Last updated: September 12, 2019
Topic: BusinessConstruction
Sample donated:

Moscow Region State University

MAIN FEATURES OF MODERN AMERICAN SLANG

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

( by the illustration of College Slang )

Moscow 2009

Content:

1 ) Introduction: Main Characteristics of Slang

2 ) The Main Part:

– History of College Slang Studying in American Linguistics

– Main Features in Functioning of American College Slang

3 ) Decision

4 ) Mentions

Main Characteristics of Slang

The chief map of linguistic communication & # 8211 ; communicating – could be realized non merely by statute literature linguistic communication, but besides with aid of conversational signifiers of address, one of which is slang.

Etymology of word & # 8220 ; slang & # 8221 ; hasn & # 8217 ; t an exact definition, but at that place & # 8217 ; s a guess that it came from spoken linguistic communication. The first clip it was published in XVIII and meant & # 8220 ; offense & # 8221 ; .

Still definition of impression & # 8220 ; slang & # 8221 ; is a topic of much contention, but from linguistics point of position slang is nonstandard vocabulary composed of words or senses characterized chiefly by intensions of utmost informality and normally by a currency non limited to a peculiar part. It is composed typically of mintages or randomly changed words, clipped or shortened signifiers, extravagant, forced, or bantering figures of address, or verbal freshnesss. Slang consists of the words and looks that escape from the buzzword, slang, and slang ( and to the lesser extent from dialectal, nonstandard, and taboo address ) of specific subgroups of society so that they are known and used by an appreciable per centum of the general population, even though the words and looks frequently retain some associations with the subgroups that originally used and popularized them. Therefore, slang is a in-between land for words and looks that have become excessively popular to be any longer considered as portion of the more restricted classs, but that are non yet ( and may ne’er go ) acceptable or popular plenty to be considered informal or standard.

History of College Slang Studying in American Linguistics

It is paid a batch of attending to analyzing of slang in American linguistics. More of import plants in XX are monograph & # 8220 ; Slang today and yesterday & # 8221 ; by partridge and chapter & # 8220 ; American Slang & # 8221 ; in & # 8220 ; American Language & # 8221 ; by Mencken.

Introductory articles in slang lexicons set criterions for slang analysing. Famous slang lexicons are Dictionary of American Slang by Flexner and random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang.

First printed grounds of utilizing slang by American pupils appeared merely in the center of XIX.

American literature shows two beginnings of analyzing College Slang: College Words and Customs by Hall 1856 and Four Old ages of Yale by Lim Bag 1871.

At the terminal of nineteenth century, after extended slang analyzing in 90 Universities U. Babbit publishes the list of 100 words and phrases, named & # 8220 ; College Slang and Phrases & # 8221 ; . His work is foundational for historical acquisition of pupils & # 8217 ; slang, which is used in universities of the USA.

Babbitt & # 8217 ; s list includes precisely 3rd portion of words and phrases, connected with people, topographic points, rites, troubles, with which pupils have to confront in their everyday life.

For illustration, the metaphor & # 8220 ; Equus caballus & # 8221 ; ( & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; ) from the list & # 8211 ; transferred into animate being ( & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; ) , animal ( & # 1079 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; ) , wheel ( & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; ) . Students & # 8217 ; garnering for doing cot named race class ( & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; ) , and word & # 8220 ; racecourse & # 8221 ; ( & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; ) they used to specify word & # 171 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1097 ; & # 187 ; .

This list practically doesn & # 8217 ; t consist of vulgar and rude words, which is up to cultural traditions of 19th
century.

At 60th
– 70th
of the twentieth
century involvement to slang research is turning. The most appreciable perusal of slang at that period was Gary Anderwood & # 8217 ; s research, which he made at the Arkansas University. In Menken & # 8217 ; s celebrated work merely a small portion devoted to American College Slang.

American journalists played an of import portion in the recording of College Slang: since 1925 twelvemonth American Speech magazine has been printing short lists of words, collected from different Universities. Current slang diary published the consequences of slang research, which were carried out at the module of English linguistic communications at the University of South Dakota ( 1966-1971 ) . This research drew attending to unexpectable rise of words and phrases of African-american idiom in the lexis of American pupils.

Changes in societal relationship in American civilization caused the phantom of new tabu words in College Slang. For illustration, the word & # 171 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 187 ; had different ways of interlingual rendition: to mug & # 8211 ; ( & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; ) , to muzzle ( & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; ) , to spoon ( & # 1095 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; ) .The biggest portion of Slang research at the terminal of the twentieth
century the beginning of the 21st
century is carried out as little undertakings at the linguistics classs at the format & # 8220 ; participant – perceiver & # 8221 ; .

Development of the Internet considers as publicity for intensive acquisition of modern College Slang.

Main Features in Functioning of American College Slang

American College Slang causes troubles in understanding. This fact can be explained by the followers:

– want of communicants to hold an easy informal sympathetic apprehension ; orientation on spoken communicating ( acquaintance, familiarity etc. ) ; spontaneousness, absence of readying.

– inappropriate manner of analyzing linguistic communications, because standard text editions and exercisings, as a regulation, are based on idealised, unnaturally made linguistic communication. It causes troubles when pupils are non able to understand native-speakers, in our instance, with Americans.

– decreasing of influence of American Standard English and increasing of utilizing idioms, including slang.

Students & # 8217 ; slang is a group slang. In English lexicographic literature this

lingual unit is included in particular slang, set against common slang.

Orientation on spoken communicating, easiness encourage to acquire into young person address those words, which do non upset informal atmosphere.

They are non suited for formal communicating. It is words such as roaddog, fellow, boogerhead = fellow, buddy, chap, bud ( Dy ) , cat, buddy, mate, friend, associate & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1097 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1075 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 187 ; etc and they are that slang words.

