Land seizure by the government
Many foreign leaders find China has a great charm. Kurlantizick stated that in his speech during World Economic Forum, African Development Bank leader encouraged Africa to learn from China. However, when Canada decided to increase its economic trade with China, a Canadian professor warned, “China is a time bomb.”
A time bomb? Probably.
Although I don’t like communism, one Chinese philosophy that never fade in my mind and I often incorporate it into my program design to alleviate poverty is “If you give fish to a man, you can feed him for one day. If you teach him to fish, you can feed him for a life time.”
In times such as today, where governments and firms are cutting costs, rising high unemployment and underemployment, if we want to create prosperity, we have to “Learn from China.”
Culture has its magic. Majority global citizens disapprove communism, but none can deny the charm of Chinese culture and tradition. You are mesmerized by Chinese entertainment and it’s magic. But magic has its dark side.
When it comes to China’s political and economic approach, China represents a sleeping lion. You wake it up, it devours you but at your own expense. Sometimes it is good to learn from experience, after all, experience is the best teacher.
China’s relation to Indonesia was started in the early century where traders went to the archipelago looking for spices and other resources. At the same time, they brought with them their culture, religion, tradition, new technology, and new way of economic trade. Over time, China’s political relationship to Indonesia grew through cultural exchange and education, arm deals and economic and trade. While some Indonesia students adopted China’s liberal economic philosophy, others were mesmerized by its communism philosophy.
After failing in its first coup attempt, the communist groups, led by students who were graduated from China and Russia, reengineered their recruitment effort through community-based approach – a bottom-up approach.
As a newly established country and nation, Indonesia was vulnerable to new philosophy as it was still looking for identity of its own. Facing the influence of this bottom-up approach, collaboration with political parties and military became Sukarno’s strategy. This bottom-up recruitment has resulted in Indonesia to become a communist country outside communist bloc. As he increased economic and military relationships with China, by 1965, Indonesia’s politics was in the poised of cataclysm. Sukarno’s career ended in military coup and communist war.
The country closed its door to China after the communist war incident, but Suharto opened a trade tie with China in 1985 as he was searching for economic growth and more innovation. But Suharto’s career ended ten years later in a civilian coup and religious war.
The rising China is looking for greater economic development and to be more involved in global economic adventure because China is experiencing governance vulnerability, said Professor Minxin Pei.
China’s elites are too focused on their self-interest. “Beyond the new high-rises and churning factories lie rampant corruption, vast waste, and elite with little interest in making things better” (Minxin, 2006, 32).
For some scholars, they perceive that China is the world biggest consumer in terms of energy consumption. For example, in her presentation to Carnegie Endowment audience, Dr. Gallagher gave some statistics about China’s consumption ratio. China consumes 2/3 of the total energy the US does, emits 2/3 of the greenhouse gases, imports and uses 1/3 of oil it imports from Angola, Saudi Arabia and Iran. Quoted International Energy Outlook, Dr. Gallagher stated that by 2015, China would surpass the US in energy emission and by 2030, its energy consumption would surpass that of the US in 2005 alone, she continued, China consume 40% or the world’s coal production that produced 80% greenhouse emissions. In terms of gigawatts of electricity usage, China used 400 gigawatts in 2005, which was the entire gigawatts used by India with its new system.
This argument may be valid because it is focused on cost saving and energy consumption conservation. However, history shows that the key factor of China’s economic success is its human resources even though human rights are the state greatest weakness.
As the number one densely populated country in the world, for years China invests more on its human resources rather than on capital investment. Though heavily depended on human labor, by early 2005, China’s GDP exceeded that of Britain and France and it obtained ranking four in the world economic performance. By the end of 2005, China “replaced the United States as the world’s largest exporter of technology goods,” said Professor Minxin.
Scholars predicted that by 2020, China’s economic performance would be second or possibly surpass that of the United States.
Josh Kurlantzick of the Washington Post said, “While Washington has focused on the fight against terrorism, China has quietly reoriented its foreign policy to emerge as a new advocate of “soft power” — a combination of diplomatic outreach, cultural attractiveness and economic might that helps a nation persuade other countries to follow its lead.”
