Answer to Q-1
The Chief Executive would like to hold meeting with the managing director of Independent Trading, the tenants of the Parfit Warehouse on the Bilding Technology Park. The Chief Executive overview the Parfit Warehouse lease. The Chief Executive was optimistic about the performance of Independent Trading. The lease on Warehouse is going to expire on 31 march 2003 and the managing Director was eager to extend the lease term for another five years. The Estate Section showed reluctant attitude to renew the lease term due to bureaucratic complexity of the Bilding Corporation. The Chief Executive prioritizes to imparting training for the staff of Estate Section. The Managing Director holds the good impression about the Parfit Warehouse Size on the Technology Park. He holds the views that Independent Trading feel better to move because there is a spacious room for future expansion. It would lead to the path of long-term growth prospect and the independent trading is optimist to renew the lease. The managing Director was suspicious of renewing the lease as the corporation could evict the lease holder on ground of enhancing rent. Some of the staffs are indifferent of leasing procedure.
Fulfilling the conditionality of Estate Section, The Chief Executive could speed up leasing procedure. The Chief Executive should review the proposal of tenant and examine the pros and cons. Lengthy leasing term may arise complexity and tenant decline to evacuate the Parfit warehouse. Rent procedure such as incubator rent scheme feasibility study should be carried on by the Chief Executive. The permission of modification to the original Structure by the Tenant might jeopardize the original Structure of the building.
The Chief Executive make his position transparent, what procedures would adopted by him on renewal of lease.
It needs to generate a commercially responsive market-led approach to its property management and eligible person of Estate section work out modalities for development of Bilding Corporation. The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem propose to afford the maintenance cost of parfit Warehouse while holding talk with the Chief Executive of Bilding Corporation. The managing Director showed a keen desire for signing fifteen years tenant’s repairing agreement. The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem would like to enjoy power for modification and maintenance over the life of the lease term
The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem presented himself as a successful entrepreneur with the objective of gaining confidence of his counterpart. The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem hope that his organization has earned reputation for re-generating run-down parts of cities and towns without imposing any fees over local communities. The Chief Executive should not prioritize the reputation of Ratchett & Fleecem as the tenant was looking for scope to evade the true. The managing director projected all positive advantage aiming at availing access from Bilding Corporation. The managing Director assured of defraying all expenses of maintenances and showed keen desire to extend the lease term for fifteen years. The Chief Executive should not allow to enhance the lease term fifteen years as the lengthy lease term bring negative impact for the Bilding Corporation. Sometimes the lengthy lease contract yield negative financial result for the Bildimg Corporation. Despite serving notice, the tenant show reluctant attitude to evacuate the building.
The managing Director like to enjoy power for modification of building on payment of $ 60000. The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem failed to receive any positive response from Estate Section The chief Executive should not offer such scope to the tenant as it will jeopardizes the original structure of the building.
The warehouse has been rented as an “Incubator Rent” which means that we pay £20,000 plus 20% of our gross profits. The managing director expected that this arrangement would become effective on completion of five years tenancy agreement. The Chief Executive should evaluate the pros and cons of the incubator rent. What benefit for the Bilding Corporation. Before arriving at as decision, the chief Executive ought to evaluate the flat rate which was based on partnership basis. The managing Director would like to evaluate the terms of the agreement and the effect of the Corporation’s recently completed refurbishment work reducing your annual maintenance costs for the building.
The Independent Trading is booming rapidly and it’s turnover enhanced substantially. From this point of view, the managing director put forward a proposal on a partnership basis having a flat rate element of £15,000 plus 15% of our (increasing) gross profit. As per expectation of managing Director, the agreement would become effective from April 2003 for five year term. How much successful is the Partnership basis rental procedure? The partnership basis introduce a flat rate element of £15,000 plus 15% of our (increasing) gross profit. Sometimes, this gross profit decline and the company incur massive loss financially. Therefore, The Company fails to afford the house regularly. We find no justification in the partnership basis flat rate. There has been massive apprehension of incurring loss in the business. The chief Executive had better take logical decision in this regard.
The company projected this document principally for the purposes of determining rent levels in respect Of the company’s Parfit Warehouse premises.
Gross Profit for the Year Ended 31 December 2001
Yearly Ended 31 December2001
Yearly Ended 31 December 2001
Cost of Sales
The turnover increased by 8.6% in comparison with the previous year. The Directors believe that the revised definition of Gross Profit, which includes an appropriate proportion of overheads, selling and administrative expenses, represents a more appropriate view of the company’s Gross Profit for the year.
