1) Moses- A nomad who receives a vision from God to deliver the children of Israel from bondage.2) Martin Luther- not only threw his energy to not only in negating the pretensions and errors of the Roman See but also into the task of the reformation of the life and thought of the church.3) Alexander the Great- A military genius. He wanted to conquer all lands out to the eastern edge of the world, which he mistakenly believed ended somewhere before modern-day Burma and China.4) Julius Caesar- The Roman governor of Gaul’s purpose was to bring an end to the Roman republic and begin a new of era for Rome.5)      Charlemagne- Father of Europe a visionary who wanted to transform Europe by trying to impose education, law and Christian morals on the continent’s feuding tribes and principalities.6)      Elizabeth the 1st- Celebrated as a great stateswoman who wanted to reform England’s failing currency and religious reform.7)      Dante Alighieri- Italian Poet, most import writer.

  His purpose was to reveal the good in the world and to be the first to win the palm of so great a prize as his own glory.8)      Leonardo Da Vinci- Greatest artist’s purpose was to depict natural action and the belief of experience.9)      Catherine the Great- Empress of Russia.

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Her purpose was to dedicate her time to reforms intended to strengthen and restore the prestige of Russia and the authority of the crown.2) Write 3sub-visions and a strategy to fulfill each sub-vision:1) Moses-a) He wanted to be a prophet- His strategy to become a shepherdb) The liberator of a nation- His strategy to go to alien lands in order to return full-blown, fully equipped, and capable of doing whatever he has been called to do.               c) He wanted to give relief to the heavily- laden Israelite workmen. To shoulder most of the burdens put upon the Israelites, and toiled in their place.2)      Alexander the Great-a)      Freeing the Greeks in Asia- His strategy was to punish Persian’s for past offences during their invasion of Greece a century and half earlier.b)      b) Ruler of Persia- His strategy was a desire to win the hearts and minds of the people he conquered.c) Revolutionizing local economies- His strategy was to loot and then spending much of the accumulated wealth of the Persian Empire.3)      Julius Caesara) Politics- His strategy was to align himself with the Populares- the party of the people- as opposed to the Opitmates, the party of the aristocracy.

b) Major military command- Promised to introduce legislations Crassus and Pompey wanted, including a land act to settle some of Pompey’s troops.c) Benevolent dictator- His strategy was to colonize the urban poor and alter the flow of the Tiber.4)      Charlemagnea) Turning his empire into St. Augustine’s utopian “City of God”- His strategy to protect freemen and clergy against oppression by the nobility.b) Share control of Spain with Suleiman, theArab governor of Barcelona- Strategy was to mass the largest and most heterogeneous army since the heyday of the Roman Empire.c) Wage war on the Saxon people- to conquer them and concert them to the Christian religion.5) Elizabeth 1a) To rein without shedding blood- Her strategy to adopt a religious policy that was exceptionally tolerant.

b) To take on the burden of governing in an era when reigning Queen’s were a rarity and the fear of death. Remaining unmarried throughout her reign.c) Used as diplomatic weapon to build alliances or to avert the danger of war- Elizabeth surrounded herself with admirers to whom she granted considerable license.6) Martin Luthera)- Attacks the papal abuses and the sale of indulgences by church official- Nails Ninety-five these to the door of the Wittenburg Church. Thus dealing a symbolic blow to that began reformation.b) To stand in holiness before a righteous, demanding God- He made confessions of his sins.c) “The total depravity of man”- Developed this plan through his concept of the “allworking” character of God and the notion of predestination.7) Leonardo Da Vincia)      Interest in geometry- His plan was to learn more about hydrodynamics, anatomy, mechanics, mathematics and optics.

b)      Using the characteristics consisting in the detailed background which disappears in the misty atmosphere- The (sfumato technique)- His strategy to paint the portrait of the Mona Lisac) A rough sketch showing a chain with cubic teeth- the supposed idea of the bicycle.8)Dante Alighieria) The medieval concept of “Courtly love” and the idealization of woman- His plan to write “LA VITA NUOVA” (1290)b) To enter public office- His strategy was to join the White (Bianchi) Guelphs, one of the rival factions within the Guelphs party.c) He thought there should only be one supreme ruler- the Emperor, not the Pope, as the reign of Augustus- Wrote a long story poem named “Commedia” through the three worlds of the afterlife.

