“The ultimate measure of a leader is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy”-Martin Luther King Jr.
For past few years, the leadership approach has changed from the concept of classic autocratic approach to the participative approach which is considered to be very creative. It has become pre requisite of a successful leader to display varied leader ship styles according to the demands of diverse situations. The leaders are categorized on the basis and style of their functioning, their areas of proficiency and their functional flexibility.
Successful leadership is concerned with vision, strategy, communication, buy-in .motivation and empowerment. Development of vital leadership is possible only when the uniqueness of an effective leader has been acknowledged and his leadership is in line with change in the market, culture and technology. (1)
The Hay/Mcber (2) research study shows that each leadership style has varied components of emotional intelligence and each style affected the organizational performance and results. A leader should identify that style which best suits the individual and adopt that style to motivate others. Moreover they should understand that
1. Bennis, W and Nanus, Leaders: The strategy for taking charge’ Harper and Row, Cambridge 1985
2. Harward Business Review, March-April 2000
they have to change a different leadership style to get the job done and should also be aware of how to effectively manage a varieties in designing powerful business strategy, motivating workers, directing the team towards the realization of the company’s mission which lead to the achievement of the company in the nature of monetary, managerial and other social goals.
As said above analysis of an outstanding performance of a leader always attributed to the styles or theories which he has been adopted. If we go through the several examples it can be seen that the successful leaders has always paid a deep attention to the styles/theories which is to be followed in their career. For eg: the Prime Minister and Vice President of the United Arab Emirates, and the ruler of Dubai-Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum ,honorifically referred to as Sheikh Mohammed is a one notable leader whom we can adopt certain valuable policies regarding the leadership. Before exploring those policies of his Highness Sheikh Mohammed we shall scrutinize the different theories of the leadership.
Theories of leadership
In Heresy-Blanchard situational leadership model, the leaders do adjust their styles according to the follower ability and follower confidence, i.e. the leaders does act upon
the maturity of the subordinates. This type of leadership is possible by delegating the task
to the subordinates, participating with subordinates and selling ideas and telling the subordinates what to do.(3)
In contrary to this model of leadership Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership effectiveness is group performance on leadership style in which the task motivation, situational favorableness, which mainly constitutes upon the leader subordinates relationships, task structure and position power.(4)
Transformational leadership model focuses on its transformational style to make change happen smoothly in themselves, teams and others in the business. It generates and maintenance a framework that capitalize on people and organizational capabilities. The transformational leadership includes the laissez-faire style, which emphasize on how much freedom can be given to the people who are highly skilled and highly motivated and here the direct reporting can also be done and transactional style which enumerates that the employee works within the rules. It can be seen in large organizations.(5)
Another theory of leadership is Servant leadership theory.(6) This approach creates a
3. Vecchio, Robert, P.,”organizational Behavior” 286-304, Dryden Press 1998
4. ibid 3
5. Bass B.M, from transactional to Transformational leadership 19-31 New York
6. Dennis, R.S Servant leadership theory Development of servant leadership assessment instrument: Doctoral Dissertation: Regent University (UMI 3133544) 2004
certain kind of revolution in the workplace and is exercised by increased servicing to the highest priority needs of others by adopting holistic approach to work. Such type of Approach mainly promotes the sense of community and shared decision making. Charismatic leadership theory is a unique type in which the leaders depend on the persona and energy for success.(7)
Now we analysis the activities and leadership qualities of the ruler of Dubai-Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum and the different theories which is basis of his success.
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum – A stupendous leader of UAE (8)
Leaders establish a vision for the organization and influence and motive people to work for that vision. They are concerned with the system growing and expanding and reaching new levels. They are also involved in innovation and change. The success story of His highness Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum as an outstanding leader in both political and business carrier mainly attributes to this principle of leadership.
