IntroductionToday, soccer is among one of the sports that is liked by many people in the world. Many people all over the world spend at a lot of time and money to watch soccer. It is estimated that for example, it is estimated that world cup matches are watched by more than 2 billion people around the world. Globalization has helped the growth of soccer so much allowing many players from different countries and even continents to play in competitive European leagues. Currently, in Europe soccer is highly appreciated and has lots of fans. Soccer as developed to be more professional and business oriented. With clubs offering very high salaries to players and at the same time the leagues all over the world becoming competitive. There is also increased marketing through promotions and advertisement that has highly popularized the game.
In Turkey, soccer has real been improved and today it is highly rated in the country. (Enjoy Turkey 2007)How soccer is supported in Turkey;Good soccer cultureThough, turkey does not have a strong tradition soccer culture as Brazil, or England, the Turks like soccer so much. In turkey soccer fanaticism began with the national soccer league championship. The country has several soccer teams the main ones being Galatasary, Fenerbahnce, Besiktas and Trabzon.
Each year there is national championship which provides the soccer fans with an opportunity to watch there favorite teams. The championship normally takes place in the capital which is Istanbul; every particular team has its own soccer stadium where its home fans and those visiting come to sit while watching soccer. The tams financial ability contributes a lot in how well and big the team’s stadium will be. (Hitit, 2004)Government policyGovernments plays important role in encouraging the growth of sports and especially, in soccer. Good government policies on soccer allow the sport to develop and to be run both smoothly and professional.
This of course has been known to enhance the popularity of the game. Turkey is among one of the countries in the world that has an act which is correlated to sports in the country constitution. In the recent past the investments that the government has placed in sports is paying up with improved performance of sporting teams especially the soccer team. In turkey, sports are encouraged by the government through supporting the teams by aiding them financial to ensure that they attain their financial obligations.
(Enjoy Turkey 2007)For example, article 59, of the turkey constitution states; the nation takes steps to increase the physical and also the mental health of the citizens of turkey of all ages and also encourages spreading of sports among the population. The nation looks after successful athletes. Sporting activities has continues to become more essential in the country and the passion of many sports especially soccer has increased with time. The government highly encourages sports in masses as one of important social activities that can also improve both the physical and mental wellbeing of its population. The government is taking on improving all types of sports. However, currently the private investors are making contributions to the sporting activities. (Enjoy Turkey 2007) The main target of turkey’s sports policies are to increase the number of athletes in the country, to achieve higher success in the international competitions, and to prepare appropriate sports atmosphere that can encourage and provide every individual with an opportunity to engage in sports. The turkey government in most cases put up large sporting facilities.
Out of the total 2574 sports amenities in turkey, only 261 are owned privately, the remaining are owned by the state. (Enjoy Turkey 2007)In turkey, the Directorate General of Youth and Sports is the most high sports organization in the nation. The directorate general was formed way back in 1938 and has provincial directories which perform its duties in turkey’s 81 provinces. The directorate has a total number of 6,499 staff who are working in the different fields performing different duties, these personnel includes, coaches, provincial representatives, referees, observers and many more. (Enjoy Turkey 2007)Each year the prime minister formulates a sports education plan in accordance to requests brought forward by the provincial directorates of the youth and sports and also the from the federation chairpersons and organizes who are coaching and monitoring various course and seminars for the purpose of training and educating the athletes needed. The most important objective of the Directorate General of Youth and Sports is to avail all citizens with facilities to develop their health through sports.Using professional coachesThe government in its effort to enhance soccer in the country has undertaken to bring in professional coaches in the country to coach the national; this has improved the success of the team and also the popularity of the team.
For example, Senol Gunes who was appointed by the national soccer team body, to train the team for the world cup which was held in 2002. He took to team to the third position in the world cup competition, a position that the team had never reached before. (Enjoy Turkey 2007)On the other hand the local teams also have employed the services of foreign coaches and plays who have highly improved the level of soccer in those particular teams. Foreign players bring in soccer tactics and techniques from their countries which are used to be incorporated in the local teams to enhance its technical abilities. More so these foreign players are normally a big attraction for fans and more fans come in to watch them playing those improving the standards of them soccer. Some good examples of coaches and plays that play or have played in turkey teams includes, Tafarel, Parreira (both played for Atletico in Brazil) and also played for Fenerbahce in Turkey, Ceaser Prates (played in Palmares at Portugal) now playing Galatasaray. (Enjoy Turkey 2007)Developing youth soccer programs and soccer academiesEach person in turkey likes soccer; in fact many people all over the world are crazy about football. In turkey every child has a soccer ball and tries to play it.