In politics and leadership management, China has some similarities to many countries – mass corruption, vast waste, and crony capitalism in which “the ruling elites convert their political power into economic wealth and privilege at the expense of equity and efficiency” (Minxin, 2006, 37), state economy is politically managed and human rights is its greatest deficit. The difference is capital ownership.
While in developing, least developed or western countries governments’ capital resources are depleting; China’s government owns the country’s bulk capital and stays monopoly over the most important public resources such as financial services, banking, telecommunication, energy, steel, automobiles, natural resources, transportation, and have tight control over the market (either domestic and foreign companies), most investment projects, and grant land-use rights. Most foreign companies operate in China are in the state of insolvency while the state is not responsible for their insolvency.
I asked a Mei Hwa Foundation leader of Taiwan, during my trip to Indonesia last December, about his purpose for Indonesia. His answer was, “to build a world bank.”
The study will outline the detailed factors that affect foreign investment in China, and hurdles they come across with its dominant domestic accounting standards that does not comply with IAS.
Chinese accountancy has taken new folds in new era. Conventional accounting methods usually underestimate intervention of human intelligence, limiting its insubstantial benefits in the activities of an enterprise. Positive transformation of accounting system implies changes in practical application of accounting accompanied by modification in theoretical objectives. This will include changes in accounting objectives, hypothesis, principles, equilibrium equation, components, computation, assets, and calculation.
China’s accounting system is not competitive to the developed countries. It has deficiencies in auditing (Xiao, Zhang and Xie, 2000). Flaws exist in financial institutions with improper use of accounting assets, false statistics operations, and mismanagement.
China’s previous accounting system was not planned or wisely managed. It was deeply felt to revolutionize accounting system to bring it to the standards of international transactions. By gaining new accounting standards China would be able to compete in the international market. Financial statements if made with proper care and exact recording of transactions will help in evaluating managers’ performance. Transformation of China’s economy from state control to international economic standard can eliminate considerable problems in its accounting system and foreign investment.
Though China has put great efforts in improving performance of its accounting system and standards, it still possesses certain deficiencies and do not completely comply with International Accounting standards (IAS). New sets of accounting standards were implemented in 1992 for China’s Accounting Standards for Business Enterprises (ASBE).
Good quality of financial statements corresponds to the stronger accounting system. However, this was deficient in China’s accounting system and quality of financial statements was unsatisfactory (Ball, Robin & Shuang Wu, 2001). Though the domestic Accounting Standards for Business Enterprises were said to based on international Accounting system, there were many flaws in ASBE and didn’t match IAS in a number of features. According to IAS, inventories has to be valued at cost or market price, however, this rule was not applied in ASBE where unrecoverable values of inventories including properties, land, buildings and assets were not reported in their statements. ASBE had no system of certification for international users to conform that their financial statements are compatible to the IAS or deviating from it. In addition, audit system is in the control of domestic audit firms, who have autonomous status (Lin, Tan & Xiao 2003; Xiao, Zhang and Xie, 2000). The employees of these auditing system is mainly those accountants who had earlier worked for those companies and have developed certain obligatory attitude to do as directed by current managers of those companies, thus, producing flaws in financial documents.
Under ASBE, losses are not recorded in the statements nor they are updated. Decreased values of assets and future cash flow are indicator of economic suffering, and any loss has to be recorded and charged against profit. However, this is ignored in ASBE. Public disclosure of accounting information is diminished by various factors, such as presence of networks among institutional investors (Jensen and Xiao, 2001) and state, close bond in tax reporting and financial reporting with government pressure on tax revenues and ignoring to record profits and losses. In stock exchange regulations companies have to hide their losses and report profits only.
Reliability of accounting system depends on accurate reporting of gains and losses of financial output. Financial information recorded must be correct and truthful. Financial statements must reflect the exact picture of company’s operational activities and financial work. It should be able to compete the international market and reach international standards to attract more foreign investors for up growth of economy. However, China lacks such accurate reporting of financial accounts with forged statements.
China has lack of qualified accounting professionals and its legal framework is negligible. China needs those accountants having creativity and innovation, have systematic command on modern accounting theory, having capability of handling complex accounting system at various institutions.
China doesn’t provide foreign investors with incentives and surety of conducting their business with security. As losses are not included and updated in financial statements, it gives foreign investors a frail figure of investing opportunities.
