Literature Review


Since the early days of
computing, academics have shared digital content (Lane & McAndrew, 2010)
and recently there has been much interest in the sharing of open educational
resources (OER), particularly relating to higher education, which has also
become an important resource base for teachers and learners (Adams,
Liyanagunawardena, Rassool, & Williams, 2013)

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A MOOC brings together
people interested in learning (or “students”) and an expert or experts who seek
to facilitate the learning. Connectivity is usually provided through social
networking, and a set of freely accessible online resources provides the
content or the study material. Furthermore, they generally have no
prerequisites, fees, formal accreditation, or predefined required level of
participation (McAuley, Stewart, Siemens, & Cormier, 2010)

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) can rapidly change
the role of higher education, executive education and employee development in
general. They are attempts to create free or even open access online courses
that provide no constraints on class size (Sharples et al, 2012) . A MOOC
throws open the doors of a course and invites anyone to enter, resulting in a
new learning dynamic, one that offers remarkable opportunities for students to
gather and discuss the course content. The “open” students, who pay nothing to
participate, can join in some or all of the course activities, which might
include watching videos, posting on discussion boards and blogs, and commenting
via social media platforms (Thompson, 2011). A major concern often raised about

MOOCs is that although thousands enroll
for courses, a very small proportion finally completes such courses. The
release of information about enrollment and completion rates from MOOCs points
out a very low completion rates (Balsh, 2013).

Rivard (2013) pointed out that hundreds of
thousands of people across the world are signing up for MOOCs in the first
glance. Courses offered by MOOC providers are in general free and don’t earn
students any college credit. There are also no enforced prerequisites as there
are for sometimes for normal college or university courses. In spite of this
only few students complete the course and get a certificate.

education and online learning have been clearly demonstrated to be an effective
option to traditional classroom learning. To date, online learning has largely
been the domain of open universities, separate state and provincial university
departments, and for-profit universities. Since the first offering of MOOCs and
by elite universities in the US and the subsequent development of providers edX
and Coursera, online learning has now become a topical discussion across many
campuses. For change advocates, online learning in the current form of MOOCs
has been hailed as transformative, disruption, and a game changer (Leckart,