The Directors projected trading figures, based on the new definitions as follows:
Year Ending 31 december,2002
Year Ending December, 2003
Gross of Sales
The Directors assume that there will be a further increase of 30% in Turnover and as Profit in 2004 as the company increases its sales into new export markets. The Turnover and Gross Profit are expected to stabilize. There were no projections for other categories of expense can be made.
The managing Director of Ratchett & Fleecem failed to receive any positive response from Estate Section The Senior Assessor depicted a gloomy scenario of Estate Section in his letter to Head of the Property. There was no improvement in the process of the PPIP assessment for the whole Division and holding the minimum standard for PPIP accreditation
The main problems that the assessor found are:
a) There was no training system for the staff for improvement of skillness.
b) The training venue has yet to finalized as it has a worthwhile outcome for the organization and the individual
c) The staff is not conscious of their performance which leads the organization to the path of progress. It’s needs
Well-motivated workforce who can identify their own training needs.
Answer to Q-2
Drafting a Report For Director of Corporate Services on future of Estate Section:
A three-stage approach is recommended when writing report:
1) Case Analysis.
2) Report Planning
3) Report Writing
The Bilding Corporation is the municipal body aiming at providing basic amenities to the citizens. The Bilding Corporation is not only ensuring municipal services but also providing education, housing, social services, water sanitation services and high way maintenance The Estate section is the part of property division of corporate services directorate. The responsibilities of property sections having three property related services.
a) Management looks after the lease dealings of the Corporation.
b) Management looks after the maintenances of Corporation properties including school building.
c) Energy management looks after the optimum utilization of energy in the corporation building.
Distinguishing Characteristics of Corporate Services:
a) Emphasized exploring and ranking risk to Corporate Services of Bilding Corporation.
b) Applied a predefined set of minimum control requirements for each of three risk levels (high, medium, low)
The corporate Services of Bilding Corporation considers it to be risk averse and is particularly concerned with loss of customer confidence, as well as monetary and productivity losses. The Corporate service of the Corporation has developed a detailed set of minimum mandatory control requirements over all operations.
The risk assessments have always been a part of doing business, the Corporate Services
Implemented a more standardized approach with the of ensuring a more common
The key steps of the process are shown on the following diagram and discussed in
Initiating a Risk Assessment and Planning:
The Corporate Services of Estate Section’s policy guidelines require conducting risk assessments at least once a year. Assessments are also required when a new services operation is established or when significant operational changes occur. Responsibility for launching the assessment lies with the Director of Corporate Service The Bilding Corporation audit department reviews compliance with the organization’s risk assessment requirements through annual audits and reports any noncompliance to business unit management. After identifying the need for a risk assessment, the Director of Corporate Service determines the scope of the assessment and establishes a risk assessment team.
The Report: The Corporate Service of the Estate Section has been suffering bureaucratic complexity. There has been dissatisfaction with overall performance of this section. The section manager is reluctant to bring about a revolutionary change and new idea in the organization. This negative attitude stood obstacle on way to bring momentum in the Corporate Service of the Estate Section. The bureaucratic culture of this section is to bringing inertia in the organizational day-to-day affairs. Excessive overtime has lead to both mental and physical stress. This leads to decline productivity massively. The head of the property express grave concern over indiscriminate availing of PPIP status, which is detrimental to bring dynamism in the Estate Section. There has not been any specific code of conduct to impose charge over property. There has been discrepancy between the amount recharge and actual cost of services mead to negative impact over corporate service Directorate. Another flaw is to delegated the financial expertise especially maintenance management and energy management to the school bring negative impact There has been a doldrums in the operation of Estate Section. Directorates face difficulties in receiving concrete decision from the Estate Section. .
