1. Life in the age of machinesLife in the age of machinesBackground of the Industrial Revolution* Meaning of “Revolution”* Political Sense: means the overthrow a authorities by force * E. g. the Gallic Revolution. people in Paris overthrew the absolute male monarch. Louis XVI and started a republic * Socio-economic Sense: means great betterments in people’s life conditions or ways of making things * What was Industrial Revolution?

* Begin in Europe in mid-18th century* Improvements were made in countries including industry.

energy. conveyance. communications.

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medical specialty. scientific discipline * Change people’s life* Besides called the Age of Machine2. Cause of the Industrial Revolutiona.

Scientific developments* Western scientific discipline greatly developed in Renaissance and the Age of Reason * Important innovations and developments were made * This laid the foundation for the Industrial Revolution B. Abolition of trade bounds

* Privileges of the aristocracy ended with the diminution of feudal system * Markets were no longer monopolized* This encourage changes in production methods to run into the lifting demand for goods c. Rise of population* Population continued to increase in the eighteenth century * Labour was plentiful. so this helped develop industry and trade * Rise of population besides brought a lifting demand for goods * This encourage changes in production methods d. Development of universe trade

* New trade paths to the East were discovered in fifteenth century Europeans states started set up settlements in eighteenth century * Acquired natural stuffs from their settlements and abroad markets* Trade grows and demand rose
e. Accumulation of capital* Developments in trade allowed merchandisers roll up big sums of capital * They have more money to invested natural stuffs. machines and mills