Last updated: July 13, 2019
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A true Leadership has the confidence to stand alone, the courage to make tough decisions, and the compassion to listen to the needs of others.  He does not always set out to be a leader, but becomes one by the quality of this actions and the integrity of his intent.  In the end, leaders are much like eagles . . .they don’t flock; you find them one at a time.

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“Leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specialized goal or goals.”

Philosophy Of Leadership And Communication

Leadership is the quality of an individual’s behavior whereby he is able to guide the people or their activities towards certain goals

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Leadership is the ability to get work done with and through others, while at the same time winning their confidence, respect, loyalty and willing co-operation. The first part of this definition is the same as for management. It is the second half, which highlights the difference between a leader and a non-leader. Managers who possess the quality of guiding and directing the subordinates in an organization to perform their jobs efficiently can be called business leaders. A leader interprets the objectives of the group and guides it towards the achievement of these objectives.

Leadership means different things to different people, and sometimes the most effective leaders can appear not to be leading at all. Good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether, it be motivation, communication or direction. Good leadership ensures success in the organization, and unsatisfactory human performance in any organization can be primarily attributed to poor leadership.  Total performance is the result of a host of factors and not of leadership alone, hence can be evaluated in the light of these factors.

Leadership in Organization

A leader influences others by his qualities, viz. confidence, communicative ability, awareness of his impact on others as well as perceptions about the situation and his subordinates (Prasad, 2006,p.287). The effect of a leader’s background experiences, his communication ability, self-awareness, confidence, his perceptions of subordinates, the situation and the self are shown below:

 

SOCIAL VALUES

 
ECONOMIC

CONDITIONS

 
LEADER
STRUCTURE

 

FOLLOWERS

 

POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

 

Fig.1    Qualities of Leader

[Source: Taken from, Prasad LM, (2006) Organizational Behavior, Fig 26.1 p 287]

 

 

All these factors interact together to determine the leader’s ability to influence others.

Leadership is an important factor for making organization successful. Without a good leader, organization cannot function efficiently and effectively. Since the organization is basically a deliberate creation of human beings for certain specified objectives, the activities of its members need to be directed in a certain way. Any departure from this way will lead to inefficiency in the organization. (Parsad, 265) The leader effects direction of activities in the organization.

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Communication In An Organization

Communication between people in organizations is an important yet often overlooked process. Communication is the transmission of information and understanding from one person or group to another. It requires a two-way effort; both parties to the process must be active participants. Communication can be defined as a process, which links people and systems to produce an effective organization.

Effective communication must occur if plans are to come to fruition, if people are to respond, and objectives are to be achieved. It is essential for the smooth working of all the management functions. Managers are involved in two kinds of communication – interpersonal and organizational (Yvonne, 1999,p.123). The former is a process of sharing information and understanding between two people or a small group: the latter makes use of systems to share information and understanding with large numbers of people. Both types of communication occur at all level within an organization, with people outside the organization, and between organizations.

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Effective Communication Factors in Organization
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The effective leadership, good human relations, high motivation and morale are all depending upon good communication system within the organization. In the absence of effective communication, members of an organization feel themselves to be isolated and unwanted and such feelings create a negative attitude and low morale in the organization. Golden rule of communication should be to communicate as much an you can and to everyone in the organization, expect that information which as a matter of policy need to be withheld. The factors contributing to effective communication are shown in the diagram.

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION FACTORS

DIRECT AND SIMPLE

FEEDBACK

CONTROL GESTURES

CONDUCIVE ATMOSPHERE

EFFECTIVE LISTENING

CAREFUL TUNING

ATMOSPHERE OF TRUST

DON’T TALK, TALK, TALK

DON’T TALK TO IMPRESS

SENDER                                                                               RECEIVER

M                                                              M

E                                                               E

S                                                                S

S                                                                S                 CLEAR

A                                                               A

G                                                               G

E                                                               E

[Taken from Ahuja, 2005, Fig 34.1  p.149.]

The following ‘Ten Commandments of Good Communication’ can help get the message across. 1

Clarify your ideas before communicating.
Examine the true purpose of each communication.
Consider both the physical and the human setting, whenever you communicate.
Where appropriate consult with others in planning communications.
Be mindful of the overtones as well as the content of your message.
Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey something of help or value to the receiver.
Follow up your communication.
Communicate for tomorrow as well as today.
1 Taken From Management Review, American management Association, October 1955

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Be sure your actions support your communications.
Seek not only to be understood but also to understand – be a good listener
To Improve Communication Skills in an Organization
The Leadership on an organization must keep communication channels open. Because an organization requires the cooperation of its members for survival, managers should encourage employee communication. All employees in the organization should feel that they could express their observations and constructive criticisms, both vertically and horizontally. Benefits include improved morale, increased employee participation in achievement of organizational objectives and greater loyalty to the organization (Yvonne, 1999,p.144).

The three effective communication systems prevailing inside any social, or government organization are:

Ø  Committees
Committees could be a most useful communication tool. They are generally long lasting and often a permanent part of an organization’s structure. Short-term committees are often set up for a specific purpose, and then disbanded when that purpose is achieved (Yvonne, 1999,p.145).

