observations in the study.  To illustrate the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) guided the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.

As stated above, this research will partially base its findings through quantitative research methods because this permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This study will also employ qualitative research method because it will try to find and build theories that will explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. Through this method, qualitative elements that do not have standard measures such as behaviour, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs within the health institution domain will be analysed.

Structure of the dissertation

The dissertation shall be divided into five chapters in order to provide clarity and coherence on the discussion of the effects of employee training on the performance of the company. The first part of the dissertation will be discussing the problem uncovered by the researcher and provide ample background on the topic. The chapter shall constitute an introduction to the whole dissertation, the hypothesis, and the statement of the problem in order to present the basis of the study. Moreover, the chapter shall also have a discussion on the scope of its study as well as the significance of the study to society in general and specific effects of corporate disclosures.

 

The second chapter shall be discussing the relevance of the study in the existing literature. It shall provide studies on asset pricing, market microstructure, and corporate finance. After the presentation of the existing related literature, the researcher shall provide a synthesis of the whole chapter in relation to the study.

 

The third part of the study shall be discussing the methods and procedures used in the study. The chapter shall comprise of the presentation of the utilized techniques for data collection and research methodology. Similarly, it shall also contain a discussion on the used techniques in data analysis as well as the tools used to acquire the said data.

 

The fourth chapter shall be an analysis on the tabulated data. After the said tabulation, the data are statistically treated in order to uncover the relationship of the variable involved in the study. With the said data, the chapter seeks to address the statement of the problem noted in the first chapter.

 

The last chapter shall comprise of three sections, the summary of the findings, the conclusions of the study, and the recommendations. With the three portions, the chapter shall be able to address the verification of the hypothesis stated in the initial chapters of the study.

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

The Food Industry in UK and France

Based on Porter’s five forces analysis, companies in the food industry of both U.K. and France sell to a few large customers/buyers. (Porter, 1990) Likewise, the food industry also displays an apparent impracticality for customers/buyers to switch from one source of supply to another. This is reflected by the cost of raw materials as well as the costs of operations. Moreover, the products offered by companies in the industry are essentially interchangeable and indistinguishable. The product could also be considered as a commodity for the retail industry especially in the United Kingdom and France. Moreover, the food industry shows that the cost of the product and service represents a relatively large percentage of the buyer’s and customer’s total cost. Nonetheless, the customers could if desired backward-integrate specifically by acquiring a company in the food industry of both countries. The main players of the food industry of U.K. are Tesco, Sainsbury, Marks and Spencer and ASDA while in France the main players are Cirio France, Coca-Cola, Danone, Grands Moulins Storione, Haribo, Heineken, Nestlé, Oli Provence, Orangina, Panzani William Saurin, Pernod-Ricard, Rivoire & Carré Lustucru, Saman Dole Food, Teisseire and Unilever (Craft, 2004).

Many suppliers provide raw materials to the food industry of U.K. and France. Moreover, companies in the industry are not likely to backward-integrate. On the other hand, it could also be posited that the companies in the food industry are the primary source of revenues for the suppliers. This makes the competition among suppliers more rigid. Likewise, if raw -material costs get out of line, companies in the industry would be able to have a hard time using a different type of raw material to produce the product. The industry is also characterized with the quality and costs of raw materials having a significant impact on the quality and price of the products and services produced by the industry.

Moreover, the raw materials provided by suppliers are essentially interchangeable and indistinguishable (Czemiamska and Potter, 1998). The raw materials are essentially commodities. Likewise, in the food industry where loyalty is also considered necessary, there is also the possibility for the suppliers to forward-integrate. Companies in the industry considered to be diverse in their history and culture and in how they do business. Moreover, the product/service sold by the industry has low storage costs or is not perishable. Nonetheless, the industry is experiencing fast market growth.

The products offered by companies in the industry are essentially interchangeable and indistinguishable (Dick and Basu, 1994). It has also been established that the product provided by the company is a commodity to a major part of its stakeholders. Moreover, it also shows that there are considerable numbers of large competitors that dominate the industry.

In the said industry, companies have high fixed costs and spend a lot of money on plant and equipment. Likewise, production capacity, to be economically feasible, must be done in large, expensive increments. Significant barriers as well hinder companies that want to exit the industry (Gavin, 1993). These include regulations, labour agreements, costs of closing facilities, and the absence of secondary market for assets. In addition, it could also be observed that staying in the industry is of great strategic importance to companies in the industry, probably because they have nowhere else to go.

