Learning and developmentThe authenticity of the integrations between learning and development and the broad management functions remains rationally argumentable.

  However, every human resource management in an organization should not overlook the role which will be played by such integration.  At the short run implication, learning and development integration to the human resource and capital will provide managerial standards for the support of high standards and condition of the management.  However, since human resource management is a subset and an independent variable of the general business management activity, every threshold behind this strategy will help to improve the business activity hence meet the goals and objectives for the organization.Conventionally, learning and development is the interventions strategy whose intention is improving the skills as well knowledge of learner’s level of skills and also knowledge.  Learning will involve a focus on the various changes that occur to the learner within a specific time period.  Elsewhere through learning, the individual learner will be able to gain particular knowledge as well as attitudes and skills. (Levine, 1995, p.43) The development process relates to the interactive phenomena by a learner with external and internal environment.

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  Human development process is a substantial variable which operates in aspects of human resource management.  Through development, the organization will be described in terms of how it undergoes in managing its activities (Hesketh, 2002, p.1)Learning and development is highly important to an individual as it helps in the maintenance, improving as well as broadening an individual’s skills and also knowledge which helps in the development of the various personal qualities which would be required in their respective professional qualification.  Through learning and development, these individuals will thus develop a commitment to the relevant skills allied to both professional and personal competence. (Donlevy, 2006, p.

1) It thus helps in a conscious update portfolio of an individual’s professional knowledge above providing the same professional competence improvement during the working period of an individual.  Learning and development helps in providing a personal professional commitment, with updated processes of its improvement.  Through the modalities of L and D, an individual optimises his/her career opportunities to affect both short run and long run influences. (Hall, 1995, p.1)  The learning process is continuous irrespective of and individuals age bracket.  It is aimed in playing roles in the professional outlay through improving the individual’s professional competence.  The basic aim of L and D is an individual development through improving the personal performance which helps to enhance the person’s career progression.  L and D is beyond the frontiers of the formal training to persons at their professional dispositions.

(Mcgill, Brockbank, 2004, p62) It is aimed at improving the standards state of professionalism and the person’s competence in a particular area of concern.  The learners will be actively provided with the need of an active responsibility in his career choice.However, L and D is personal oriented and only helps at understanding and improving the knowledge status on professional competence.  In the current status of changing social structures and business management, the impacts of L and D should be integrated with the broad management functions within an organisation which may include reward/ motivation system, employee relations and managing people at work.

(Pribram, King, 1996, p.24) In such integration, the concept of organisation behaviour becomes the cornerstone of this integration process.  Ideally, organisational behaviour seeks to establish how individuals/ workers with their professional competences interact with one another in their work places in helping the organisation achieve its goals and objectives.Broadly therefore, L and D as  a process of acquiring professional skills and knowledge, can only optimally bring such is the organisational portfolio when its facets are employed in the reality of formulating employee relations, improving workers productivity and developing employee and organisational process reengineering. (Rees, 1998, p.

35) The integration process of L and D output into the management functions and process therefore embodies the scope with which this concept can be used in the fundamental conception of the workers relations at the organisations. (Van Der Heijden, 2004, p.1)With individuals embodied with the relevant professional and career skills and knowledge, they are easily adaptable to standards which improve their scope of integration with the general human capital environment within their organisations.  The integration process between L and D and the management functions will therefore relate to the frontiers with which the professionally competent personal can actively be involved in standards which provide the most adaptable human capital relation within the organisation. (Restine, 1997, p.1) Unless collaboration is made between the human capital related functions in the management process and the L and D efforts, the two issues will be at a sub-optimal state.  Disequilibrium will therefore develop on the relationship of the management factions of the human capital developing within the organisation and the L and D implications.

(Sims, 2002, p.43)The integration process is therefore a clear and well defined interactive phenomenon between the two conceptions in the internalisation process of achieving the organisation goals and objectives.  This will therefore involve a coordinated outlook of the human resource management activity of using the high qualified personnel in organisational management functions which includes employee relations, and management of people. (Key, 1995, p.56) On another perspective, the integration process will involve the use of L and D as tool of propagating efficiencies of the human capital within the organisation.  Trough an endowment factor of professionalism and competence to the workforce, standards of promoting and facilitating a support for workers involvement in the management process is provided.

From another point of view, the integration process will instrument standards with which the professional competent personnel can now be aligned in the process that promote management functions.(Moon, 2002, p.67)  Through human resource management department in the organisation, the human capital management process employs the basic tool of using rational functionalities which provide the most optimal interaction and role play of the workers within the organisation.  Every adequate management of workers’ behaviour helps to promote a functional organisational behaviour.(Lindstrom, Benz, 2002, p.1)  Through the support of authentic (positive organisational behaviour), the goals of the organisation are adequately achieved through the basics of conditions that promote personal interaction.  Adequacy in organisational behaviour promotes employee relations through sound motives and favourable organisational micro-climate, motivation of workers through rewarding system and the general requirements of people management. (Hambrick, 1991, p.

41)Generally, L and D help to produce human capital output which is well acquainted of their requirements at the workplace.  The learners are provided with an environment for initiating the most adequate professional standards at their work place.An adequate portfolio of business strategies should compound the framework support for achieving business goals and objectives.   Business strategies are the tools and adaptations applied by the business organisation(s) to help them meet their market intentions.

