What Is Literature and Why Do We Analyze It? • Literature is – Composition that tells a narrative. dramatizes a state of affairs. expresses emotions. analyzes and advocators thoughts – Helps us turn personally and intellectually – Provides an nonsubjective base for cognition and understanding – Shapes our ends and values by clear uping our ain individualities. both positively and negatively – Literature makes us human. Genres • Four genres of literature: – Prose fiction • Myths. fables. love affairs. novels. short narratives – Poetry • Open signifier and closed signifier • Relies on imagination. nonliteral linguistic communication. sound – Drama.
• Made up of duologue and set way • Designed to be performed – Nonfiction prose • News studies. characteristic articles. essays. columns. text editions. historical and biographical plants Guidelines for Reading Literature • First reading – Determine what is go oning. where. what. who is involved. major characters – Make a record of your reactions and responses – Describe word pictures. events. techniques and thoughts • Second reading – Trace developing forms – Write expanded notes about characters. state of affairss. actions – Write paragraph depicting your reactions and ideas – Write down inquiries that arise as you read ( in the borders )
Writing a Precis • Precis = a concise drumhead = paraphrasis – Retell the high spots so reader will cognize chief subdivisions – Merely indispensable inside informations – they must be right and accurate – Must be an original essay. written in your ain words – Be certain to present the rubric and writer – Avoid judgements – Use present tense when reciting a narrative Elementss of Fiction • Essence of fiction = narrative ( the relation ) • Elementss of fiction = verisimilitude and donnee – Verisimilitude = pragmatism • Must be obliging adequate that the reader can “suspend disbelief” – Donnee = premiss • Something given by which you can judge the pragmatism = land regulations.
• Beginnings of elements – Character. secret plan. construction. subject. symbolism. manner. point of position. tone. sarcasm Plot and Structure • Plot = contemplation of motive and causing – No secret plan = The male monarch died and so the queen died. – Plot = The male monarch died. and so the queen died of heartache. • Conflict = commanding impulse in a affiliated form of causes and effects – Opposition of two or more people ( e. g. . hatred. enviousness. choler. statement. turning away. chitchat. lies. contending. etc. ) • Dilemma = Conflict within or for one individual – Conflict is a major component of secret plan because it arouses wonder. causes.
uncertainty. creates tenseness. produces involvement – No tenseness = no involvement Structure of Fiction • Structure defines the layout of the work Crisis Complication Climax Exposition Resolution ( denouement ) Another structural component used sometimes = Flashback Characters in Fiction • Character = verbal representation of a human being – Rounded = lifelike. full. dynamic. reader can foretell future behaviour because of an apprehension of the personality – Protagonist = the hero or heroine. chief individual in the narrative. individual on the quest. etc. – Antagonist = the individual doing the struggle. in resistance to the supporter. the obstruction. etc.
– Flat = no growing. inactive – Stock = representative of a group or category ( stereotyped ) – Fictional characters disclosed through • • • • • Actions Descriptions. both personal and environmental Dramatic statements and ideas Statements by other characters Statements by the writer speech production as narrator. or observer – Fictional characters need to hold verisimilitude. be likely or plausible Point of View • Refers to speaker. storyteller. character or voice created by the writer to state the narrative • Point of position depends on two factors: – Physical state of affairs of the storyteller as an perceiver – Speaker’s rational and emotional place • • • •
First individual = I. we Second individual = You ( uncommon ) Third individual = He. she. they ( most common ) Point of position may be: – Dramatic/objective = purely describing – Omniscient = omniscient – Limited omniscient = some insight Setting • Setting = a work’s natural. manufactured. political. cultural and temporal environment. including everything that characters know and ain ( topographic point. clip. objects ) • Major intent = to set up pragmatism or verisimilitude. and to form a narrative • Setting helps make atmosphere or temper • Puting may reenforce characters and subject. in order to set up outlooks that are the antonym of what occurs = sarcasm.
Tone and Style • Tone = methods by which authors and talkers reveal attitudes or feelings • Style = ways in which authors assemble words to state the narrative. to develop an statement. dramatise the drama. compose the verse form – Choice of words in the service of content • Essential facet of manner is diction – Formal = criterion or elegant words – Neutral = mundane criterion vocabulary – Informal = colloquial. deficient linguistic communication. slang Tone and Style ( cont’d ) • Language may be:
– – – – Specific = images General = wide categories Concrete = qualities of immediate perceptual experience Abstract = broader. less tangible qualities • Denotation = word significances • Connotation = word suggestions • Verbal sarcasm = contradictory statements – One thing said. antonym is meant – Irony = sarcasm. lampoon. irony. dual entendre • Understatement = does non to the full depict the importance of a state of affairs – intentionally • Hyperbole ( exaggeration ) = words far in surplus of the state of affairs Symbolism and Allegory
• Symbolism and fable are manners that expand intending • Symbol creates a direct. meaningful equation between: – A specific object. scene. character. or action – Ideas. values. individuals or ways of life • Symbols may be: – Cultural ( cosmopolitan ) = known by most literate people ( e. g. . white dove. colour black ) – Contextual ( auctorial ) = private. created by the writer Symbolism and Allegory ( cont’d ) • Allegory is a symbol = complete and self-sufficing narration ( e. g. . “Young Goodman Brown” ) • Fable = narratives about animate beings that possess human traits ( e. g. . Aesop’s Fables )
• Parable = fable with moral or spiritual set ( e. g. . Biblical narratives ) • Myth = narrative that embodies and codifies spiritual. philosophical and cultural values of the civilisation in which it is composed ( e. g. . George Washington chopping down the cherry tree ) • Allusion = the usage of other culturally well=known plants from the Bible. Greek and Roman mythology. celebrated art. etc. Idea or Theme • Idea = consequences of general and abstract believing • Literature embodies values along with thoughts – In literature. thoughts relate to intending. reading. account and significance – Ideas are critical to an apprehension and grasp of literature.
• Ideas are non every bit obvious as character or scene. It is of import to see the significance of what you’ve read and so develop an explanatory and comprehensive averment. • Subject can be found in any of these: – – – – – Direct statements by the auctorial voice Direct statements by a first-person talker Dramatic statements by characters Figurative linguistic communication. characters who stand for thoughts The work itself.