The economies of scale play a significant role in the cost of produce the product and service. Companies in the industry have low fixed costs and spend relatively little on plant and equipment. Moreover, competitors in the industry are not likely to cut their price to defend their market position. In an industry experiencing fast market growth, patents, proprietary knowledge, and brand reputation are also considered as barriers for companies entering the industry. The price of substitute products is more expensive (Fournier, 1998). This provides the industry a great following. Moreover, the quality, features and benefits of substitute products are generally lower. The buyers in the industry could be considered as a very powerful force. Powerful buyers drive down profitability because they bargain for lower prices, demand better product features for the same price, and play one competitor against another. In the context of the current status of the supply chain of company, the influence of the buyers intensifies. One could recommend for the company to target future growth in market segments composed of small and midsize buyers (Lim, 1997). They are less likely to bargain on price and will often pay more for less. They have less leverage and fewer options than the large customers everyone is trying to attract.

It would also be beneficial for the company to find new ways to differentiate their products that have value to the customer. Even if the product is a commodity, there are ways to differentiate it in terms of the services that surround it. Differentiation can occur from the very first time customers becomes aware of their product to the time when they must dispose of it (Johnson, 1991). Moreover, they should also offer additional services or support to customers in exchange for a larger share of their total purchases. It is also deemed necessary for them to develop services that make it easier for them to work with the company as a single source supplier.

Companies in the food industry of U.K. and France should also combine a reduction in the buyer overall cost of doing business with the creation of switching costs. For instance, offer a lower price in exchange for a long-term contract. Alternatively, the company should link IT systems to the customers to reduce transaction costs and lock them into to the business. Furthermore, the company should as well focus new growth initiatives on customer segments with the best profit margins (Collins and Porras, 1996). They are less likely to beat the company down on price. They should also consider creating a new distribution channel such buying one of their customers, figure out ways to conduct disintermediation processes with those in the distribution channel.

Similarly, it has also been established in this paper that the competition in this industry is powerful, not only for the consumers of the food industry, but also with regards to the loyalty of suppliers. Competitors can drive down industry profitability by cutting prices or offering more product features for the same price (Chowdhury and Menon, 1995). When rivalry is most intense, competitors often compete head-to-head on price. When competition is disciplined and constrained by industry norms, rivalry is weak. In looking into the profile of the companies it is recommended that where possible, they should minimize their investment in plant and equipment. It is advisable for them to lease rather than buy. Moreover it is also recommended that they work to reduce the fixed assets on the balance sheet. They should get rid of outdated facilities and equipment. In addition, these companies should as well help weak competitors exit the industry. The company should make it easy for them to get out by buying up their assets even if they have little value. The value comes in getting them out of the industry and reducing the number of competitors.

New entrants are potential competitors. New entrants are a powerful force in the industry. The easier it is for new companies to enter the industry the greater the competition in the industry. New entrants will often attempt to break into the industry with low prices, innovative products, or new features and benefits (Byme, 1992). When it is difficult to enter an industry, the threats of new entrants is low. In this light, it is advisable for the company to work with regulatory bodies to establish industry policies and procedures. The more stringent the requirements, the lower the likelihood of new companies entering the industry; the cost will be too high. This is one time that industry regulations are good business. Similarly, the company should go after new entrants aggressively. Defend its market and cut the price if necessary. The company should make sure that they are adding more value than the new entrants. Moreover, they should as well form partnerships with key distributors to keep new entrants out of the market. Give key suppliers price breaks or provide supplemental services in exchange for exclusive distribution rights. These companies in the food industry should be growing faster than the industry. They should make new entrants fight for every customer. They should not also become complacent and assume that there’s enough business for everyone.

 

The Concept of Leadership

According to Kousez and Posner (2002), credibility is the foundation of leadership. A leader should be credible for him to lead. In addition to this characteristic, a leader should possess honesty, competence, aspiration, and a forward-looking approach. In the business point of view, good leadership proves to be quite beneficial (Bennis and Nanus, 1985). Good leadership aids in effectively meeting job-related demands, in creating higher-performing teams, in fostering renewed loyalty and commitment, in increasing motivational level and in reducing absenteeism and turnover of employees. Unfortunately, this so-called effective leadership is not that easy to attain (Champion-Hughes, 2001); effective management is not as easy as writing down notes. Good leadership entails a lot of hard work, dedication, and many other factors. However, good leadership should not be a burden to us; we should embrace it as a challenge.