The Political process in USA involves politics at governmental level in formal institutions and the organized groups. Interaction of both is instrumental for forming the basis of public policies and “and understanding of contemporary politics.” (Grant, 2002)1
How American politics works needs a comprehensive understanding of political process. The electoral selection of the president is the main issue of political process. The political system infrastructure has its deep roots as two party systems. As against to single-party dominancy which would lead to oppression and dictatorship, and multiple party system which can cause disputes and discontent, a two party system seems to be complete and most reliable in dealing with politics. Its stable infrastructure depends on how well-established political parties and candidates are. Its political structure has organized parties which are active in political process. Democratic Party is the oldest one and came into existence after the name Jefferson Republican Party.
Conflicts and violence covers whole spectrum of repression, aggression, injustice in society, violation of human rights, organized crimes, terrorism, guerrilla warfare, abusive attitude, urban riots. Other forms of violence are cultural domination, and symbolic power over others.
“Do we really believe that human reason has the power to create peaceful relations without assistance from biology? Humans share with many animals the ability to cooperate despite the ever-present potential of competition over food, mates, and space. This requires a psychological makeup that allows aggression and competition to be switched on and off, so to speak, dependent on previous experience and current circumstances. Human culture and rationality undoubtedly contribute to the decisions involved, but the switching ability itself is considerably older than our species.” Frans B. M. de Waal
Conflicts and violence has always been the result of competition over wealth, materialistic things, desire for possessions, ruling dominancy and inequality and injustice in the society.
If peace has to be implemented then relationships between two contrasting entities like national and transnational relationships, individuals and their relationship with their societies, foreign and inter-government relations need to be modified. The policy makers must consider the socialization factors, mobilization forms and threats of transformation of tensions in society into violent attitude when designing policies. Policies must not be too simplistic in nature that does not comply with demands of the society. As maintaining peace is an ongoing process therefore must be restructured, re-planned, and implemented from time to time to incorporate new policies to protect the society from devastation.
Organized groups in political process have deep effects on public policy. The purpose of these groups is to have some influence on politics from public side to make positive changes in political system without threatening the government. Organized groups play a vital role in political system. They organize programs, represent, participate in various governmental activities, conduct educatory programs, participate in electoral campaigns, meetings, gatherings, supporting and encouraging people to vote.
Peace builders always work to prevent war and conflicts. To end the conflicts that keeps the communities divided and apart, a great deal of patience and work. The main step to convert violent men into peace builders could only happen if efforts are made to change their behavioral attitude. Central meetings for discussion of peace and reconciliation play a vital role as they have greater outcomes and influences. Peace builders who work for maintaining peace in the society must come from diverse ethnic and religious groups and different political leaders. In addition, advice of those who are experts in reconciliation and peace matters, journalists and those who provide labor in different organizations.
The participation of interest groups’ members is facilitated in political process. Educatory programs are conducted to inform the public about political system, candidates, parties and reforms in the system.
Lobby groups were formed and they also monitor different programs conduction. Lobby groups can convince government at various levels to solve any issue when it arises. They also keep track and monitoring new programs.
The traditional interests groups are formed for the benefit of associations and unions for resolving mainly economical crisis. The business oriented lobbies usually deals with economical issues. The numbers of such lobbies are ever-growing. The public-interest groups were formed since 1960s.
The political parties nominate their candidates for the office and put efforts to win the larger number of votes and then take charge of the offices. Pressure groups on the other hand do not nominate candidates but they try to put influence on the government policies and ‘legislation by mobilizing public opinions.
If the use of power is abusive, it would ruin relationships and dignity of the people will be trampled. Different security measures must be taken to protect different conflict issues, to protect rights of people, different cultural identities and justice. Providing security to humans and their rights is the main theme, that if attained will promote culture of peace.
The diverse nature of the economy and society makes it impossible for the government to fulfill the needs of the people evenly with their own resources. The government policies leave gaps in making an access to people. These gaps are unavoidable in any society and by any government because no government can be perfect. These gaps when sometimes become too vast i.e. when the rights and desires of people seem to be ignored by the government, individuals and groups rise against it, forming what is known as a lobby or pressure groups. But it does not mean that groups are formed always as a desire for helping the people out in getting their rights to them from the government. Groups may come into being for their own interests.
