Change is to move from one state to another. Change is caused by family, culture, society and the environment. ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ by Melina Marchetta and ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’ by Thomas Hardy are two novels,in which change is a major theme. Melina Marchetta uses techniques such as first-person narration and linear structure to perceive change in the novel,while Hardy uses Omniscient narration and dialogue to percieve change. My understanding of change has been improved through situations the characters face and their changing perspectives of their environment.Through the changing perspectives of the characters i can see that change brings upon experience, understanding and growth. The Author of “Looking for Alibrandi”, Melina Marchetta is Australian born but of Italian descent.

The novel was written at a time where Australia was embracing different cultures and the Australian government were recognizing migrants for their contrbution to society. Migrants were also beginning to be proud of their heritage. The purpose of the novel is to inform and as well as to entertain.The book is aimed at teenage and adult readers who are interested in issues that are prevalant in contemporary Australia. “Looking for Alibrandi’ is about a 17 year old girl called Josie Alibrandi.

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She lives with her mother Christina and her Nonna is a large part of her life. She is battling with illigitimacy as well as racial intolerance at her school. She meets her father and begins to learn about him and learns to respect and accept others. Many characters in ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ have changing perspectives.In the beginning of the novel, Josie’s initial assumptions, goals and dreams are to escape from her Italian culture and illegitimacy.

She is forced out of these assupmtions by a series of experiences which appear unexpected to her e. g. John Barton’s suicide, from this she learns that materialism and wealth do not bring happiness.

Jacob Coote is another character that has a major change of perspective. He begins the novel by trying to live up to the stereotype that is cast apon him. No matter how hard he tries we see more to him.He tells Josie that he is good with his hands- i. e. not an intellectual, which he admires in her. Because of his realationship with Josie he ends the novel not content with the stereotype, acknowledges he is not worthy of Josie, rejects anti- intellectualism and decides to “pave his own path” The changing perspectives of Josie and Jacob re-itterate change is caused by family, culture, society and the environment.

Melina Marchetta uses different techniques in ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ to show change. Marchetta uses linear structure to show change.At the end of the novel, Josie says ‘’ I know now that what’s important is who I feel I am. I’m Christina and Michael’s daughter, and Katia’s granddaughter. And we’re not cursed, we’re blessed. ’’ The linear structure of the book shows Josie’s changing perspective throughout. Josie’s focus is continually changing throughout the novel.

This approach allows the author to get inside other characters perspectives and enables Josie to demontstrate her growing awareness of personal identity. Melina Marchetta also uses first-person narration. ‘’Sometimes i think he is a myth.As far as the world is concerned, Micheal Andretti was just the boy next door.

But for him to be a myth means that i’m a figment of the imagination. ’’This allows Josie the advantage of hindsight and the ability to re-evaluate issues and relationships. It shows change by showing Josie’s initial thought on something and then later in the novel her perspective changes. This is most prevelant with her father.

There are similarities present between ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ and ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’. Both novels have characters that have changing perspectives.Josie undergoes changes in her perspective of her surrounding world. Thomas Hardy also shows Tess’ changing perspectives of her surrounding world from the events that unfold.

Hardy’s novel is aimed at a mature literate audience. The purpose of the book is mainly to inform as well as to entertain. The novel was first written and published in 1891.

Tess Durbeyfield is driven by family poverty to claim kinship with the wealthy d’Urbervilles and seek a portion of their fortune, she meets her cousin Alec d’Urberville, this turns out to be the source of her downfall.Angel Clare, a very different man, offers her love and salvation. Tess must decide whether to remain silent and in turn have a peaceful future or confess her past. The novel is divided into seven phases, change is shown throughout these phases. The end of each phase is a difinitive part of Tess’ life which is a continuing tragedy. Thomas Hardy uses dialogue to show change.

‘’How could I have been expected to know? I was a mere child when I left this house 4 months ago. Why didn’t you warn that there was danger in men-folk? Why didn’t you warn me? ’ After being raped by her cousin Alec d’Urberville,Tess’ perspective changes. Hardy is reflecting Tess’ loss of innocence which is replaced by experience, and hope replaced by depression. Hardy also uses omniscient narrator. ‘’.. and some spirit in her rose automatically as the sap in the twigs.

’’ Hardy shows that Tess’ spirit is. Tess shows determination and resiliency after the tragic events that befall her with her cousin Alec d’Urberville. She accepts her knew lodgings at Talbothay dairy and her perspective changes from a hopeless one where she will never be able to move on to one of hope.After reading Alibrandi and Tess, my understanding of change has been improved. I can see now what causes change in a person from Josie and Tess’ experiences and changing perspectives.

It is clear to me now that experiencing change is necessary for the development of Human beings and their fulfillment. Tess is constantly in different environments through out the novel. These environments affect her perspective because of the characters and situations that each hold. These changes support that change is caused by family culture, society and the environment.