The second practice that was created was to inspire a shared vision—to envision the future by imagining exciting possibilities and to enlist others in a common goal by enticing them to these shared aspirations (Chemers, 1997). However, our company’s dream could not be achieved if the leaders and the managers do not share this dream and their commitment with their subordinates. Leaders must be able to communicate well with their members. Moreover, the indispensable ingredient in a company is not on its facilities but on the social capital and human network. Even if there is the need for a company to have big profit, a great leader should not set it as the top priority; the people in the company should be prioritized (Huffman and Piggerm, 2003). A great leader looks for opportunities by means of searching for inventive ways to revolutionize, develop, improve, experiment, and take risk by generating small wins and learning from errors. Great leadership mans being able to change (Kotter, 1996).

Leaders primarily work through and with other people. They also help to establish the conditions that enable others to be effective. Leadership is a function more than a role. Although leadership is often invested in – or expected of – persons in positions of formal authority, leadership encompasses a set of functions that may be performed by any different persons in different roles throughout a community.

Leadership is the capacity to lead, to conduct, to escort, to guide, to route, to steer, or to manage others. It is a key issue in the development of groups and organisations. The study of leadership plays a crucial role in the behavioural and management sciences. It is generally accepted that good leadership is essential to the functioning of an organization. It may be useful to think of the leadership process as the interaction between the situation, the leader, and the followers. Leadership is behaviour so it is defined as a function of the leader’s personality (Tesone, 2000).

Leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not synonymous. Management functions can potentially provide leadership; leadership activities can contribute to managing. Reflecting based on the above statements made me realize that effective managers do not only administer the people under him/her but should also be a prime initiator of innovation in which tasks and goals of the department and the organization as a whole. As such, managers should be creative as well as discerning when it comes to analyzing and assessing the resources of the company. Developing and evaluating the efficiency of a particular operation strategy will be helpful in maintaining the overall competitiveness of the business organization. In effect, being able to contemplate the factors that will greatly influence the success of the business should be highly considered through objective investigation of the current conditions of the business environment particularly the industry to which the company belongs.

Leadership Style

Avolio (1999) identifies three major leadership styles: laissez-faire, democratic, and authoritarian leadership. Laissez-Faire leaders take no initiative in directing or managing the group; he/she allows the group to develop on its own, as it has no real authority. Specifically, the leader answers questions, provides information, or gives no reinforcement to the group. Furthermore, the leader evaluates and criticizes little, and is thereby non-threatening. The leader allows the members to make their own decisions.

On the other hand, democratic leaders provide directions, but allow the group to make its own decisions. Specifically, according to Avolio (1999), members are encouraged by democratic leaders to determine goals and procedures, and to stimulate their self-direction and self-actualization. Moreover, democratic leaders offer suggestions and reinforce members’ ideas. After offering these suggestions, providing information, and clarifying ideas, the leader allows the group to make the decision. In leadership styles, the democratic leader is in the middle of the styles.

The authoritarian leader is the opposite of the laissez-faire leader. The authoritarian leader sets the agenda, determines the group’s policies, assigns tasks to the members, and makes decisions for the group without consulting them. In the end, the leader takes responsibility for the group’s progress, but accepts very few suggestions from the group. Rarely do the group members communicate with one another, but they communicate with the leader.

 

Kessler and Luthans (1993) have three groups similar to Avolio’s styles of leadership. The authors explained that free-rein (laissez-faire) leaders allow the group the freedom to decide what to do, how to do it, and when to do it; participative (democratic) leaders seek participation of the group in making decisions for the group; and autocratic (authoritarian) leaders make decisions without the assistance or approval of the group.

 

According to Hopkins and Hopkins (1998), leaders should have vision for the organization. The authors argue that leaders sell vision by visible management attention, proactive policies and procedures, recognition systems, incremental change expectations, and shared glory. Leaders should also have faith that in change, the organization can accomplish its purpose. Moreover, leaders should have integrity, an ethical sense of justice, fairness, and honesty, so that the members can believe in their word (Gratton et al, 1999).