The Director of Corporate Service assumes that the Maintenance Management Team’s costs are exorbitant. He has looked at the cost per chargeable hour and is concerned that it is higher than it should be. It mentions that non-productive time is higher than normal. It does not produce any fruitful outcome. The Corporate Service Assume that the costs charged to its residential homes by the same team is exorbitant. This is an important matter as these homes are much more expensive than comparable homes in the private sector and there is pressure on the Corporation to close some of its own home
a) It should need to reshuffle the cost of maintenance management team to users of their services and recommended to change the rate.
b) How the evaluation of the charge made by Maintenance Management Team continue to be based on a single rate for all primary schools, or whether the charge should vary according to the age and size of the school.
c) Its need to bring momentum in the operation of Corporate Service of Estate Section. The director of corporate service should prioritize on elimination of bureaucratic complexity. There has been no compassion and lenient attitude in this regard. The corporate service could produce fruitful result through launching the bureaucratic elimination drive.
d) It should prioritize the abatement of excessive overtime for the sake of quality service in the Estate Section.
e) It ought to reduce unnecessary use of PPIS status as it does yield fruitful result and made obligatory supervision whether the training drive is launching properly or not.
f) There should be a transparent mechanism over imposition of charge.
g) The financial expertise especially maintenance management and energy management ought to delegated to convenient position.
h) Maintenance management Team’s cost ought to reduce paying least per chargeable hour and utilize the non-productive time efficiently.
After assessing the minimum set of controls, the team compares those required
Controls with controls already in place and identifies any gaps. The team prepares a short statement summarizing the outcome and documenting its decisions and decision making process.
If there are sphere where additional controls are needed to meet minimum requirements, the director of Corporate Service develops an action plan and submits it to the Chief Executive office. The plan exercise controls the business unit manager believes would provide the level of protection appropriate for the risk connected with the asset. Factors Considered are security exposures, the level of risk associated with the business function or activity, the costs of implementing the controls, and the impact of Noncompliance on other business operations within the Bilding Corporation.
If the business unit believes that the time needed to implement controls is too lengthy or the steps are too costly, the director of corporate service may request a waiver. The Director must describe the rational for the waiver and what compensating Controls the unit has or will implement. The Central office should have a standing committee to approve or deny requests for waivers. The tracking system contains information on the regional office’s business units, such as operations descriptions, risk assessment results, and associated policy and safeguard compliance.
Answer to Q-3
Drafting a Report on Livingstone Primary School Construction Project: The school manages their own budget under the central Government policy. In the early era, the Directorate of Education administered the schools. Local authorities provided 90% of their budget to individual schools. The boards of Governors monitor overall strategy and development of schools. The local authority exercise power within the jurisdiction of capital expenditure, renovation of building recruitment teaching staffs and functions relating to ownership of school. The necessities items for school have been purchased on contractual basis from the development budget.
The DMS formulated budget is divided up amongst schools according to a formula, based primarily upon pupil numbers. The few schools eager to purchase services from provider other than Bilding Corporation. The boards of governors raised question the nature, quality and cost of provision offered by the corporation. The school can sign a Service Level Agreement (SAL) to buy service from the corporation and can buy service from private sector competitors. Where a local authority provides a service to schools under an SLA, it is independently decide the basis and level of charge that it wishes to make for that service. The necessary support services for school have been purchased on a contractual basis from the devolved budgets. Under Direct Management of Schools (DMS) the devolved budgetary allocations have been made according to the number of pupils.
The government prioritizes competitive market for essential services with the objective of raising standards and improves efficiency. The alternative private sector services provider coming forward in this regards. Very few schools have been allowed to purchase services from private provider The boards of governors started evaluation on nature, quality and cost of provision offered by the Corporation The directorate exercise power over services funded that lead to impinge on individual school such as project management of building project.
The schools have been allowed to sign a Service Level Agreement (SLA) as the school seeks service from the Corporation, Private Sector competitors and ability to use funds for other purpose. The local authority had better provide service to schools under SLA. It could independently decide the basis and level of charge that it wishes to make for that service.
The Director of Education prioritized abatement of cost and timetable for the new Livingstone Primary School. The chief Executive issued directive to Finance Directorate to assess the probable cost of the project and completion of project within the stipulated time. There is an apprehension that project management on new school builds is not sufficiently professional.
In the memorandum on 22 October 2002, The Manager Property project of Bilding Corporation emphasized on making successful the Livingstone primary school construction project and ensure successful tendered for the Livingstone Primary School Project The elaborate design and timetable have been chalked out from Dampcorse primary school The recommendation suggested strategy on recent construction and Linked Industry Performance Standards (CLIPS) Board technical update bulletin on building practices.
Duration in Week
The Manager Property project of Bilding Corporation prioritizes the Hinge and Brackett’s opinion on reducing the costs in line with the CLIPS Board recommendations and revision of tendered price. There is a provision of Corporation policy on projects to provide 10% of the contracted cost plus professional fees as a contingency. The Manager Property project emphasized on completion of construction project by mid July 2004 as the school resume its class within September 2004.
