Subject Instructor’s Name Date of Submission Malcolm X One of the issues of increasing concern in the postwar years was the civil rights or the movement to gain equality for black Americans. Blacks had benefited from the nation’s growing prosperity, and urban blacks in particular had greater earning power and a wider choice of jobs. Indeed, the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s had a substantial influence on the country’s economy but still, social and economic discrimination continued (Fusfeld and Bates, 1984).
Civil rights leaders waged a struggle against discrimination and segregation. Leaders of the movement turned to the federal courts and were successful in overturning an 1896 Court decision that allowed “separate but equal” schools for black students. The court ordered schools to end segregation with “all deliberate speed” (Fusfeld and Bates, 1984).
Heroes in America have varying backgrounds and colorful shades of valor. When Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered the speech that prompted the historical landmark in African Americans’ independence, he was considered a hero. When Malcolm Little turned into Malcolm X, having formed Muslim Mosque, Inc. among several other mosques for his brothers and sisters in race and attempted to form an integrated society between blacks and whites as the baptized El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, he was considered a hero too (Davis, 2004).
Malcolm X discerns that the disparities between blacks and whites are not virtually as remarkable as between carnivores and humans. But physical distinctions, such as a handicap or race, become strengthened by societal insights, which consequently generate bigger spaces between people. Inhabiting racialized social orders such as the United States can entail unfavorable health consequences for members of minor racial clusters, including negative outcomes of interpersonal ethnic discrimination and of qualities of place of habitation on both mental and physical health (Frazier, 1997).
Malcolm X voices the ignorance, hypocrisy, inertia, and racism of the people in power in the South of the 1940s. He Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://www.digitaltermpapers.com/members/English/index34.shtmlis an educated black man in the era of a racist society he has struggles greater than most men of his decent.End Match A black man who was forced to turn another into a grown man, he goes through a long journey to find his own manhood inside himself. in By Any Means Necessary, he proclaims his desire to break the cycle of his black men’s failures (Myers, 1970). As a follower of the Nation of Islam cult’s leader Elijah Muhammad, he promoted a dramatic change in the black community as reputation and pride (Myers, 1970).
By Any Means Necessary is an incisive analysis of the revolutionary period’s premature efforts to redress the perceptible incongruity of slavery and of their eventual concessions, which not only rendered the Black society in one piece but endowed it with the fortification of an enormously consolidated government after the Second World War (Myers, 1970).
Taken as a whole, Malcolm X is hardnosed in revealing the African Americans’ need to catch sight of themselves, a need nourished by a fierce trepidation about their facade. In Malcolm X’s fashion, his books like By Any Means Necessary similarly put into words without finding the middle ground the foreseeable course of identity crises and racism, represented impressively in the metaphors that wrap up the literature (Myers, 1970).
Malcolm X maintains that the sole means to sort out such injustice is to pay heed to the free black community, ensuring that it speaks for every single group within the society. And making certain as well that legislators do not shelve the cultural strategies such as kin accord in the black community itself as ill-bred or immaterial; in point of fact, Malcolm X charged that such plans would rather satisfy the African Americans well when they discovered themselves wedged in the wave of swift economic disorder and a politically driven system (Frazier, 1997).
Both racial and class factors are important in shaping the current black experience. Malcolm X construes that although blacks have made important economic and social gains over the past fifty years, they still lag significantly behind whites. A great gulf separates the two races. It attributed to the low relative status of blacks to a combination of broad- based economic factors and persistent racism (Nash, 1991).
In connection with Malcolm X’s perspective about Black Americans’ progressive move. President Kennedy had proposed a new civil rights law but was assassinated in November of 1963, before the bill was passed. His successor, Lyndon Johnson, persuaded Congress to pass the Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-finCivil Rights Act of 1964,End Match banning Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-findiscrimination in employment,End Match access to Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-finpublicEnd Match accommodations, Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-finandEnd Match in Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-fintheEnd Match use Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (8-12-07) http://www.answers.com/Civil+Rights+Movement?cat=biz-finofEnd Match federal funds. A year later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, which allowed federal workers to register voters who had been denied registration by the states. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned housing discrimination (Fusfeld and Bates, 1984).