 

Osteraker (199) sees leaders as the basic resource for an organization as well as the key factor for a healthy growing economy and supply, which is critical to the survival and further development of any organisations.  Osteraker (1999) further regards leaders in an organization as the life-giving elements in every organisation in that without managers, organizations cannot possibly function properly. Thus, a strong link is noted between a leader’s efficiency and organization performance. It has been recognised that leaders are a significant power behind the progress and successful development of an organisation’s strategy and such success is very much dependent upon their attitudes, behaviour and commitment to their specific responsibilities.

 

The basic tension that underlies many discussions of organisational change is that it would not be necessary if leaders had done their jobs right in the first place. Planned change is usually triggered by the failure of people to create continuously adaptive organizations (Robbins, 2005). Thus, organizational change routinely occurs in the context of failure of some sort. Successful change must involve leaders who initially instigate the change by being visionary, persuasive and consistent. A change agent role is usually responsible to translate the vision to a realistic plan and carry out the plan.

Based on the above-given examples of content and process theories of motivation, manager’s leadership styles play a huge part in the actual application of the theories to the employees. The content theories of motivation provide leaders or managers the necessary items that pinpoint motivation on any individual. For instance, the basic hierarchy of needs theory guides the manager to construct his or her own items of motivation that he or she will apply to the employees. The motivation goals in the content theories will serve as guides to construct effective motivational programs for the company. Content theories will provide the target goals and items of motivation that the managers wish to improve. As far as the claim that motivation theories are not adequate enough to explain how people are motivated, it seems that the content theories of motivation pretty much go against that as they somehow provide goals of motivation to help managers identify how employees or people in general are motivated. Now, the role of process theories of motivation is to help managers construct the process of motivation programs by reminding them of what is important to include in the process. For example through the equity theory, the manager will know that equality of input and output needs to be balanced to avoid envy and misconception of inequity among employees.

 

Employee Performance in the Fast Food Industry in U.K. and France

Modern organizations passed by the guild structures and as organizations grew larger, skills become increasingly fragmented and specialized and positions become more functionally differentiated (Hardy & Clegg, 1996). As such organizations should stress on people approaches which includes alterations in attitudes, motivation and behavioral skills through new training programs, selection procedures, and performance appraisal schemes. Indeed, making a business successful in a particular setting demands crucial and detailed studies and examination of the factors that will generate the best results that will serve the aims and objectives of the company.

 

According to Sims (1998) ensuring employee performance requires establishing a level of competence which the employee should be aware of as a target to be achieved. This is the measure to be used by managers in determining compliance with the standard and in identifying problems met by the employees in meeting the standard. In developing a training program to enhance the productivity of employees the manager will look at the competency problems of the employees and fashion the program to enable the employees to reach and even exceed the competency standard established for their work (Roth, 1992). This requires a great amount of perceptiveness on the part of the manager in determining what method of training will be most effective in improving employee competence. Some of the training includes computer software training, internet-based training and self teaching by encouraging innovativeness in the workplace (Sims, 1998).

 

A considerable number of companies have developed into an essential part of the period of global competition, increasing development, improved business paradigms, and corporate re-organization (Cox and Blake, 1991). The continuing transformation from the traditional industrial framework with its hierarchical companies to a worldwide, knowledge-founded financial system and intelligent corporations, altering ideas regarding the social contract involving employers and employees, an progressively more adaptable pool of talent and a body of workforce, necessitates human resource (HR) purposes to realign and relocate itself in the vicinity of these drivers. Leavitt (1964) had defined three approaches to organization, which includes structure, technology and people. New formal guidelines and procedures like organization chart, budgeting methods, rules and regulations can also be structural approaches on inducing change. On the other hand, rearrangements in work flow through new physical layouts, work methods, job descriptions and work standards can be done as technological approaches (Leavitt, 1964).

 

Modern organizations passed by the guild structures and as organizations grew larger, skills become increasingly fragmented and specialized and positions become more functionally differentiated (Hardy & Clegg, 1996). As such organizations should stress on people approaches which includes alterations in attitudes, motivation and behavioral skills through new training programs, selection procedures, and performance appraisal schemes. Indeed, making a business successful in a particular setting demands crucial and detailed studies and examination of the factors that will generate the best results that will serve the aims and objectives of the company (Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001).