“Some have argued that the collapse of communism and the worldwide movement toward free markets and democracy in the late twentieth century have led to an “end of history,” making irrelevant all those ideologies focused on issues surrounding capitalism. However, these trends do not spell an end to ideology since capitalism does not automatically ensure democracy or other values of the American political culture, conflict over which can, and does continue. This continuing conflict is evidenced, for instance, in the debate over “politically correct” (PC) thinking, a form of academic radicalism which views America as racist, sexist, and homophobic, requiring correction in curriculum, books, and the media to assure racial, gender, and sexual choice sensitivity.” (Political Culture)
The members of racial minorities in USA are also governed by their faculty of reasoning when they make decisions about various political aspects of their life. Generally it has been observed through various surveys that their participation in national level political affairs and activities is tellingly lower that that of their white-colored counterparts. Although one reason for the lower electoral representation can be explained by the fact that a large number of people in the minority have no citizenship and hence cannot cast any cote. Apart from this fact still the turn out in the minorities is less. “But even among citizens, turnout differences are considerable. Between 1990 and 2000, white turnout was about 10 points higher than that of blacks and 18 points higher than that of Latino and Asian American citizens”. [Citrin & Highton, 2002]
Climate may be sustainable or self-destructed. Developing additional resources when they are used or destructed is sustainable development. When Climate causes production of long-lasting natural and cultural resources, enhanced host life quality, and endures business success. Diaz (1997) defines sustainable development as a conscious economic development that would involve “economic, social, and ecological factors in both living and non – living elements combined with the consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of human actions in the short and long term” (Diaz, 1997).
“A global climate model or general circulation model (GCM) aims to describe climate behavior by integrating a variety of fluid-dynamical, chemical, or even biological equations that are either derived directly from physical laws (e.g. Newton’s law) or constructed by more empirical means. ” (Wikipedia)
Yoder (1998) explores the interrelationship between ecology and Climate, sustainable development and globalization. The three major aspects of this paper are the study of small Climate dependent Islands, study of ecosystem and biodiversity in Caribbean, Pacific and Indian oceans, explores the causes of Climate’s impact on socio-economic and environmental impacts. The authors, stress that there needs to be implementation of certain measures to sustain the biodiversity and ecosystem.
The study also explores those countries, which are highly, moderately or least Climate regions. In the last section article proposes the current challenges and guidelines to attain sustainability diamond while touring.
· “AGCMs consist of a dynamical core which integrates the equations of fluid motion, typically for:
o surface pressure
o horizontal components of velocity in layers
o temperature and moisture in layers
· There is generally a radiation code, split into solar/short wave and terrestrial/infra-red/long wave
· parametrizations handle other processes, these include :
o land surface processes, albedo and hydrology
o cloud cover” (Wikipedia.com)
Climate in small Islands suffer a lot in the hands of open Climate, trade and exports with lack of regenerating those resources, lack of diversification, scarcity of resources, inability of self-sustained growth due to low investment and low economic capital (Demas, 1965). In most places income generation is very low due to lack of basic services and high cost of living including transport costs, hotels and food costs. Therefore, such countries are most vulnerable for economic wreckage.
Sustainable development controls the unchecked destruction of biological resources and avoids negative effects of Climate. Every year, damage is done on large-scale to widely distributed resources, while others are disappearing gradually and have extinct from the nature. With sustainable development not only growth, development and expansion of these resources is possible but reservation of existing resources is also possible. With sustainable development expansion of resources with technology intervention, thus producing greater efficiency and progression of environmental development.
In U.S., sustainable development has caused economic growth. In U.S., it has also made possible cost-effective, social and ecological factors to grow and survive. This keeps a balance between economical and ecological development with possible improvement of human interaction with the environment.
Acoording to Model Evaluation the climate models are:
· “The model mean exhibits good agreement with observations.
· The individual models often exhibit worse agreement with observations.