Walking around you will see children playing with their balls in the yard or in the field. It does not mater if they are playing an actual football game or just kicking the ball. As it is noted soccer fan is contagious and highly attracts children together to come and enjoy the game. It is this spirit of liking soccer that is making many parents allows their children to play around and even buy them the soccer balls to play with. The government in turn has taken on developing youth soccer programs to develop the soccer talents of the children.
Soccer academies have also been built in order to tap and developed soccer skills of the young children. (Hitit, 2004)Soccer marketingSoccer marketing in Turkey has highly developed with teams selling everything from the team shirts, teams, football, caps banners scarves and other items that highly help in marketing of the teams. Marketing highly supports soccer in teams as they earn a lot of revenue from that. Soccer marketing is highly supported by the government as the government does not tax the team products and instead gives the tax exceptions to ensure that the teams get good returns from the products. The government also helps in the marketing of the products in other countries through the ministry of sports, and also tourism by promoting the teams in other countries.
(Hitit, 2004)Competing in world competitionsEver since turkey came third in the world cup soccer competition is 2002, the country witnessed a renew soccer fanatic by its population. There was a big welcoming party to welcome the team back from the competition showing how joyful the soccer fans were. Thousand of fans arrived to commemorate the return of the team and this showed how much the Turks liked their team and soccer in general. However, the most exceptional achievements of turkey in the world of soccer still remains the UEFA Championship wining of Galatasaray in the year 1999-2000 season. The team challenged the most powerful teams in Europe and went on to beat the English team arsenal 4-1 in the final to lift the trophy. It is important that the team never lost a game in its route to lifting the trophy. (Hitit, 2004)Galatasaray one of successful teamsOne of the most successful clubs in turkey is the Galatasaray team which has enjoyed success not only in turkey but also in Europe as a whole.
The team was formed in 1905 and has a lot of fans in the country and in some parts around the world. Galatasaray success was witnessed in the late 1990s which saw the club win the UEFA cup together with the European Super Cup to become the first Turkish soccer club to have won the prestigious European trophy. The success of the team can be attributed to the one of the best turkey’s home grown players at that period. The players helped turkey national team to reach the quarter finals of the UEFA Euro 2000 and also finish in the third position in the world cup competitions of 2002. The club is also the only team to have won four trophies in the same season which were; Turkish league title, Turkish Cup, the UEFA Cup and UEFA Supper Cup. (Galatasaray 2007) Galatasaray team celebrating their UEFA Cup win in 1999/2000 season (picture retrieved from www.
enjoyturkey.com American footballAmerican football which is known as football in America is a very competitive sports which is well known for its physical nature though, it is very much strategic game.American football is the most popular sports in America have been popular ever since 1972. In accordance to Gallup Polls done, American football popularity continues to grow; the number of fans for the game is continuous to increase. Studies show that current the TV viewer-ship of American football is up and the rating surpass those of any other sport.
In America the national football league championship and also the super bowl are among the biggest social gathering occasions in America today, it is at times refereed to as not official national holiday. (Wikipedia, 2005)American football is an all day event with has legendary half time, as in Las Vegas style, a show that marks top celebrates. The game offers the many fans watching the game from their homes opportunity of enjoying the game from their homes.
The super Bowl football game is given premium screening coupled by a collection of highly innovative and also humorous advertising shots. Competition for advertisement is so hearty just like the real competition being played in the field. The American football is gaining popularity in other parts of the world and the popularity is growing in popularity in other countries. (Answer 2005)Image showing how the game is played, it can be seen in the image how physical the is from the picture; source; (Wikipedia 2005): http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki;)Creation of college teamsIn order to develop and support American football in the country, there is a well developed and competitive, college football that is very popular in the colleges and universities in America and even North America. Almost all colleges and universities have football teams, no matter how the college or the university may be it has to have a team. The football teams play in stadiums and the most popular ones fills the stadium with a capacity of more than 60,000 fans. A good example of popular college and university stadiums are Penn State’s Beaver Stadium, Michigan Stadium for The University of Michigan, Neyland stadium for the university and the Ohio stadium for the university of Ohio which has a capacity of 100, 000 fans and it is normally full to capacity. There are various tournaments organized between the colleges and the universities which run through out the year. Football is mainly the main source of revenue for sporting programs of universities and colleges both private and public. (Wikipedia, 2005)Football is also played in schools although the schools have small teams and small fields which are not as big as the ones for colleges or universities.