Snell and Dean (1992) stated that skills, knowledge and experience represent capital due to the reason that they enhance productivity. Companies invest in skills training and development to be competitive, but the failure to manage the person trained could be considered a great setback. Employee retention is basically essential in grasping a complete return on investment. Based on the human capital theory, it is imperative that companies invest in skills training and development, but they should also align the compensations and benefits of the person with his or her achievements (Fine, 1996). In the case of our company, there is obviously a lack in recognizing the achievements of skilled employees. Without recognition and growth, there is no reason for the employee to carry on his good performance, or worse, to continue his service to the organization (Snell & Dean, 1992).

 

Motivation can be assumed as the reason or the force behind why a person does what he or she does. Sometimes, it is also a means to make the person perform better and more efficient. Basically there are three assumptions in human motivation established in research (Hopkins and Hopkins, 1998). The first one assumes that motivation is inferred from a systematic analysis of how personal, task and environmental characteristics influence behavior and job performance (Wiley, 1997). The next one infers that motivation is not a fixed trait; but rather it refers to a dynamic internal state resulting from the influence of personal and situational factors (Wiley, 1997). This means that motivation may change with changes in personal, social or other factors (Wiley, 1997). Finally, motivation affects behavior, rather than performance (Nicholson, 1995; Wiley, 1997). Wiley explained: “Initiatives designed to enhance job performance by increasing employee motivation may not be successful if there is a weak link between job performance and an employee’s efforts” (p.263).

 

Mullins (1999) defines motivation as ‘the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviors’. From this theory, Mullins (1999) identifies four common characteristics which underline the above definition of motivation:

 

·      Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique and all the major theories of motivation allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrate in one way or another.

·      Motivation is described, usually, as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the worker’s control, and behaviors that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended, are seen as choices of action.

·      Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are (i) what gets people activated (arousal); and (ii) the force of an individual to engage in desired behavior (direction or choice of behavior).

·      The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behavior. Motivation is not the behavior itself, and it is not performance. Motivation concerns action, and the internal and external forces that influence a person’s choice of action (Mullins, 1999).

 

From the definitions mentioned, it can be analyzed that motivation is necessary for the growth of the employee in the organization. The employee starts his career through learning, basically the culture of the organization and his responsibilities (Robbins, 2005). Motivation is a vital element to learning because if an organization does not possess the ability to motivate its employees, the knowledge within the organization is not practically used to the fullest (Osteraker, 1999). Thus, in every successful learning organization, finding the factors that will motivate its employees to partake in continuous learning and to take advantage of this knowledge, accordingly, becomes their aim (Osteraker, 1999).

As social beings, basic human interaction and communication are considered as relevant needs that should be attended to in the working environment. The rational and emotional aspects of a person enable one to be participatory and reflective on certain
aspects of the operations in the organization. Social interactions are necessary so as to provide for the social needs of an individual. Since people are more than a resource of an organization, their active and contemplative nature will always be open and shown. Aside from the primary needs for existence, social interaction in the form of companionship helps in shaping the character of a person as a quality individual that is capable of doing complex things and acting complicatedly.

Leadership style in the Food Industry of U.K and France

Nowadays, core values and beliefs of different sectors in the society are being challenged and questioned.  Different institutions such as government, economic, philanthropic and even religious institutions are facing inconsiderate and often justified scrutiny for fraudulent and abusive behaviors resulting to tremendous losses, financially and psychologically, for many innocent people.  As leaders try to chart the direction for their organizations, they can not help but face these underlying concerns about their business.

More often than not, leaders plunge into a long-term strategic planning process without first deliberating on certain fundamental questions related to beliefs and values.  These questions are often about the core ideology, values, purpose, envisioned future, vision statement and vivid description of what the business would look like.  Reaching a common understanding about the inherent beliefs in the organization provides a platform for further explorations on the norms of behavior that help define the organization’s culture.  This exploration can also help reveal the impact that the organization’s structure (system) has on behaviors.  By the nature of systems, structure involves how people make decisions—the operating values whereby people translate perceptions, goals rules and norms into actions.  People often focus only on their own decisions and ignore how their decisions affect others.  Frequently, when an organization is faced with moderate threat or opportunity, people began to replace old behavioral patterns with new ways of thinking and behaving.