9) Catherine the Greata) Her dream of power- Her strategy to keep in good terms with the empress by never thwarting her will.b) She expected a Caesar to emerge in France and the ultimate restoration of the Bourbon monarchy- Accepting the prevailing ideology of her time.c) To Europeanize her adopted country- by establishing direct contact the high priests of Auflarung, and to remove the stigmata that the Colossus of the North stood for nothing except brute strength. 3) Distinctives, which assisted in fulfilling purposes:1)      Moses- a) 1) He called the Ten Plagues down the Pharaoh’s head and led the children of Israel out of Egypt passing through the Red Sea on dry land. –Leader2) Freed the Hebrews and led them through the desert to the promise land- Liberal3) For forty years, he led his discontented, rebellious followers through the wilderness and was mediator for JEHOVA- Medianb)     1) Killed a an Egyptian for beating a slave to death- Impulsive2) He struck a rock to bring water out of it, and was punished for this sin by being forbidden to enter the Promised Land- Vain3) Remembered his Hebrew heritage- Loyalc)      1) Presented gods laws “The ten Commandments” from Mount Sinai- lawful2) Brought unleavened bread to feed everybody to the journey- Provider3) When chased by the Pharaoh’s soldiers he parted the Red Sea so they can pass safely- saving2) Martin Luthera) 1) Founded the Protestant denomination- Lutheran2) He posted his critique of the Roman Catholic Church’s practices, the Ninety-Five Theses, which regarded as the original document of the Reformation- reformer3) Was the center of violent religious upheaval in Germany- revolutionaryb) 1) Luther was an Augustinian monk and the professor of biblical exegesis at Wittenberg- religious2)      Wrote the “The depravity of man”- Righteous3) He was excommunicated in 1521 and then appeared before the Diet of Worms, were he took a firm stand upon his views and was put under the ban of the Holy Roman Empire- convictionc)            1) Changed the life and thought of the church- reformable2) Luther began his translation of the Bible, into German- defiant3) Wrote pamphlets on his principal contention which was man is justified by faith alone, and not by works- faithful3)   Alexander the Greata)  1) He marched troops through Syria, Egypt, Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, founding the city Alexandria in 331 BC- Courageous2) Alexander was appointed to his father’s position as leader of the Greek confederation- royal3) He began the invasion and conquest of Asia and defeated DARIUS 111- congregationalb) 1) Punish the Persians for past offences- punitive2)Total pursuit and destruction of the defeated enemy- tenacious3) Treated defeated wives of kindly- Mercifulc) 1) He did away with his rival to the throne, razing Thebes- fated2) Alexander achieved the extension of Greek civilization into the East- conqueror3) His reign ushered in the Hellenistic Age- triumphant4) Julius Caesara) 1) Wrote the seven volume “Gallic Wars”- Intellectual2) He was elected consul in 59- consulate3) He pushed back the boundaries of Roman Gaul, until he had conquered all of central Europe from the Rhine to the Pyrenees- Conquerorb) 1) had many affairs with different women- Womanizing2) Lived like his troops lived- loyal3) Spend his money frivolously- spenderc) 1) He placed Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt- lovable2)      He crushed the remainder of the senatorial army at Thapsus, in North Africa- victorious3)      He defeated the king of Pontus at the battle of Zela-visionary5) Charlemagne-a) 1) He set about reforming a corrupt clergy with characteristic thoroughness- visionary2) He declared war on the Saxon people until they were conquered and converted to Christianity or destroyed- implacable3) He salvaged the works of many classical Latin authors- literateb) 1) Raised to believe the Franks are the people chosen to rule world- Religious              2) Ordered the priests to set up church schools with free education available to free men and slaves- moral3) His tutors instilled a love of literature and choral singing- appreciativec) 1) Defeated rear guard at a RONCESVALLES- defeater2)  He and his knights became the center of many epic medieval legends- romances3) Crowned himself emperor of the French- imperial6) Elizabeth the 1a) 1) Demanded faithfulness and loyalty from her advisors and courtiers- dominant2) She reestablished Protestantism and the supremacy of sovereign over Pope in England- political3) Ended foreign religious and political domination- religiousb) 1) Adopted a religious policy that was exceptionally tolerant- Tolerant                    2) She was fond of plays, pageants and loved to read- intellectual3) She had her sister Mary Queen of Scots executed for complicity in a Catholic plot against the life of Elizabeth- vengefulc) 1) Remained the virgin queen all through her rein- stubborn2) She brought domestic peace and prosperity, by the growth of England as a naval power- peaceful3) England become a great colonial empire- visionary7) Leonardo Da Vincia) 1) He left a handful of complete paintings- incomplete2) He went to Milan, where he worked for Lodovico Sforza as an engineer as well as a designer of costumes and scenery for court entertainment- designing3) He served as a military engineer for Caesar BORGIA- engineerb) 1) A gentle man who loved animals and despised war yet he worked as a military engineer to create deadly weapons- pacific2) His attention to things themselves- meticulous3) His fidelity to nature- accuratec) 1) Had a keen eye and quick mind that led him to make important scientific discoveries, however never published his ideas-scientific2) He left no architectural works, however his sketches for buildings and even whole cities were left to people to find- influential3) He made sketches for churches, and painted murals and ceilings- artist8) Dante Alighieria) 1) He belonged to the Bianchi, one of the rival factions within the Guelph party- political2) He joined actively in both the politics and the actual fighting in the wars between the GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES- radical3) The Bianchi, soon made an alliance with the Ghibelline party and attempted unsuccessful attacks on Florence- revolutionaryb) 1) Believed that peace will be achieved only when the universal monarchy of the empire is established and recognized as the being independent of God- peacemaking           2) Idolized his wife as the inspiration for most of his works- romantic3) Believed in guiding mankind to peaceful happiness on earth and bliss in heaven- spiritualc) 1) United the separated Italian territories by the creation of a national culture- unifier2) Dante urges courtly Italian used for amatory lyrics be enriched with the best from every spoken dialect- poet3) He analyzes several Italian dialects, anticipating the much later science of linguistics- literate9) Catherine the Greata)      1) Catherine took part in the intellectual life of the continent, corresponding regularly with Voltaire, Baron von Grimm, and Diderot- intellectual2) She promised liberalization of the regime in Russia-progressive3) She intended to reform the legal code of Russia- reformb)  1) Banned the satirical criticism journals of Russia by Nikolay Ivanovich Novikov- Conservative2) Rumored to have many affairs- lusty3) Her dreams of power- imperialc) 1) the acquisition of land in the Ukraine that had long been held by Poland and the establishment of Russia’s frontier on the coast of the Black Sea- political2) Rein marked by increased contact with the west- liberal3) Never fulfilled her dream of conquering CONSTANTINOPLE from the Turks- incomplete  Reference site: Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia edited by Bruce Murphy 1996.

Fourth Edition.