The memorandum placed by Environmental Protection Officer on 31 October 2002 laid emphasis on following the Environment Bio-Diversity (Protection of Species) Act 1994. The warning came due to location of pond and Colony nearby the construction site.
Regional Archaeological Officer discloses information of availability of archaeological on the site of the new Livingstone Primary School. Paying rich tribute to the sprit of Roman religious custom, Regional Archaeological Officer realized the need to enhance budgetary allocation amounting to 35,000 for excavation this will take 8 weeks. As per law, this excavation must be completed before the building project can start
In the memorandum on 14 November 2002, the Director of Education depicted awful scenario to Director of Corporate Services on exorbitant charge imposition by Building maintenance management. The Maintenance Management Team of your Estates Section provides this service. The gist of the accusation is that they are being overcharged for this work, and they are reluctantly considering going to an external provider early next year, when the SLA’s are up for renewal. In rejoinder to this accusation, the Estate section refutes that that all primary schools are charged the same amount for this service. The logic behind the charge hike is baseless as the authentic cost of the service varies between primary schools according to age and size. The head teacher hold the view that they are paying more than it would cost to get a private sector surveyor to undertake this work.
The memorandum on 18 November 2002, The Director of Education portrays a gloomy scenario to the Chief Executive on completion of Livingstone Primary School within a stipulated time. The Livingstone Primary School’s site is contaminated by chemical waste and needs decontamination before ground preparation can begin it takes 12 weeks to complete decontamination involving a cost of 100,000. Specialist will administer this. The competitive tendering is apparently not applicable, as this is specialist work. Bob de Bilder show negative attitude to complete the project on time.
The Chair of Governors at Dampcorse Primary School justifying his stance by saying that Property Projects are to blame for the school being four months late and 20% over budget. The suggestion of director of Education that Property Projects are made to take responsibility for the overspending or that any excess be charged to central contingencies. The Property Projects operate on a “commercial basis”; they intend to levy a charge for their services of 2.5% of the entire cost of the project before allowance for contingencies.
The Manager Property Projects analyzed in his memorandum on 22 November 2002 how to reshuffle the staff for accelerating the Livingstone primary school construction project. Activated that activities A (newt relocation), B (archaeological dig) and C (soil decontamination) are not part of the Hinge and Brackett contract, but are part of the whole project. Therefore, three activities must be launched consecutively and Hinge and Brackett cannot begin work until the soil decontamination is fully completed.
It would be expensive to complete the project by mid July deadline. The accelerated (crash) costs are shown in the table below. The higher scale of charges would be introduced to those selected activities only. These crash costs include the CLIPS Board recommended efficiency improvements. They represent the total projected cost of the activity on an accelerated basis, not additional cost to the cost on a normal basis.
Accelerate Basis Duration (Weeks)
D. Ground Preparation
G Main Structure
H Ancillary Structure
N Filling Out
O Car Parking
P Playing Ground
The following points have to highlight
a) No operation could launch unless the ground excavation is completed
b) The duration and expenses for accelerated activities are not segregated, as instance the electrical activity will take either 11 or 9 weeks. It could not be completed within 10 weeks for additional 8,000.
c) The car parking cannot operated unless the rest of the services are restored
d) It should complete the installation of all services at the time of laying foundation and the work of main structure begin on completion of both the installation of services and foundation laying formalities.
e) It should ensure water and toilet facilities at the time of starting main structure operation.
f) Plumbing must be completed before the heating system can be installed
g) Electrical work should be started after plastering completion.
h) The decoration work will be started after installation of heating system.
i) It would be easier to erect the ancillary structures whilst plumbing, electrical, heating and plastering work are proceeding.
j) Fitting will be started on completion of interior decoration.
k) The car parking and playing ground must be completed at the time of handing over the school building to the Education Directorate.
Following Suggestions provide Solution to the problem of Living stone Primary School:
The director of Education emphasized on leading facilities management company, Capital Solutions, to provide a Build, for the solution to the Livingstone Primary School problem. He is planning anew school design. The responsibility would entail on professional whose guarantee ensures the school ready on time without having any risk for the Directorate.
The fund would be provided on easy term, as it could be refund on easy installment of over 25 years.
The access of availing PFI proposal contract for construction of Livingstone Primary School project is congenial for successful implementation. In the last eight years, the private Finance Initiative (PFI) has enlarged its size as a means of financing and delivering public sector projects. The PFI replacement with the introduction of Best Value, PFI has been stated as one of the possible ways of achieving Best Value. PFI projects have in recent years grown in number in local government one area of local government has seen the bulk of PFI projects.