The relationship between process and structure, change and continuity, is one that has challenged thinkers and practitioners in every field.  From the physics of Sir Isaac Newton and the celestial mechanics of Pierre Simon Marquis de Laplace in the seventeenth century, societies have inherited and perpetuated the assumption of a fixed, mechanical, orderly, regular, predictable natural and human universe.  Even in the anthropology, tradition and its structures and functions remained, and remain today, the predominant interest, outlook, and advocacy of the profession.  Change is still more the exception, the anomaly, and anathema to the old and “good” ways.  The study of social disruption has been unwelcome among many anthropologists, as is disruption unwelcome among people themselves.  Such disruption is then followed by intense, revitalizing ghost dances to restore the lost.

Historically, individuals have been enamored with the ways in which leaders have successfully managed groups of people, organizations, and government toward fulfilling objectives and goals.  Because of our desire to understand and improve leadership style effectiveness and abilities, and the vast amount of literature devoted to the subject, leadership style organizations and leadership style performance have been defined in many ways (Bass & Stogdill, 1990).   For the present study, leadership style is defined as a process of non-coercive social influence whereby a leader guides the activities and members of a group toward shared objectives and goals in an organization (Beer et al, 1984).

There have been various methods with which to measure leadership style effectiveness.  From the beginning of the twentieth century to the late 1940s, research on leadership style was concentrated primarily on the personality characteristics of the individual (Burgess, 1998).  Leadership style research in the 1950s and 1960s focused on the behavior of leaders, with an emphasis on the most effective leadership style .  In the late 1960s through the latter half of the 1970s a more theory-based approach was utilized, with an emphasis on the exchanges between leaders and followers, as well as contingency approaches to leadership style analyzing the effect of situational variables.

Today, leadership style means influencing the food industry of U.K. and France to face its problems.  Leadership style means addressing conflicts in the values people hold–the willingness to expose the internal contradictions within individuals and the organization.  If the leaders of an organization can determine their decision-making principles, and if they can align their decision-making principles with their core values, they can focus the organization, increase performance and productivity, and develop a committed workforce.  Contemporary approaches to leadership style research, however, have concentrated on a blend of variables to explain effectiveness.  Not only does this research emphasize the cognitive effects of leaders on their followers, but also their influence on the organization itself through structural, cultural, and performance measures.  These approaches combined to form a new genre of theory that emphasized a leader’s motivational skills, symbolic behavior, vision, and morality in what was termed transformational effects of leadership style or outstanding leadership style.

Leadership style is an important aspect of task management in the food industry of U.K. and France. As stated by a few authors (e.g. Cohen ; Brand, 1993; Hyde, 1992), task management requires full leader participation and involvement instead of designating individual groups who will shoulder all the responsibilities. The involvement of leaders serves a number of purposes. For instance, this helps in preventing the resistance of employees to changes brought about by the implementation of quality systems. The enthusiasm and determination of the leaders to make the project work can positively influence other company staff. Furthermore, this also helps in creating a sense of commitment and loyalty (Hill, 1991).

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The presence of leadership style in task management is also one effective factor in addressing technical and non-technical issues. It is important however that the appropriate leadership style is used. In task management, transformational leadership style is said to be the most appropriate styles as this allows leaders become more productive. In transformational leadership style, strong personal identification of the leader is involved. Furthermore, the relationship in this leadership style is more than the fulfillment of self-interest or provision of rewards (Hater ; Bass, 1988).

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Transactional leadership style in U.K. food industry, the counterpart of the transformational style, is more on controlling people and giving out orders. This style has two main categories. One is called the management-by-exception where leaders tend to make use of their authority to reward or penalize people under them. Managers or leaders who use this category of transactional leadership style tend to focus on asserting power, pointing out errors and disciplining subordinates with poor performance (Bass, 1985). Contingent reward leadership style is the other category of this leadership style. In this style, the focus is on the communication of work standards and the provision of rewards if these standards are followed. Leaders applying this style ensure that the subordinates know what is expected of them and the consequences should they fail to meet these expectations. Naturally, rewards are given for good performance while punishments are given for poor performance (Avolio, 1999).

