What Is Literature and Why Do We Analyze It? • Literature is – Composition that tells a narrative. dramatizes a state of affairs. expresses emotions. analyzes and advocators thoughts – Helps us turn personally and intellectually – Provides an nonsubjective base for cognition and understanding – Shapes our ends and values by clear uping our ain individualities. both positively and negatively – Literature makes us human. Genres • Four genres of literature: – Prose fiction • Myths.
fables. love affairs. novels. short narratives – Poetry • Open signifier and closed signifier • Relies on imagination. nonliteral linguistic communication. sound – Drama.
• Made up of duologue and set way • Designed to be performed – Nonfiction prose • News studies. characteristic articles. essays. columns. text editions.
historical and biographical plants Guidelines for Reading Literature • First reading – Determine what is go oning. where. what.
who is involved. major characters – Make a record of your reactions and responses – Describe word pictures. events.
techniques and thoughts • Second reading – Trace developing forms – Write expanded notes about characters. state of affairss. actions – Write paragraph depicting your reactions and ideas – Write down inquiries that arise as you read ( in the borders )Writing a Precis • Precis = a concise drumhead = paraphrasis – Retell the high spots so reader will cognize chief subdivisions – Merely indispensable inside informations – they must be right and accurate – Must be an original essay. written in your ain words – Be certain to present the rubric and writer – Avoid judgements – Use present tense when reciting a narrative Elementss of Fiction • Essence of fiction = narrative ( the relation ) • Elementss of fiction = verisimilitude and donnee – Verisimilitude = pragmatism • Must be obliging adequate that the reader can “suspend disbelief” – Donnee = premiss • Something given by which you can judge the pragmatism = land regulations.• Beginnings of elements – Character. secret plan.
construction. subject. symbolism.
manner. point of position. tone. sarcasm Plot and Structure • Plot = contemplation of motive and causing – No secret plan = The male monarch died and so the queen died. – Plot = The male monarch died.
and so the queen died of heartache. • Conflict = commanding impulse in a affiliated form of causes and effects – Opposition of two or more people ( e. g. . hatred. enviousness. choler. statement.
turning away. chitchat. lies. contending. etc. ) • Dilemma = Conflict within or for one individual – Conflict is a major component of secret plan because it arouses wonder.
causes.uncertainty. creates tenseness. produces involvement – No tenseness = no involvement Structure of Fiction • Structure defines the layout of the work Crisis Complication Climax Exposition Resolution ( denouement ) Another structural component used sometimes = Flashback Characters in Fiction • Character = verbal representation of a human being – Rounded = lifelike. full. dynamic. reader can foretell future behaviour because of an apprehension of the personality – Protagonist = the hero or heroine. chief individual in the narrative.
individual on the quest. etc. – Antagonist = the individual doing the struggle.
in resistance to the supporter. the obstruction. etc.– Flat = no growing. inactive – Stock = representative of a group or category ( stereotyped ) – Fictional characters disclosed through • • • • • Actions Descriptions.
both personal and environmental Dramatic statements and ideas Statements by other characters Statements by the writer speech production as narrator. or observer – Fictional characters need to hold verisimilitude. be likely or plausible Point of View • Refers to speaker.
storyteller. character or voice created by the writer to state the narrative • Point of position depends on two factors: – Physical state of affairs of the storyteller as an perceiver – Speaker’s rational and emotional place • • • •First individual = I. we Second individual = You ( uncommon ) Third individual = He. she. they ( most common ) Point of position may be: – Dramatic/objective = purely describing – Omniscient = omniscient – Limited omniscient = some insight Setting • Setting = a work’s natural. manufactured.
political. cultural and temporal environment. including everything that characters know and ain ( topographic point. clip. objects ) • Major intent = to set up pragmatism or verisimilitude. and to form a narrative • Setting helps make atmosphere or temper • Puting may reenforce characters and subject.
in order to set up outlooks that are the antonym of what occurs = sarcasm.Tone and Style • Tone = methods by which authors and talkers reveal attitudes or feelings • Style = ways in which authors assemble words to state the narrative. to develop an statement. dramatise the drama.
compose the verse form – Choice of words in the service of content • Essential facet of manner is diction – Formal = criterion or elegant words – Neutral = mundane criterion vocabulary – Informal = colloquial. deficient linguistic communication. slang Tone and Style ( cont’d ) • Language may be:– – – – Specific = images General = wide categories Concrete = qualities of immediate perceptual experience Abstract = broader.
less tangible qualities • Denotation = word significances • Connotation = word suggestions • Verbal sarcasm = contradictory statements – One thing said. antonym is meant – Irony = sarcasm. lampoon. irony.
dual entendre • Understatement = does non to the full depict the importance of a state of affairs – intentionally • Hyperbole ( exaggeration ) = words far in surplus of the state of affairs Symbolism and Allegory• Symbolism and fable are manners that expand intending • Symbol creates a direct. meaningful equation between: – A specific object. scene. character. or action – Ideas. values. individuals or ways of life • Symbols may be: – Cultural ( cosmopolitan ) = known by most literate people ( e.
g. . white dove. colour black ) – Contextual ( auctorial ) = private. created by the writer Symbolism and Allegory ( cont’d ) • Allegory is a symbol = complete and self-sufficing narration ( e.
g. . “Young Goodman Brown” ) • Fable = narratives about animate beings that possess human traits ( e. g.
. Aesop’s Fables )• Parable = fable with moral or spiritual set ( e. g. . Biblical narratives ) • Myth = narrative that embodies and codifies spiritual. philosophical and cultural values of the civilisation in which it is composed ( e.
g. . George Washington chopping down the cherry tree ) • Allusion = the usage of other culturally well=known plants from the Bible.
Greek and Roman mythology. celebrated art. etc. Idea or Theme • Idea = consequences of general and abstract believing • Literature embodies values along with thoughts – In literature. thoughts relate to intending. reading.
account and significance – Ideas are critical to an apprehension and grasp of literature.• Ideas are non every bit obvious as character or scene. It is of import to see the significance of what you’ve read and so develop an explanatory and comprehensive averment. • Subject can be found in any of these: – – – – – Direct statements by the auctorial voice Direct statements by a first-person talker Dramatic statements by characters Figurative linguistic communication. characters who stand for thoughts The work itself.