The survey evaluated the introduction of PFI into schools in detail the Glasgow City Councils schools PFI project, worth £1.2 billion over the lifetime of the project. This single project has a lifetime value greater than all the other signed education PFI schemes added together. An appraisal will be made to see if value for money has been achieved and that the Best Value criteria have been followed.
The implementation of Livingstone primary School had the ample scope to avail the access of PFI proposal. It will be exempted from exorbitant charge by introduction of PFI proposed contract. The appropriate cash flows should be discounted using the current Construed Government public sector borrowing rate. This has recently fallen to 5% per annum, and is projected to fall further to 4% in year 16 of the project’s operational life.
The Bilding Corporation prioritizes to recommend the proposal of PFI contract for approval. The new school should be operated and maintained by the Corporation would be 60,000 in the first year of operation. It is assumed that the inflation would be 3% yearly for premises cost for first 10 years.
Appraisal of Project Management: Project management is defined by the PMBOK “ As the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet stake holder’s need and expectations from a project.” The discipline of project management can be described in terms of its component process, conveniently defined by the PMBOK as nine knowledge areas:
a) Integration, b) Time c) Quality d) Scope e) Cost f) HRM g) Communication
h) Procurement i) Risk
a) Project Integration: It integrates the three main project management process of planning, execution and control- where inputs from several knowledge areas are brought together. Director of Education hold the view that project management on new school builds is not sufficiently professional. Due to absence of professional management in Livingstone Primary School, the planning could not execute efficiently.
b) Project Time Management: The process required to ensure timely performance of the project. It consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, duration estimating, establishing the calendar, schedule development and time control. The Director of Education prioritized abatement of cost and timetable for the new Livingstone Primary School. The chief Executive issued directive to Finance Directorate to assess the probable cost of the project and completion of project within the stipulated time. The Manager Property project emphasized on completion of construction project by mid July 2004 as the school resume its class within September 2004. It was suspicious to complete the Livingstone Primary within the stipulated time.
c) Project Cost Management: In this process to require ensuring that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of renounces planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, cash flow and cash control. The elaborate design and timetable for Livingstone Primary School have been chalked out from Dampcorse primary school the recommendation suggested strategy on recent construction and Linked Industry Performance Standards (CLIPS) Board technical update bulletin on building practices. There is a law of Corporation policy on projects to provide 10% of the contracted cost plus professional fees as a contingency. The Manager Property project emphasized on completion of construction project by mid July 2004 as the school resume its class within September 2004.
d) Project Quality Management: This process requires ensuring that the project will satisfy the need for which it was undertaken. It consists of determining the required condition, quality, planning and quality control. The Livingstone Primary school construction project fail to determine the required condition, quality, and quality control.
e) Project Risk Management: This process concerned with identifying, analyzing and responding to Livingstone Primary School project risk. It consists of risk identification, risk quantification and risk control.
f) Project Human Resource Management: It includes process required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the Livingstone Primary school project. It’s consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition and team development. Director of Education hold the view that project management on new school builds is not sufficiently professional
Answer to Q-4
Formulation Of proposal to finance the building of the Livingstone Primary School by means of a PFI:
The assistant Director of Education depicts the gloomy scenario of Directorate in the memorandum of 27th Nov 2002. The Directorate has been facing extreme financial difficulties and having poor financial control. The directorate has not been allocated extra fund with the objective of fulfilling the adequate facilities for the increasing school population. The saving amount 150,000 earmarks for the Livingstone primary school would be use for new classroom at Dampcorse primary school because the existing building is small. This is the reason of children’s suffering from bronchitis, asthma and sinusitis. The Corporation is responsible for this situation.
If the Education Directorate grants cost of Livingstone Primary School charged 2,350,000, the education authority could build new classroom at Dampcorse. The extra costs for newts, Romans and toxic chemical soil contamination charge imposition is unnecessary heading of Contingency in the Livingstone Primary School castings. The PFI authorities have the empirical experience on designing and building small/medium primary school. The design was economically competent in maintaining standard for school building. The PFI authorities financial potentially lie on borrowing chiefly (minimum 6% annually).