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From this brief description, it becomes clear that transformational leadership style is the most effective for task management. Unlike transactional leaders, transformational managers value the interests of their employees as well as matters that will benefit the entire group. They tend to create realistic visions and encourage others to support them (Yammarino ; Bass, 1990). Clearly, there is a direct interaction and open communication between the leaders and the followers in transformational leadership style. Such leadership style is useful for implementing quality management systems, particularly in task delegation, training and project monitoring.

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One of the important purposes of applying the appropriate leadership style is motivation for the leaders in the food industry of U.K. Considering that task management involves several activities, deadlines and resource constraints, it is imperative that leaders are there to boost the spirit of the team members. There are a number of theories that explain how motivation can benefit task management. Thus, with sufficient motivation, positive behavior among employees is observed. This in turn results to positive work outcomes. The motivation given by task managers can then help in making a difference to their project turnout.

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From this discussion, leadership style is clearly important for handling the project teams as this enables effective communication. The active participation of leaders in task management also serves as an important motivator for the entire project team and staff. Most importantly, leadership style effectiveness in task management also establishes a give and take relationship among the project leaders and key actors. Overall, this significant aspect helps in preventing project-related problems and issues.

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While business organizations can apply these customer-oriented strategies in the international setting, certain general factors would have to be considered. These general factors are necessary to facilitate successful implementation of these strategies globally. For instance, the right leadership style approach and skills must be utilized. With the increasing business challenges, like cutthroat international competition and economic changes, business leaders are considered as essential for corporate development and success. In addition, the style and efficacy of leadership style in a business makes it distinct from others. In a number of articles and literatures, leadership style has been recognized as an important element in implementing strategies for business direction (Price, 1995). Hence, such factor is valuable for strategic implementation including those that are customer-oriented. This direction towards progress can be achieved by the business leaders’ potential to integrate innovation, creativity and determination within the operation.

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Over time, the role of business leaders to business development has become more diversified. The traditional belief that business leaders should concentrate on employee motivation has long been transformed. At present, leadership style as a business attribute should also serve as a competitive weapon (Pfeffer, 1995). In order to play this leadership style role, leaders should have certain elements. These include a strong moral integrity, confidence in ones own beliefs and purpose, strong dedication to the business’ goals and vision, above average sense of creativity and innovation, powerful optimism and drive, dedication to the establishment of business competence, strong qualities of teamwork and persuasiveness as well as stability of emotional and intellectual aspects (Goleman, 1998; Hamel ; Prahalad, 1994).

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Aside from the importance of particular leadership style skills in global strategic implementation, literature had also emphasized that businesses should apply leadership style styles other than the command and control model. Specifically, businesses should employ the serve and support model into their operations as a mode of leadership style. In this style of leadership style, followers are provided with a substantial deal of psychological capital and latitude to progress at their own pace (Simons ; Davila, 1998). This type of business leadership style enables the creation of a learning organization. In addition, it also promotes the cultural interest to bring out new ideas, application of new methods and development of modern approaches for business operation (Wishart, Elam ; Robey, 1996). Considering that applying strategies to foreign countries require cultural and social learning, this factor will be helpful for companies especially in coping with foreign investors and employees.

In addition to having the right leadership style approach, the right organizational culture must also be present so as to apply customer-oriented strategies successfully in the global setting. By definition, organizational culture is a manner in which business members are unified by a common standard and goal. The principle of organizational culture states that a certain organization encounters various challenges which the members were able to overcome through established strategies and methods. Having proven that these strategies do work makes it valid for the organizational members to pass it down to others. Hence, organizational culture is commonly defined as the way things are conducted in the company (Schein, 1992).

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Establishing a well-defined organizational culture is an important aspect of global strategic implementation due to a number of reasons. For instance, organizational culture influences the overall behavior observed in the company. As culture promotes the sharing of a common goal between the top management and the employees, the organization and its multidisciplinary teams naturally works in a more harmonious relationship. As the managers and employees work together, the focus of the workers is no longer concentrated on satisfying their immediate supervisors. Rather, they work to satisfy the needs of the other teams in the process. This dynamic motion within the organization gives a more defined role and purpose for each team. Since the teams are held together, their actions are more coordinated.