· Many of the non-flux adjusted models suffered from unrealistic climate drift up to about 1°C/century in global mean surface temperature. “ (Wikipedia)
· The errors in model-mean surface air temperature rarely exceed 1 °C over the oceans and 5 °C over the continents; precipitation and sea level pressure errors are relatively greater but the magnitudes and patterns of these quantities are recognisably similar to observations. “ (Wikipedia)
· Surface air temperature is particularly well simulated, with nearly all models closely matching the observed magnitude of variance and exhibiting a correlation ; 0.95 with the observations. “ (Wikipedia)
· Simulated variance of sea level pressure and precipitation is within ±25% of observed. “ (Wikipedia)
· All models have shortcomings in their simulations of the present day climate of the stratosphere, which might limit the accuracy of predictions of future climate change. “ (Wikipedia)
o There is a tendency for the models to show a global mean cold bias at all levels.
o There is a large scatter in the tropical temperatures.
o The polar night jets in most models are inclined poleward with height, in noticeable contrast to an equatorward inclination of the observed jet.
o There is a differing degree of separation in the models between the winter sub-tropical jet and the polar night jet. “ (Wikipedia)
· For nearly all models the r.m.s. error in zonal- and annual-mean surface air temperature is small compared with its natural variability. “ (Wikipedia)
o There are problems in simulating natural seasonal variability.( 2000)
§ In flux-adjusted models, seasonal variations are simulated to within 2 K of observed values over the oceans. The corresponding average over non-flux-adjusted models shows errors up to about 6 K in extensive ocean areas. “ (Wikipedia)
§ Near-surface land temperature errors are substantial in the average over flux-adjusted models, which systematically underestimates (by about 5 K) temperature in areas of elevated terrain. The corresponding average over non-flux-adjusted models forms a similar error pattern (with somewhat increased amplitude) over land. “ (Wikipedia)
§ In Southern Ocean mid-latitudes, the non-flux-adjusted models overestimate the magnitude of January-minus-July temperature differences by ~5 K due to an overestimate of summer (January) near-surface temperature. This error is common to five of the eight non-flux-adjusted models. “ (Wikipedia)
§ Over Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude land areas, zonal mean differences between July and January temperatures simulated by the non-flux-adjusted models show a greater spread (positive and negative) about observed values than results from the flux-adjusted models. “ (Wikipedia)
§ The ability of coupled GCMs to simulate a reasonable seasonal cycle is a necessary condition for confidence in their prediction of long-term climatic changes (such as global warming), but it is not a sufficient condition unless the seasonal cycle and long-term changes involve similar climatic processes. “ (Wikipedia)
Climate in U.S. and sustainable development has caused the modification of biosphere and enhancement of all alive, dead, organic and inorganic resources to add and fulfill the current and improve the nature’s environment. Climate has made possible to value and protect the natural world in sake of to re-grow nature and lessen the human led destruction. Climate has recognized the significance of and intrinsic value in the natural environment by protecting and conserving existence of all other species to participate equally in environment. It has also caused balancing the survival of human and nature by providing everyone with their needs within the same biological system. On the contrary, sustainable development identify the call for to imply limitation in growth of resources and to diminish the disastrous consequences on nature.
“Three (or more properly, four) dimensional GCM’s discretise the equations for fluid motion and integrate these forward in time. They also contain parametrisations for processes – such as convection – that occur on scales too small to be resolved directly.” (Wikipedia.com)
The advantages and disadvantages of climate changes has ambiguity, though the financial trade and industry cost of climate changes have to be calculated in order to gain the full advantage of the climate changes as a climate processes has great impact. The existing economic system in U.S is based on currency low risk investment and immediate availability of financials is not possible. High-risk long-term investment has been discouraged in U.S as it can lead to essential lost of financial benefits. Long-term investment has uncertainty and greater risks of delayed returns. Second disadvantage is that long-term investment has interest rates imposed causing further decline in economical infrastructure. The long period of investment has huge interest rates over long period of time. This causes unnecessary delays in returns and investment are undervalued.
However, the current investment system that has sole reliance in the positive return still has risks in it due to the uncertainty of investment in highly risky and fluctuating volatile natural world.
Research has shown that in U.S the economy of climate processes in the most part also depends on allocating dollar values to the natural assets and the non-selling goods these resources produce. Sustainability of economics can only develop by correctly assigning, spread out and creating a balance between them.
