Last updated: February 22, 2019
Topic: BusinessCompany
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Leader Power and Politics

Leadership

Stogdill, (1950) defines leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in effort to words goal getting and goal achievement.
Leadership is an influence process, the dynamics of which are function of the personal characteristics of the leader and followers and the nature of the specific situation (Richards and Green law, 1972).
The common thread running these definitions is that leadership is a process where by one individual exerts influence over others.

Theories of Leadership

There are several theories of leadership theories,

Fiedler’s leader-match theory
Vroom’s contingency theory
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory
House and Mitchell’s path. Goal theory and
Agris’s model I and II on leader Behavior.
However, the differing attempts at explaining the concept of Leadership have increased our understanding of the issues involved, thus giving rise to insights into its complexities.

Kazmi (2003) notes that or the basis of the present state of knowledge, it can be said that leaders must:

Develop new gratifies to perform effectively
Be a visionary willing to take risks, and be highly adaptable to change
Exemplify the Values, goals and culture of the organization and be aware of the environmental factors affecting the organization
pay attention to strategic thinking and intellectual activities
Adopt a collective view of leadership in which the leader’s influence is dispersed across levels of the organization
Lead by empowering others and place an increasing emphasis on statesmanship
Adopt a new perspective et power to build subordinates skills and confidence
create leadership at lower levels and facilitate the transformation of followers to leader
Delegate authority and place emphasis on innovation
Leadership Style: Leadership Style comes in 3 Categories

Autocratic Leadership: This tend to minimize the degree of involvement of groups and individual in the job decision making process
Democratic Leadership: This emphasizes a non pressure orientation that maximizes group and individuals participating in decision
Free Rein Leadership: In this Leadership style people assumed to be self-motivated to do their work virtually without Supervision.
Politics in organization is a process whereby power is acquired, transferred and exercised upon others to influence their behavior. Authority could, be regarded as institutionalized power. The concept of power is different from Authority. Power is one’s ability to influence others behavior. Through the use of power, people influence decision–making. It is to enable a person to possess or to deprive him of something that the individual considers valuable. The individual who influences other behavior may be at very low level in the organizational hierarchy. This power is not institutional and hence, legitimate, rather it is acquired by people in various ways and then exercised upon others. Power may reside in unsuspected places. Power therefore, is the potential ability of one person to induce forces on another person towards movement or change in a given direction, within a given behavior region, at a given time (Wolte, 1959).

Sharman (1989), notes, that politics or politicking is endemic to every organization. When people play politics, they get divided into blocs, or camps, cliques or groups. People playing polities are engaged in a contest for power where the ethics and goals of the organization are of little concern to them. They play an opportunistic role and expediency is their norm. They engage in behavior which sustains power.

References

1. Agris, C. (1976) “Leadership Learning and Changing the Status Quo”,

Organization Dynamic, Winter 24-43.

2. Fiedler, F. E. C homers, M. M. and Mahar L.A. (1976), Improving

Leader Match Concept Hen York: Wiley.

3. Heresy, F. and Blanchard, K. H. (1977) Management of Organizational Behaviour , 3rd ed Englewood cliffs, M. J. Prentice Hall

4.  House .J. and Mitchell T.R. (1977) “ Path goal Theory of Leadership”

Journal of contemporary Business, Autum 81-89.

5. Stogdill, R.K. (1950) leadership Membership and organization,

“Psychological Bulletin Vol.52  p 4.

6. Richards, N.D and Greenlaw P.S. ( 1972) Management Decision

Making; Homewood ill ; Richard D. Irwin Inc

7. Vroom, V.H. (1976) “Can Leaders Learn to Lead” Organization

Dynamics Winter 17-29 Cited in Scherer, E. H. (1983) Organisation

Psychology 3rd ed, New Delhi; Prentice Hall of India Pravatee Ltd.

8.  Kazmi, A. (2003) Business Policy and Strategic Management,

New   Delhi; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing  Company Ltd

Sharman U. (1989) Organizational  Behavior Text and Cases,
New  Delhi; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing  Company Ltd