Committees, because they are a formal part of the organization’s structure and work processes, can serve several purposes. The most common reasons for their existence are:

(a) For the exchange of information;

(b) As an aid to communication;

(c) To assist in co-coordinating the organization’s activities;

(d) A training ground for managers;

(e) To disperse power, promote democracy; and

(f) Demystify management processes.

Within the committee framework people from different parts of the organization come together. This mixture of backgrounds and skills promotes understanding of role of other parties, and strengthens both the formal and informal communication channels.

Ø  Conferences

A conference can be either formal or informal. It is a meeting in which a group of people with related interests or common problems exchange information. People at conferences learn from each other or through the group experiences.

More specifically conferences are useful for

(a)                Getting group opinion

(b)               Modifying opinion of some individuals

(c)                Helping individuals to analyze problems and take action

(d)               Solving problems through joint thinking and action

(e)                Developing ability for self-expression

(f)                Analyzing situations that involve joint responsibility (Yvonne, 1999,p.157).

 

Ø Networks

Network refers to establishing and maintaining contact with people who may be useful to you in your work or organization. The main purpose of network is to share information and resources between the members. Network can also provide advice and support. They can be formal, or informal, oriented towards career or friendship (Yvonne, 1999,p.159).

Organizations can benefits when its managers have an extensive network of contacts. This means that its key people have a wide range of information sources, and are getting exposure to a variety of management styles, and organization practices. This assists a manager ‘s personal development, enables him or her to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the organization.

 

Global Awareness

 

The entry of multinationals has also brought in fundamental changes in the work culture, work ethics and remunerating patterns in many countries, all of which have a clear bearing on the career growth path of individuals. Added to this are the rapid changes taking place on the technological front, flattening hierarchies and making people come together more than ever before. Competitiveness in business the world over is so acute that survival is possible for only those organizations, which are ready to employ every possible means to increase profit by reducing cost in production, while remaining uncompromising in quality and aggressive in marketing.

Amidst all this change, the high ethical standards of an individual, be it a workman on the shop floor or the Chief Executive Officer, matter more now than ever. The dual ethical standards often maintained by people front-often the exact opposites when it comes of the way they conduct business are counterproductive in the long run. The new authority is emerging and organizations are member led, officer driven, customer focused; a team environment where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; a flat management structure where employees and managers are learning rather than blame; a clear since of direction and purpose.

 

 

 

Benchmarking Outstanding Practice

 

Innovative ways the successful Leaders have managed their human resources to remain competitive in today’s global market.

 

 

There is a need for benchmarking and adopting outstanding practices and processes from organizations any where in the world in order to help the organization to improve its performance. Benchmarking is an on going task at all levels of business in finding and implementing the world’s best practices used my mangers all over the world. It is classical Total Quality Management. The approach used by modern leaders has proved to be effective not only in providing new ideas for change but also in building a commitment to change.

The changing business environment, requiring companies to constantly innovate. Better awareness on the part of the consumers and other stakeholders in the company makes the task of organization managers more difficult. The Leader in the organization  has to continuously ask the following questions.
(a)       How are our HRD policies different from other leader organizations?

(b)        In what unique ways we can add value to our employees, provide motivation and develop internal customers to give their best.

(c)        What are we doing today to ensure that our personal policies are unique and best for the future?

Human Resource Management as process, involving the activities of managers directed towards meeting the following general objectives:

i.                    Optimum utilization of resources.

The main objective Human Resource management is to secure maximum output with minimum efforts and resources. Human Resource management is basically concerned with utilizing the human and material resources available to enterprise for deriving the best results. This leads to reduction in the cost of production.

ii.                    Increasing efficiency of factors of production.

Through proper utilization of various factors of production like capital and labour, management leads to avoidance of wastage of time money and efforts, This leads to increase in the productivity of all factors of production and thus encourages the growth of an enterprise.

iii.                Securing maximum prosperity for employers and employees.

This is one of the main objectives of Human Resource Managements. Human Resource Management aims at securing maximum prosperity for the employers by generating high profits at minimum cost. It also aims at prosperity for the employees by providing reasonable remuneration and other benefits for their services to the organization.

iv.                  Ensuring human betterment and social justice.

Human Resource Management also aims to raise the standard of living and quality of life of people. It provides more leisure and amenities to people. Management provides social justice through its uniform policies.
STRENGTH:

LEADERSHIP IN MANAGEMENT – Leading a Team

The ability to lead is vital to managerial success. Yet leadership is hard to define.  Military leaders are often compared with business managers and other commercial leaders.  Indeed, both types have clear objectives, roles and responsibilities and may share similar qualities, such as vision and the ability to handle a crisis.  But there are important differences.

War is an extraordinary situation, requiring authoritarian leaders to command subordinates to take required action and achieve objectives.