Most attending should be drawn to that portion of College Slang which represents emotionally coloured lexis, largely used with ironical, mocking intension.

For illustration, argotic bacon & # 1080 ; police & # 8211 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; ; beef & # 1080 ; job & # 8211 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; ; buffalo biddy & # 1080 ; fat female & # 8211 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; , mule with a broom & # 1080 ; a really ugly girl & # 8211 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; ; concern category & # 1080 ; fat, excessively big to suit in a normal & # 8211 ; sized place & # 8211 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; ; dark side & # 1080 ; the pupil vicinity & # 8211 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; , seed & # 1080 ; offspring, kid & # 8211 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; ; dome & # 1080 ; one & # 8217 ; s caput, skull & # 8211 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; ; fruit & # 1080 ; a looser, stupid individual & # 8211 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; .

Students take their inventions in lexis of popular societal groups, which are their theoretical accounts of behavior. This manner a batch of argotic looks were taken from vocabulary of drug takers: hootch, tree, buddak, cripps, doobie, hronik, smokey dainty & # 8211 ; marijuana ; one & # 8217 ; s johny, blazing ( on ) , burn, pull tubing, play monopoly & # 8211 ; to smoke marihuana ; hyper tweaked & # 8211 ; cocaine nut.

Large portion of pupils & # 8217 ; slang contents of lexis, connected with imbibing intoxicant and parties: iciness & # 8211 ; relax ; have weaponries, chizzil & # 8211 ; give a party ; raize district attorney roof & # 8211 ; hold a good clip.

How you can see from abovementioned illustrations, that negative intensions are common for College Slang, as for any other sort of slang.

It makes sense to analyze different sorts of shortening & # 8211 ; abbreviation, cut signifiers, which are widely used in pupils & # 8217 ; slang.

Some of them are used in conspiration map ( when tabu words are used ) : & # 1042 ; .D.S. & lt ; Big Dick Syndrome & # 171 ; self-assured & # 187 ; . Sometimes they are used with purpose of linguistic communication economic system: ID Independence Day.

A batch of slang words are formed by cutting, for illustration: fam & lt ; household, fundas & lt ; basicss, rudimentss & lt ; basic subjets, rony & lt ; pepperoni.

Particular topographic point in lingual units instead big group of argotic words takes. It is represented by exclaimings, which gives emotional coloring material and helps to show feelings. More frequently they represent short calls and express assorted grades of surprise: bonk! , chyaa! , eesh! , impudent manner! , oh my goshness! , shnikies, understanding stake! fellow! shoots for existent! , ah & # 8230 ; ja! , disagreement stake! fellow! , negotary! Ta huh! , blessing excavation that! cool! mark! damm right! , embarrassment sqeebs! , erf! , joy woopty-woo!

Students & # 8217 ; slang confirms that languages construction shows heterogeneousness of society. Besides pupils & # 8217 ; slang is a beginning of enriching lexis of American literature linguistic communication and an component of American civilization.

Decision

One of the most of import beginnings of slang is pupils & # 8217 ; cultural self-identification, therefore the evidences of the subdivision of slang words and looks were personal features corroborating this specificity and related to it.

Changes in slang during the last century reveal it as a cultural phenomenon, limited by a impermanent societal place of a individual ( & # 8220 ; being a pupil & # 8221 ; ) , and connected with the general cultural state of affairs, modern-day ethical motives and societal & # 8220 ; censoring & # 8221 ; .

However, the culturological function of slang consists non merely in make fulling in lexical blank, but besides in finding and self-confirmation of the cultural and societal individuality.

Possibly slang is the most nomadic portion of the linguistic communication reflecting the invariably produced cultural alterations in society in a most subjective manner ( i.e. the attitude of pupils to cultural phenomena in most instances contains rating which is frequently ironically negative ) .

Another of import culturological function of slang & # 8211 ; non merely American & # 8211 ; is in accommodating the talker to some new cultural phenomena. It is visibly demonstrated by a broad usage of computing machines in the acquisition procedure, geting and interchanging cognition ; and the & # 8220 ; chastening & # 8221 ; of computing machine footings most frequently takes topographic point in college slang. Slang words of other thematic groups work in the same manner.

Of class, from the point of position of culturological surveies a natural, playful character of slang is besides of import. Slang is frequently a domain of humourous originative activity, which follows the Torahs of linguistic communication consciousness and at the same clip can bespeak the ways for its farther development. For illustration, a rich equivalent word row for one of the slang words shows on the one manus a humourous or ironical and disdainful grasp of a negative fact, which is refuted by the American young person from the point of position of their values ; on the other manus it reveals the profusion of linguistic communication possibilities and rapid word creative activity in American college slang.

Upon the whole, slang reveals a dynamic character of look, dry characteristics of modern-day young person civilization. In add-on it exhibits a inclination to get away from the power of false values, societal falseness, to present itself as a positive societal group, connected with the hereafter of the cultural community, by agencies of linguistic communication & # 8211 ; comic/satiric metaphoric figurativeness, dry parodying of traditional phrases and clich & # 233 ; s, jeer at disused or contrary to the pupils & # 8217 ; tastes cultural phenomena.

Therefore, stuffs about American college slang undertaken here permits to corroborate the regularities of operation of slang words and looks and to detect new 1s. Which are merely going a portion of the linguistic communication cultural and bespeak farther scrutiny.

Mentions:

1 ) & # 1052 ; . & # 1040 ; . & # 1050 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 171 ; & # 1050 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; : & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 187 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; , & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1043 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1059 ; , 2008

2 ) The Online Slang Dictionary

Internet:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.yspu.yar.ru