“The Second Treatise on Government” generally talks about politics and government as a natural course of behavior if and only if, the society believes in it. Locke used doctrines to account for his philosophy, starting from men’s state of nature where they are in absolute freedom and equity and ends with the topic of rebellion, at which the government ceases to exist.
In Sections 4 to 6, Locke described how men, without everything material they have now; become equals in all aspects. He proceeded to citing Hooker’s words to point out that in such natural equity, men are bound to value and love one another, thus, preserve and nurture life.
Sections 7 to 15 establish the need for laws and how all people, being equals are bound to implement it. He further discusses the types of punishment that can be executed and how it should be achieved. He also made mention that foreigners should not be bound by the same law for they, need to first and foremost, be corrected and educated of the ways of the land.
Sections 16 to 21 discusses the state of war – how it brings about the license to do utilitarian causes and how it can never bring about an equal retribution for the damages done.
Sections 25 to 51 traces the history of property including its original warrant – of God’s will for men to live on the land and make it fruitful as well as, its acquisition and appropriation – dissuading man’s intentions for equality. He proceeded to citing how money and titles came about, so as to resolve disputes and quarrels.
Sections 77 and 87 to 94 discusses how men decided to enter a commonwealth to unify their goals and keep the state of nature as opposed to a monarchial government which is in itself a conflict of political and civil society.
Sections 222 to 243 talks about the dissolution of the government, that a rebellion is always at hand, specially if people are mistreated and no longer feels secure with that of the authorized government. This closes Locke’s “The Second Treatise on Government.”
Immanuel Kant’s “Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View” is a nine-theses philosophical presentation of how history is helping human beings move towards a universal civic society where they can realize their natural capacity.
In the first thesis, he stipulates how all creatures or beings evolve towards the maximum of their natural abilities, eradicating the unnecessary and improving what is working. He says in his second thesis that this “development of man’s ‘natural capacities’” is achieved through time and reason, by race (series of births). Thus, “nature produces a Kepler or a Newton,” sometime within history and not within a lifetime of one person.
In the third thesis, he strengthened the capacity of human beings by pointing out that nature’s gift of instinct and reason has allowed them to see and understand what is needed for them to live happily, capable and “worthy of life.”
The fourth thesis states how nature has made “antagonism” in society an effective way to ironically bring order and development in the end. This discusses how positive opposition directs men to continuously better themselves, free them of possible desertion and perhaps, maintain the equality of ranks amongst them.
The fifth thesis discusses that man, driven by nature to associate with others, can only truly develop his natural capacities if he is in a unified universal civic state. This Kant says as nature’s ultimate assignment to the human race and admits in his sixth thesis that “This problem is the most difficult and the last to be solved by mankind.”
The seventh thesis states the need for a lawful civic state across states before a “perfect civic constitution” is made for the universal society.
On the eight thesis, history was viewed as nature’s way to teach man to see and realize the ultimate goal and to seal of Kant’s cosmological view, he states on his ninth thesis, that such philosophical attempt “can be regarded as possible and contributing to the this end of nature.”