But as Malcolm X had read and predicted the situation, although prosperity also led to higher standards of living, not all Black Americans benefited. Every major city had slum areas that housed the poor and unemployed, and declining farm incomes created rural poverty. Amid the growth and confidence of the postwar years, United States leaders initiated programs of aid to help people at home and abroad improve their way of life. Programs of domestic aid included funds for education, medical care for the poor, and urban renewal programs (Freeman, 2006). International air programs begun soon after the war sought to help United States maintain economic and political stability (Fusfeld and Bates, 1984).
However, though Malcolm X’s arguments are infallibly valid, they had erroneously made an exclusive inference that only the blacks are ghettoized in the United States. Truth is, other minorities besides African Americans have been victims of segregation and discrimination in the United States. In the 1800’s, for example, white settlers took much land from American Indians and forced them to move to reservations (Freeman, 2006).
Although Malcolm X’s academic sources and cross-references are historical in nature and diametrically from historic collection, his opinions are highly flavored. He injected his every opinion with in-depth facts or vice versa. It is however not of confident opinion whether he should be proud of the memoirs he gave us on the big picture of slavery through his historic interpretation. He himself, left the slavery rearing behind, replacing his “slave surname” Little with a spirited “X.” But definitely, it will play a significant role in moving forward, facing new peacekeeping challenges, by looking back at the precedents’ mistakes (Davis, 2004).
Before the Reconstruction, Malcolm X has observed that blacks still voted in substantial numbers and received equal treatment on common carriers, trains, and streetcars. Even so, blacks and whites attended separate schools, and whites did not accept blacks as social equals. It was during the 1890s and early 1900s that lynching attained its most staggering proportions and that Jim Crow laws mandating segregation were passed throughout the South (Davis, 2004).
Malcolm X contends that the underclass Begin Match to source 1 in source list: http://www.vitia.org/weblog/archives/000071.htmlexists mainly because of a sharp climb in inner-city joblessness by virtue of the elimination of hundreds of thousands of lower-skill jobs, the growing polarization of the labor market into low-wage and high-wage sectors, the relocation of manufacturing industries out of the central city, and periodic recessions. TheEnd Match problem has been Begin Match to source 1 in source list: http://www.vitia.org/weblog/archives/000071.htmlcompounded by the concentration of the disadvantaged in inner-city ghettos and the isolation of these areas from more affluent communitiesEnd Match (Hinkle, 2004).
According to Malcolm X, though, Begin Match to source 1 in source list: http://www.vitia.org/weblog/archives/000071.htmlthe underclass indeed constitutes a minority of the poor. The underclass is aEnd Match cote Begin Match to source 1 in source list: http://www.vitia.org/weblog/archives/000071.html of inner-city poor, those individuals and families who are trapped in an unending cycle of joblessness and dependence on welfare or criminal earnings. Their communities are plagued by drug abuse, lawlessness, crime, violence, and poor schools.End Match Many underclass women were teenage mothers and high school dropouts who subsequently found themselves sidetracked without the resources or skills to escape a life of poverty (Hinkle, 2004).
Poverty is the direct effect of discrimination against particular ethnic groups. It is true that some differences in incomes are a product of educational differences between groups. However, Malcolm X states that if we control for education among year-round, full-time workers, for example, that black men at every educational level earn less than white men. If the human capital theory operated freely, without interference in the form of discrimination, then we would not expect differences between blacks and whites, and between men and women at the same educational levels. But unfortunately this is not the case (Fusfeld and Bates, 1984).
If Malcolm X were still alive in the modern times, he would have said that if the discrimination victims need the power or they already have the power intrinsically, one thing shall comfort their souls and intellect: there may be no need to flaunt more Oprah Winfreys, Condozeela Rices or Martin Luther Kings to prove the worth of African Americans. May the black people be grouped with the “mainstream” in the human race, Black people in this world need not grumble over what commonsensically is derogatory to themselves. In other words, differences may transpire between people of color and pale skin but there is no way either of them should treat the other as the ugly party.