Literature Review Since the early days ofcomputing, academics have shared digital content (Lane & McAndrew, 2010)and recently there has been much interest in the sharing of open educationalresources (OER), particularly relating to higher education, which has alsobecome an important resource base for teachers and learners (Adams,Liyanagunawardena, Rassool, & Williams, 2013)A MOOC brings togetherpeople interested in learning (or “students”) and an expert or experts who seekto facilitate the learning.
Connectivity is usually provided through socialnetworking, and a set of freely accessible online resources provides thecontent or the study material. Furthermore, they generally have noprerequisites, fees, formal accreditation, or predefined required level ofparticipation (McAuley, Stewart, Siemens, & Cormier, 2010)Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) can rapidly changethe role of higher education, executive education and employee development ingeneral. They are attempts to create free or even open access online coursesthat provide no constraints on class size (Sharples et al, 2012) . A MOOCthrows open the doors of a course and invites anyone to enter, resulting in anew learning dynamic, one that offers remarkable opportunities for students togather and discuss the course content.
The “open” students, who pay nothing toparticipate, can join in some or all of the course activities, which mightinclude watching videos, posting on discussion boards and blogs, and commentingvia social media platforms (Thompson, 2011). A major concern often raised aboutMOOCs is that although thousands enrollfor courses, a very small proportion finally completes such courses. Therelease of information about enrollment and completion rates from MOOCs pointsout a very low completion rates (Balsh, 2013). Rivard (2013) pointed out that hundreds ofthousands of people across the world are signing up for MOOCs in the firstglance. Courses offered by MOOC providers are in general free and don’t earnstudents any college credit. There are also no enforced prerequisites as thereare for sometimes for normal college or university courses.
In spite of thisonly few students complete the course and get a certificate. Distanceeducation and online learning have been clearly demonstrated to be an effectiveoption to traditional classroom learning. To date, online learning has largelybeen the domain of open universities, separate state and provincial universitydepartments, and for-profit universities. Since the first offering of MOOCs andby elite universities in the US and the subsequent development of providers edXand Coursera, online learning has now become a topical discussion across manycampuses. For change advocates, online learning in the current form of MOOCshas been hailed as transformative, disruption, and a game changer (Leckart,2012)