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With organizational culture, both the managers and the employees are extremely involved in a constant joint effort to enhance the quality of the firm’s products or services at every level – a working relationship that is very essential in global operations. This then involves an impact similar to that of a chain reaction in which, the united goal of the organization to improve its services will eventually enhance their customers’ satisfaction and minimize the firm’s total costs. In addition, organizational culture increases the employees’ sense of pride and self-worth. Hence, organizational culture positively influences the organizational behavior, which makes work teams perform more efficiently (Ahls, 2001).

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In comparison to the local setting, businesses operating abroad are undergoing a much greater pressure due to adjustment needs and competition. By means of creating a supportive and well-coordinated team of employees and leaders, the company will be able to implement its strategies more effectively and overcome various business hurdles.

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Another significant effect of organizational culture is its ability to enable the acquisition of new skills. It also promotes employee familiarization with the overall operation of the business. In other words, organizational culture facilitates the generation of well-rounded employees who are well-equipped and capable of providing newer or better business solutions. The involvement and participation of the employees help in creating team orientation and organizational efficacy. Organizational efficacy is defined as a generative capability found in an organization so as to effectively overcome various challenges, stressors, opportunities and demands most businesses encounter within its environment.

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Organizational efficacy exists as a combined judgment of the individual members of the organization regarding their sense of joint capacities, their sense of purpose, direction or mission as well as their sense of resilience (Bohn, 2001 ; 2002). These effects suggest that organizational culture does help in alleviating the challenge of implementing business strategies at the global level, specifically by means of improving performance, promoting teamwork and maintaining healthy working relations. By means of taking note of both specific and general factors, businesses can encounter lesser risks and problems in implementing these customer-oriented strategies either in local or international levels.

Conclusions and recommendations

Nowadays, core values and beliefs of different sectors in the society are being challenged and questioned.  Different institutions such as government, economic, philanthropic and even religious institutions are facing inconsiderate and often justified scrutiny for fraudulent and abusive behaviors resulting to tremendous losses, financially and psychologically, for many innocent people.  As leaders try to chart the direction for their organizations, they can not help but face these underlying concerns about their business.

More often than not, leaders plunge into a long-term strategic planning process without first deliberating on certain fundamental questions related to beliefs and values.  These questions are often about the core ideology, values, purpose, envisioned future, vision statement and vivid description of what the business would look like.  Reaching a common understanding about the inherent beliefs in the organization provides a platform for further explorations on the norms of behavior that help define the organization’s culture.  This exploration can also help reveal the impact that the organization’s structure (system) has on behaviors.  By the nature of systems, structure involves how people make decisions—the operating values whereby people translate perceptions, goals rules and norms into actions.  People often focus only on their own decisions and ignore how their decisions affect others.  Frequently, when an organization is faced with moderate threat or opportunity, people began to replace old behavioral patterns with new ways of thinking and behaving.

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In looking in the discussions above, one could perceive that the manner of maintaining perfect employee performance in the company in the food industry in the succeeding years constantly differs which leadership style is utilized. In the structural frame, courses of action pertaining to the attainment of company goals as well as the development of the structure molding to fit the existing set of circumstances in the industry wherein these companies operate. It is also stated in the discussion above that in looking into the leadership styles, problems could be solved by reconstruction, specialization and coordination. In the case the human resource frame, it is the leaders of the specific stores that are relied upon in order to meet the human needs of the workforce. It is the efficient implementation of this that the organization and the workforce as a whole will benefit from each other. On the other hand, in the context of the leadership style, the organization is geared towards imbibing a positive culture in the stores of these companies in order to motivate their workforce to achieve organizational goals.

Based on the literatures and examples cited, it can be said that content and process theories of motivation do not just put managers in the task of being sensitive and persuasive, but also makes them knowledgeable about human relations. Developing skills of persuasiveness and sensitiveness do not have the specific aim of giving people harder work, but rather provide the opportunity to provide meaningful relationship with people as well retaining those who are skilled and worthy of the company’s appraisal. Theories of motivation help managers identify variables or items that are important to include in motivation programs. Furthermore, theories explain how they work. The challenge for managers is how to align their leadership style with their motivational approach on employees. The model of leadership can be used as a good framework for such challenge. Based on studies, being considerable to employees is more effective in satisfying them than having an initiating structure behavior. This proves to show that managers are required to possess motivational skill which they can learn by studying motivational theories. However, it does not end to that for they must also polish and align their leadership style and behavior with those skills before being effective in motivating employees.

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