The negative aspects of mass climate changes in small islands including U.S and other Caribbean Island. The author points to the fact that climate changes has been recognized as great way of investment and trade in small countries but it has also brought great destruction due to non-planning, mismanagement, high-volume pressure from outside visitors, inadequate facilities and broken infrastructure makes climate changes in mass devastating and unfavorable for a particular country.
The researcher has thrown light on the facts that how mass climate changes have gradually shifted toward the small Island including those of Caribbean. U.S and others has been the pleasure places for these tourists from around the world. Tourist’s high-volume influx has caused great damage to the socio-economic and environmental conditions. They have produced a lot of negative effects on living and trade conditions of these islands. Mass climate changes have caused deforestation, alteration of ecosystem at beach, increasing population and pollution at beaches and coastal lines, and destruction of reef (Priestly et al., 1996; Williams and Shaw, 1991). This can cause paralyze of life in these areas threatening risk to natural environment. In U.S, making ways through mountains has caused destruction of natural environment and disappearance of wildlife (McElroy et al., 1990). In addition, with growing intensity of construction and heavily build area has destroyed the coastline and beaches. There is also concerns related to the dumping of excessive garbage, mining process, sewage has caused wildlife dangerously at risk.
Climate processes in climate changes needs to develop plans for the protection of integrity of nature to maintain the biodiversity of the nature. It is important to maintain forests and trees as these help stop the emergence of storms, erosions, cyclones, and retain the wildlife. With climate processes it is possible to retain the vegetation at beach, protecting habitats at wetlands, promoting ecological diversity, cleaning the tourist areas of pollution, stopping any pollution development and retain corals.
In U.S climate processes will add reef and sand mining; maintenance of forests will stop storm flow on community residing at lower level. Buffering system is currently balanced at most sea levels and low levels of salt at deep sea. This has maintained marine and terrestrial landscape and maintaining biodiversity.
Investment in Climate processes will include all deals from allocation of rooms to the costs and benefits of ecological system to retain natural environment. Biodiversity and distribution of resources are planned within a system in such a way that resources must be used over and over again and must be supplemented again.
When following certain planned rules, then climate changes in U.S will cause economical and ecological upgrade of life. With technological intervention of the system, a balance has to be maintained in money flow from wealth coming from investors expenses incurred in the development of the ecological and natural environment.
Climate processes in U.S has followed the same past traditional way of resource management. Resource management system works well within the limits and boundaries, however, it needs huge investment and expenses. Intensive and collaborative methods are needed to make transitional model and reserves for biological system, monuments, and recreational areas.
In U.S, various Parks and recreational places are created to draw tourist for investing in science, education, research, and economical purposes. Wildlife reserves are maintained for the study of eco systems and natural environment. Climate processes has caused reservations of pubic property and leisure sites in U.S. The recreational areas are regularly controlled, monitored, and regulated to rebuild the sources to preserve the natural environment. The fragile and damaged areas are to be reestablished by investing more into planting trees, vegetations and grass. It also requires adding sand and mud to build natural environment. In U.S, government is also taking steps to establish educational and cultural resources and institutes for exchange of cultural habits.
Climate processes in U.S has caused implementation of various management models for improving and regulating tourists’ areas and rebuilding them to further attract tourists around the world. However, as McElroy suggested that mass climate changes has caused vast spread destruction of such small islands in the sake of investment and boost of trade links. Though, trade and export has enormously boosted the financial inflow of money in private and governmental sectors but destruction of biological environment needs further investment to rebuild these areas. Rebuilding is important because it will cause further attraction of foreign investors, maintain wildlife and ecosystem, continuously supply of resources and will enhance biodiversity. Wildlife and ecosystems is the main source of keeping a balance between ecological system nature reserves. According to UN, “development is a modification of the biosphere and appreciation of human financial, living, and non – living resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of life” (Diaz, 1997).
Climate processes with climate changes in U.S can be accomplished with equally division and distribution of wealth collected from foreign investors. The profits that government and private sector earns with enhanced trade links must have enough investment to bear the cost of sustaining biodiversity, vegetation of coastline, rebuilding of tourist areas of visit in addition to the food, trade and transportation expenses. As McElroy points, “A final problem is that climate changes impacts are difficult to measure. They are pervasive, involving a series of products/services consumed through time, and they include difficult to quantify cultural and ecological externalities.”
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