Shiekh Mohammed who is the world’s fourth richest royal and the creator of a new horizon of business in Dubai was sworn in soon after the death of his brother. He has initiated the development of numerous success full projects in Dubai. Hotels like Palm
7. Gardner, William L., & Avolio, Bruce J. The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23: 32-58, 1998
8. Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum News, www. EINNews .com
Islands and Burj Al Arab add feather to his cap. Right now he is propping up the tallest free standing building in the world, Burj Dubai. He has started his business career in earlier, even before sworn in. He has promoted a holding company-Dubai Holding-in which he has the share of 99.67% .This company mainly features multi diversified business and investments.(9)
Sheikh Mohammed considers the responsibility is the price of leadership. The responsibility extends beyond the leaders. He opines that while leaders enjoy the privilege of their positions, achievements, successes and victories, they should also bear the responsibility for failure and defeat. But he urges that this failure and defeat should never be repeated so that the leader must have healthy outlook and optimistism, self confidence. They must be able to achieve objectives based on reality. Moreover a successful leader always takes care of his helpers and followers and they will try to teach them boldness and wisdom and inspiring them with daring and courage.
He always broadened his views on the relationship of economic and political field. According to him economically strong are politically strong and the economically week are always week in respect of politics, culture and civilization. (10)
He is the adamant speaker of knowledge economy which, in his opinion the reason for the achievements in the developed countries and such countries is always
9. BBC Report 5 Jan 2006
10. Speech by Sheikh Mohammed in Young Arab Leader Forum 3 Dec. 2005
related to the educational level of the citizens. A competent person is always weighed by his ability to work together with his fellow beings and should follow the rule “win for all” There is no alternative to working together for success of the venture .According to him the age of knowledge leads to a speedy, economic, political, social and cultural changes which is crucial to a leader. They help the leaders to implement the chances of continuous development, social activity, security and stability on both national and international level.(11)
Apart from this, the illustrious nature of Shiekh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum in rendering charitable function invited the world attention. In 2007 he offered $ 10bn USD for an educational foundation in Middle East which has been taken as the world’s largest charitable donation ever made. He believed that the development of educational foundation will remove the barriers between the Arab region and developed countries. Another venture was “Dubai Care” in which he urged that people to contribute money for the education of children in poor countries.(12)
From the above discussion it can be seen that Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum , has adopted the approach of Transformational leadership style to make change happen not only in him but in others also. He wants other people to grow up with core values with an integrated purpose to a forceful environment. He speaks for getting
11. Speech by Sheikh Mohammad in World Economic Forum in Dalian, 6 Sep 2007
12. BBC News “Dubai ruler in vast charity gift “19 May 2007
things done within the stand of the existing situation, the main feature of transactional leadership.
Moreover we can analyze that the approach of servant leadership has been adopted by Sheikh Mohammed in his views to the extent of encouraging everybody to contribute to the prosperity of organization but only difference is the contribution by the people to the nation by way of knowledge economy.
So here it can be seen that Sheikh Mohammed’s views always concerned with proliferating other’s strength, elucidating accountability, power and liability in way people develop admiration and esteem, identifying change and handling it with skill, encouraging and stimulating people etc. So it is not wrong to say that there is a charismatic approach in the leadership of Sheikh Mohammed. He believes that the leaders who doesn’t have leadership qualities would will fall short of expectations and it will result a repeated failure in all sectors.(13)
Transformational theory, Charismatic Theory and servant leadership theory are similar in its aspects like, influence; obedience, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation which constitutes its positive impacts etc. But these features may cause negative effect on such approach of leadership. Strong obedience may lead to the blind
13. ibid 10
belief of the person who the people think right, whatever he does it will be right for them. Loosing reality, insensitiveness to others and lack of accountability is other kind of drawback of these leadership styles.
It is imperative for a leader to choose the right leadership style that make great sense in today’s brutally competitive business terrain and contribute to the prosperity of the organization by harmonizing the leadership style with the changing business environment. Leaders should establish a vision for the organization and influence and motivate people to work for that vision.
Books and Authors
1. Bennis, W and Nanus, Leaders: The strategy for taking charge’ Harper and Row, Cambridge 1985
2. Bass B.M, from transactional to Transformational leadership 19-31 New York
3. Dennis, R.S Servant leadership theory Development of servant leadership assessment instrument: Doctoral Dissertation: Regent University (UMI 3133544) 2004
4. Gardner, William L., & Avolio, Bruce J, The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23: 32-58, 1998
5. Vecchio, Robert, P.,”organizational Behavior” 286-304, Dryden Press 1998
Journals and publications
6. BBC News “Dubai ruler in vast charity gift “19 May 2007
7. BBC Report 5 Jan 2006
8. Harvard Business Review, March-April 2000
9.www. EINNews .com Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum News,