(Mailick, Stumpf, 1998, p.67) In goals and objectives, business strategy support aims at using various devices and tools for the support of success through optimal costing and high revenue development.  At one level, the integration process between L and D and business strategic support should never be compromised.  However, the integration process between the two is seldom applicable through the general standards which help to increase the status of the human capital.

(Reinninger, Hidi, Krapp, 1992, p.57)Like a generalised impaction of L and D, the learner is equipped with basic skills and knowledge about his professional conduct.  This helps to develop professionalism and career upgrading by the workers.  Conventionally, human resources management is amongst the individual management facets that defines the broad array of business strategy.  Since L & D is an independent variable of human resource management, the same will also become a subset independent variable of the business strategy.(Tjepkema, et al, 2002, p.78)  The integration process of L & D into the business strategy has its fundamentals originating from the role played by the human resource management in developing business strategies.

Generally, role of employees/ human capital is highly placed in the analysis and investigation of costing parameters towards rationalising business strategies.  However, every activity that improves human capital management (such as the L & D) helps to strategise on improving the general business activity.  (Neely, 2002, p.50) However, high qualification of organisational workers helps to improving the activity (role performance to the organisation).  Through L & D, workers are endowed with standards that facilitate high functionality in service delivery by the workers.

  As a basic management tool, high functionality by the employees is a tool which helps in optimal costing parameters. (Nota, Wilson, Ross, 2002, p. 1)  Therefore, L & D will improve the functionality of the employees who will have high productivity/ increased productivity by the employees as a resource factor in the business environment which helps to rationalise on the optimal, costing standards.  Optimal costing helps to provide low costing level at a high level of productivity.  Therefore, the integration phenomenon between L and D and business strategy has its arms operating from the human resource management as a cornerstone.

  A well informed and competent employee fraternity is the basic tool of rationalising for a support of business strategy in meeting the goals and objectives of the organisation. However, the integration process both to management functions and business strategies has various impacts on both internal and external environment. (Bendick, Egan, and Lofjelm, 2001, p.1)Through a well integrated network into the basic facets of the business, the general environment operating within and outside the organisation is impacted.    The impact to the internal environment is synonymous to the influence to the internal structure of the organisation.

  Either, external environment is allied to the stakeholders allied to the business.  Firstly, internal environment commensurate with the level with which the internal structures of the organisation are affected. (Guglielmino, Murdick, 1997, p.1)  The integration process provides great refuge of rationalizing into the well-being of the internal business environment.  This equals the internal management layout which is highly provided with a high support for its sustainability.  Generally, this helps to improve the level of organisational behaviour which determines the level and capacity with which the employees interact with one another and the internal structures of the business.

  However, the integration process does a lot in defining the standards with which the employees interact with one another.  Organisational behaviour defines the level and scope of internal management.  Through the tools of internal management, it helps to functionalise the relationship between the workers and the internal structure of the business which include all worker supported departments and managerial tools.  This is the most important tool in defining the scope and functionality of the organisation.At the external environment, the integration helps to determine and influence the structural support between the organisation and the external stakeholders.  These include customers/ patients, the shareholders, business financiers and others.

  Generally, a positive impact is created with the general fundamentals of the integration to the outside environment. When the general scope is positively functioning, the various business stakeholders are benefited with the resource factor of the favourable business micro-climate.  The trickle down benefits of the integration process meets the needs of stakeholders thus avoiding the start and development of conflict between the different stakeholders.This promotes the role played by each towards the business success hence helping to improve the conceptional framework and conduct of the business.

  Through rational integration of L and D with the business functions and the business strategy, the external environment/ business stakeholders are provided with the legitimate personality for adequate business conduct. They will actively involve themselves into undertaking the right business activities. (Jakupec, Garrick, 2000, p.80)The integration process between L & D and the business strategy and the organization functions helps to reduce the autonomy of the conflict which exists between the internal and external environment.  Unless the organization activities are preformed by personnel of high integrity and competence, there will be sub-optimal occurrences in such activities which yield to conflict in the social structures of business.

    However, adequacy in this integration provides authentic tools and support standards that will positively influence harmonious functionality between the internal business management environment and the external stakeholders and structures to the organization. (Gibson, Pick, 2003, p.97)Generally, L & D integration with the business strategy seeks to formulate the rational methodology in which the influence of the L and D affects the organization in the strategic support of its activities.  Since the business strategies are rooted on fundamental management tools, it’s only through human resource/capital management which benefits from the effects of learning and development as providing knowledge and skills support to the learners.

  Through L & D, the HRM department will get fundamental strength above the development in highly proactive basis of support of the organizations achievement in its goals and objectives. (Evans, Hodkinson Unwin, 2002, p. 108)Summarily therefore, the process of integration between L and D, the business functions and the business strategy is a foremost activity which helps to promote adequacy in the business activities within the scope of both the internal and external business environment.

  This helps to facilitate a standard for maximising the methods used for meeting the goals and objectives of the organisation.  Business management process should formulate standards with which learning and development should be ideally captured in the broad management process.  It should be in the view of the role played by workers competence and professionalism which helps to improve their productivity through high quality output and the economies allied to optimal costing.

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