However, school teams are well organized and at time attract as much as 10,000 spectators. Having a competitive college university league goes a long way in improving and developing the level of football in the United States. The government supports the schools by giving them sports’ grants and aid to develop the sport. (Articlesuniverse, 2006)The above image shows students playing football in one of the university championships (Source; (Wikipedia 2005): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki;)Developing youth leaguesIn American, football is played by the youths as a recreational activity by amateur players and youths teams. Youth leagues includes leagues like American Youth Football and also Pop Warner little league.
There is also various “semi-pro” youth teams, where plays are paid when they play in the league. This has been known to nurture the skills of the youth in accordance to football and create future players. (Articlesuniverse, 2006)Organization of leaguesThe football is organized in leagues which allow different ages of people to play in various specific leagues. The leagues are played in all regions of the country; however the game is mostly played by men. Though, in the recent past there semi professional women’s league has been introduced for women players. The leagues helps to develop the game as only well managed and professional leagues can ensure tat smooth running of the game which in turns ensures that football in American is well developed.
Various national bodies such as the National Football League NFL manage the professional leagues and run the game professional. This ensures that the game is well improved and enhanced. (Wikipedia, 2006)Employing professional coachingProfessionalism is very important in any sports; the government under the ministry concerned with the sport has supported football by sourcing for well experienced and professional coaches to train all football teams in different leagues. This has greatly improved the standards of football in the country. The government also organizes training seminars and workshop under the ministry overseeing sports to train and equip local and amateur coaches and players with new skills about football. (Articlesuniverse, 2006) www.galatarasay.
orgIn the website www.galatarasay.org , the authors of the website reviews about the history of the time in a more professional. In the web page the authors clearly presents information about the club which is extensive and informative as opposed to other web sites that I came across. The author used data which as been gained through first hand information about the club, through team history and previous information from the team officials which is more accurate. It is important to access information which is more accurate and the best place of getting such information is from the website of the team.
The information from the website site focuses on achievements and challenges that the team and soccer as a whole faces that availing the information that is need in knowing how soccer can be supported in turkey. This website is thus useful to the topic as it has important information concerning the topic under review. The website informs us that through good team work and coaching Galatasaray were to achieve the highest success in Europe by wining the UEFA championships. However, the main restriction of the website is that it does not give a lot of information about the main competitors of the team and also not give lengthy information about turkey national team. Thus, more information from other sites or sources is required so that one can get enough information about soccer in turkey. This website nevertheless, will give me important information to incorporate in the study paper, though I will to get more information to supplement it.www.
enjoyturkey.comThis website give a clear view of what the government of turkey has done previous and currently. The authors of the website enumerate the government efforts in relation to government efforts. Success is closely related with efforts that the governments implements. The website also gives good information which can be used well in knowing the efforts that the government is doing. The website clearly points out those good government policies that are important in developing soccer in the country. As the site indicates turkey has an important article in its constitution has helped the country immensely in supporting the government.
The website is important has it gives authentic information that can be used in the study paper in outlining the support the government has offered soccer in the country over the years. www.hitit.
orgThis website was chosen because it has explicit information about soccer development and how it is supported in turkey. The website presents information about soccer information in details and goes on to give specific information of the achievement that has been made by the turkey team. The author of website has a good understanding of soccer issues and the information presented in the website is important for the study has it gives the current information required. Another good thing about the website is that it gives information in well laid out format which is easy to understand. The website also gives you links which you can follow for further information about the same topic which is important when one is doing research.