Modern business managers, on the other hand, need to be democratic, creating consensus in their teams on objectives and required action.  Like their military counterparts, managers motivate their team members by encouraging ambition, the desire to achieve and a wish to contribute to the collective good of the business (Prasad, 2006,p.411).

Some managers may seem born leaders.  Most have the potential to develop the skills of organizing, planning, scheduling, setting goals, making decisions, solving problems, communicating, negotiating and supervising.  There is no known way to train people on certain traits to become leaders, viz., integrity, honest, enthusiasm and the ability to express themselves clearly – all of which must be demonstrated consistently so that subordinates may see and subsequently respect them.

Leadership in management necessitates pointing the way ahead; leading from the front is far better than pushing from behind.  While many leaders are often solitary, go-it-along, vison – arises who impose their world – view on others, managers must take their people with them.  They must work with their team, reflecting and using the team’s collective strength as well as employing the strength of their own personal vision (Prasad, 2006,p.412).

1.         Effective leadership
The list of qualities a leader will require are:

Ø  Look for tomorrow’s problems and issues today to detect signs of changes and pitfalls.

Ø  Learn to adapt to change, to embrace it and turn it to your advantage.

Ø  Set high standards as well as clear objectives.

Ø  Think clearly but allow intuition to influence rationality.

Ø  Create a sense of value and purpose in work, so individuals believe in what they do and do it successfully.

Ø  Provide a positive sense of direction in order to give meaning o the lives of team members.

Ø  Act decisively but ensure your decisions are soundly based and not just impulsive.

Ø  Set the right tone by your actions and beliefs, thus creating a clear, consistent and honest model to be followed.

Ø  Keep your composure and learn to wait for the right time to make decisions and take actions.

Ø  Provide an atmosphere of enthusiasm in which individuals are stimulated to perform well, find fulfillment, gain self – respect and play an integral role in meeting the organization’s overall goals.

Ø  Be sensitive to the needs and expectations of team members.

Ø  Define clear responsibilities and structures, so collective effort is enhanced not hindered.

Ø  Recognize what best motivates each team member and work with these motivations to achieve standards and objectives.

Ø  Do not constrain the team but determine the boundaries within which they can freely work. (Prasad, 2006,p.412).

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Fig.5 The effective skills

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[Source: Taken from, Prasad LM, (2006) Organizational Behavior,  p 416]

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Leading by Influence

The manager as leader will have to influence the performance of the network that his company’s becoming, without exercising line authority over every part of the network.

The manager will no longer be responsible for allocating the most crucial resource – knowledge – between people, as was the case with capital.  Without this primary instrument of control, therefore, his authority over actual functioning will necessarily have to be replaced by influence.  The components of this indirect mode of inducing the right action from your people? Fostering trust generating a sense of pride in the organization, and tapping the individual synergies to enable a collective push towards common goals (Ahuja, 2005,p.678).

Leading by Empowerment

As organizations move increasingly towards self directed employees whether they work singly, in assembly lines, or in teams directive behavior, in terms of giving a complete set of instructions to be followed like an automation, will no longer be necessary.  For, that world neutralizes the power that can be unleashed by empowered configurations, and defeat the very purpose of these groupings.  The manager-a-leader must be prepared, instead, to preach the importance of mutual and shared effort in order to bring forth involvement and commitment (Ahuja, 2005,p.679).

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The new corporate world

Building a TQM organization by creating a culture where individuals are free to take any initiative necessary to fulfill quality goals and passionately pursuing open, barrier – less communications, in order to create a suitable working environment for his workers.

When the manager inspires through values, concentrating directly on achieving business results – a high task orientation – will not work.  Instead, he will have to spread the message of people – orientation which involves showing concern for follower’s well- being, status, and satisfaction, thus enabling them to perform their self appointed tasks and meet the organizational goals (Ahuja, 2005,p.688).

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Conclusion

The manager must provide leadership so as to create an urge in the followers to accomplish a desire to improve and willingness to cooperate. The leader must remember that communication is the number one problem of management, any social or government organization, be it Personnel, finance, Marketing, Materials, Production, or general government functions. Nothing happen in organization until communication takes place

Leaders secure cooperation of members of the organization. Managers are successful only when they secure willing cooperation of their subordinates. As leaders, managers persuade employees to work enthusiastically and with confidence. The leader manager initiates action, brings about changes when necessary, convinces the subordinates about the specified goals and persuades employees to work diligently and achieve goals.

Sometimes, individuals fail to recognize their qualities and capabilities. The leader creates confidence among them by his superior knowledge. He provides psychological support and infuses the spirit of enthusiasm in followers by his conduct and expression.

Effectiveness and efficiency of performance depend on the work environment. Effective communication is a good business. In communication what counts is not what people are told but what they accept. Communication should be a continuing process (Ahuja, 2005, p.117). Once an atmosphere has been established is hard to shake it, Therefore there is a need for creating climate of trust and confidence for effective communication to exist in an organization. Leadership aims at creating and maintaining a satisfactory environment for employees to contribute their maximum effort towards achieving the goals. The leader manager encourages subordinates to take initiative and helps them in their personal advancement.

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