The yearly rental would assess for a “level-playing field” subsidy of 20% guaranteed for the first five years. The Secretariat for Education may even extend this subsidy for indefinite period. . The subsidy raise extra funding for your authority, top-sliced from the capital allocations for other Local Authorities The PFI authorities expectation is that the school authority hand over the site to PFI to start work in May 2003. The PFI management believes that the school would be completed by August 2004. The authorities would ensure the completion of proposed playing ground and car parking area. The authority expects the excess land with outline planning permission for industrial development.
The Bilding Corporation’s Education Directorate: Facing shortage of fund. The directorate has not been allocated extra fund with the objective of fulfilling the adequate facilities for the increasing school population. In my opinion, there is no alternative to receiving assistance from PFI authorities. The Bilding Corporation will materialize the dream of Constructia Government for new public assets benefit from PFI authority Before implementation of Government PFI unit, it’s need to follow following suggestions.
a) It should bring transparency in the operation of Education Directorate. The receiving of huge charge by the Education Directorate would bring no benefit for the education. If these charges were paid for by the contingency, this would presumably also save some of the 10% surcharge for professional fees. It should help in construction of the Livingstone Primary school Building.
b) The Education Directorate is not liable for causing any of these problems if these costs cannot be paid for by contingency, surely the costs should be taken as a central charge. It does not yield any result. Above all, all extra costs have only arisen because they forced us to agree to build Livingstone Primary School on a brown field site. It should liberalize the policy of Education Directorate for optimum utilization of all charge.
c) The PFI authorities financial potentially lay on borrowing chiefly (minimum 6% annually) The local Authorities in Constructia prioritize the capital solutions through practicing PFI methods. There has been an unrivalled track record in the provision of total solutions for providing school premises. The contract period enhance from 25 years to 40 years for availing the access.
d) The annual rent should reduce one-third out of £279,250 as the PFI non-unloosed workforce also ensures running costs to a minimum.
e) The yearly rental would assess for a “level-playing field” subsidy of 20% guaranteed for the first five years. The Secretariat for Education may even extend this subsidy for indefinite period. . The subsidy raise extra funding for your authority, top-sliced from the capital allocations for other Local Authorities The guarantee for subsidy of 50% for the first fiver years to facilitate the construction of Livingstone Primary School. The exorbitant subsidy raise extra funding for your authority, top-sliced from the capital allocations for other Local Authorities
f) The provision of 25 years should change to 40 years .The PFI authorities introducing an inflation proof modest annual rental, the school authority could formulate budget with confidence and guarantee. There is a provision that the school premises would hand over to Bilding Corporation on completion of 25-year term and the Corporation could freely use the site of school or dispose of it.
g) The authentic cash flows should be discounted using the current Construetia Government public sector borrowing rate. This has recently fallen to 5% per annum, and is projected to fall further to 4% in year 16 of the project’s operational life Prior to launching the Livingstone Primary School; it should review the discounted cash flow.
h) The proposed PSI deal approach the running costs for the new school, if administered and maintained by the Corporation would be £55,000 (at 2004/05 prices) in the first year of operation. Inflation is expected to be 3% per annum for premises costs for the first 10 years. As the structure ages, the maintenance costs will raise, so the annual inflation rate should be 4% per annum after year. At the time of launching of Livingstone Primary school projects have to induct annual inflation rate’s
1) Rory Burkey (2004), “Project Management Planning and Control”, Chap-1, Fourth Edition, Wiley Student Edition, Singapore.
2) Memorandum, 27th, November 2002 To, Director of Finance.
3) Letter from Managing Director of Ratchett and Fleecem to The Chief Executive, Bilding Corporation.
4) Letter from Managing Director To Mr. J.C Bee Date 16th Oct, 2002
5) Memorandum From Assistant Director Of Finance, To Director Of Education, on 22 Oct<2002
6) Memorandum From Environmental Protraction Officer, To Manager Property Project, On 31 Oct 2002.
7) Memorandum From Estate Manager To Special Project Accountant On Nov. 2002
8) Memorandum From Accounting Technician, To Special Project Accountant, On 12th Nov, 2002
9) Memorandum From Director Of Education of Corporate Services, Date 14th, 2002
10) From Director Of Education, To The Chief Executive, On 18th Nov 2002.
11) From Assistant Director of Finance TO Special Project Accounting, Nov 20th, 2002.
12) From Head Of Property, To Special Project Account, Nov 21th, 2002
13) From Manager Property Project, To Special Project Account. , Nov 22th, 2002.
14) From Marketing Director, To Director Of Education, Date 25th Nov 2002.