Websites is also well updated and contains the most current information concerning the topic under review. This website explores and gives interviews that the author carried out with main contributors to the soccer of turkey such as the coach of the time. This is important in gaining the insight of how support given by the government enhances soccer in the country. However, as in any important research different views has to be sought from different sources, thus the information from the website will also be supported with other information from other sites to get a more comprehensive information concerning how soccer is supported in turkey www.answer.comThis website gives readers to contribute to information about football in American through sending their views to the site. Thus, this website was chosen because it offers me an opportunity to view and review different views of football fans about the government contribution towards football in America. Views form different fans are important in gauging the feelings of the fans on the efforts of the government; if they fell that the government support is working or not.
The website also provides a good forum for discussing football issues not only in America but also gives some more information about American football in the countries where the sport is played. Nevertheless, this information is personal information and can not form a primary source for research as personal views vary depending on the individual that is giving them thus it is important that other websites are used to back up the information from this site.http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiThis site is well for its information about different issues and subjects; the free wikipedia website has good background information about American football both historically and currently. The website have well researched article that has fully information about the topic that is being discussed.
Thus it is important that for any one interested in studying that topic has to visit this site to gain some insight information. The website articles have contains good sources which are a sign of good researched work. Another good thing about the website is that it has various links that takes you directly to other sites that contains information which is relevant to the topic under discussion. The links are important in counterchecking information and at the same time they also offer information about specific subtopics under review. The site also was chosen because it offers a chance for the reader make contribution to the site by sending his/her views to the site. This information is eventually used in the website to make the necessary improvements and adjustments. The authors of the site also offers good information about the support the government is giving to football in America which is the main information that the study is looking for. This information thus helps in the study that is being carried out.
www.articlesuniverse.comThe website was chosen because of its detailed information about the topic under study and its good information on how football in America is played and supported. The authors of the website have good and professional data on the subject matter.
In the web site the authors clearly presents information concerning government support and how football is organized in America that is broad and instructive. The website has information that as been gained through primary sources about football, through national football past information from the team managers and the football authorities that is more precise. When doing research it is significant to get information which is more precise and the best site of accessing such information is from this website.
The information from the website takes a look and how football is support in America and challenges that the government is facing. The site also has well detailed information on football league and information about college and university football and how they are supported. The website is therefore important to the topic under review as it has as vital information on football in America. The website tells us that through organization and proper leagues American football has highly developed. These success is being observed by the fact that the sport is highly developed in the country and the way it is spreading to other countries. Yet, more information is required to have more information in order to have well reached article.
Consequently, more information from other websites is needed so that more information can be accessed on support given to football in America.ConclusionSoccer remains the most liked sports in many countries around the world. Today a lot of people spent a fortune to watch soccer matches. The game has developed to be more professional and thus attracted a lot of support. In turkey the government highly supports the game through good government policies that the government has put in place which have ensure that all sportsmen and women get a chance in developing their talents. Good marketing and incentives are some of the activities that the teams are given as one way of supporting them. The good support the government has given to turkey soccer has ensured that Turkey succeeds in its national and international competitions, this can be ascertained by the fact that they went to take third position in the FIFA world cup of 2002.Football in American remains the most popular sport and it is well supported by the government through supporting the youth leagues as one way of supported given to the sport.
The government also avails good coaches and a well organized football league which ensures that the sports are competitive in the country. The government support is also given by stabling and support women teams and giving enough support to university and colleges leagues. Nevertheless, the government has also undertaken various other support measures that were previous discussed.Getting information for research from websites is important. However choosing the correct website presents a challenge that to the researcher.
Many websites normally have information on the subject and it becomes extremely important that correct information has to be corrected in to give accurate information on the topic under review. Reference:Answer (2005): American football; Retrieved from; www.answer.com; Accessed on 27/10/07Articlesuniverse (2006): American football; retrieved from; www.articlesuniverse.
com . Accessed on 27/ 10/07Enjoy Turkey (2007): How government supports soccer; Retrieved from www.enjoyturkey.com; Accessed on 27/10/07Galatasaray (2007) Galatasaray team; Retrieved from www.galatasaray.org; Accessed on 27/10/07Hitit (2004): Soccer teams in Turkey Retrieved from; www.hitit.org Accessed on 27/10/07Wikipedia (2006): American football development; Retrieved from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki; Accessed on 27/10/07Wikipedia (2005): American football; Retrieved from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki; Accessed on 27/10/07Wikipedia (2007) Soccer; Retrieved from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki; Accessed on 27/10/07