Communication is the exchange of information from the source to the receiver. The nature of the information can be words, body language, tone of voice and nonverbal cues. It is as two way process. First is the transfer of the information coming from the speaker and travel to the medium going to the receiver. And the receiver will respond to the information received. In the case, Paula is said to be the only source of leadership decisions in the group which in reality is not a good example of what leadership in organizations should be. There is a stasis in the source of communication if it tends to be monotonic. In this case, the members of the group who are not given much opportunity would tend to deviate and would entail towards a difficulty in controlling and organizing for the better good of the entire group.
Communication can be observed in everyday lives like employers talking each other in an office, a child asking for the receipt and many others. In an organization, people almost spent 75% of their time in communication. And some encounter many problems and misunderstanding between the persons on an organization. That is why there is a need in effective communication so that the interaction whether it is interpersonal, intergroup, or intra-group will be successful and efficient when it comes to the transferring of the information. It is very important on the messenger and the receiver to know the different forms of information, how to use them, when to use them. The barriers in effective communication must also be analyzed in order for an effective communication will occur.
Benefits of Effective Communication in Teamwork
Effective communication in a team can achieve shared understanding. A good example of this situation is the teamwork of a basketball team. First, the coach of the team must be the first example to show good traits on how to transfer information effectively. The coach must communicate to its player as one group or as a sub group of players. The coach must direct his or her team in such a way that the members of the team work together, not just by one player to achieve their goal in winning the game. Next are the players of the team. It is very important that each player knows the movement and attitudes of each player in the team so that effective communication can be done while playing. An effective communication can be observed when all the players are working together as a team. This can be achieved when one or two players give direction to each player in the court. The transfer of information must be clear enough so that the receiver can response correctly. (Ceasar Douglas, 2007)
Another benefit that can bring by effective communication is that it directs the flow of information. Consider the example when the human resource manager of a company is interviewing an applicant for a job. Effective information can be attained if the applicant transfers the information in a clear and efficient way. The applicant must answer the questions in straight manner thus minimizing the confusion. It will direct the flow of information from the applicant going to the human resource manager. (Ceasar Douglas, 2007)
Effective communication also helps people overcome barriers to open discussion. This is a very obvious situation because the purpose of effective communication is to transmit the information in a clear way so that full understanding between the speaker and receiver will be attained. Example of this kind of effective communication that is applied is when a group of people are in conference room. The speaker must use appropriate words that must be suitable on the agendas of the meeting. The speaker must know when to raise his or her voice and when to use body language and nonverbal communication. As a two way process, the receivers must obtain the information that the speaker wants to impart to the group of people. In this way, the speaker and the receivers of the information can achieved a shared understanding on the agendas of the meeting. The receivers may also share their thoughts and ideas so that effective communication will be achieved through the Internet. This kind of communication is now popular to many companies because members of the executive committee of a company will have the chance in communicating with each other even tough they are far from each other. (Crosse) If some of the agendas were not delivered well by the speaker, they must ask questions regarding on the meeting so that the misunderstanding will be minimized.
Effective communication will stimulates others to take action to active goals. In an organization, the leader of the organization has purpose for the organization. The leader must communicate to its members so that as a group, they will know what to perform in order to achieve their goal. The leader will give a group of instructions that will guide the members of the organization. The instructions must be clear enough to understand well by the members.
Effective communication will result to channels information to encourage people to think in new ways and to act more effectively. The benefit of effective communication mentioned above can be observed on people working in an aviation company. One of the major problems encountered by an aviation company is plane crash. Studies show that these instances were mostly caused by human errors. This human error can be accounted as, miscommunication of the crewmembers, and low in cognitive traits of the members like low quality traits in teamwork. Effective communication is a vital requirement for an aviation industry because the safety of the passenger’s lives is their main concern. There is a need in effective communication on many instances like the landing and takeoff of the plane. Communication and coordination must be done properly to minimize accidents. The characteristics of information to provide an effective communication needed in an aviation company must be clear, sufficient, precise and instructional. Prevent information that is vague, ambiguous, and in low volume to prevent confusion. Another major concern is the right time of transferring the information to a right specified receiver. Effective communication will make the actions of a people effective.
Effective communication also lessens the chance of accidents. Accidents can never be predicted if when it will happen but can be prevented. In our daily lives we encounter accidents. Example of an accident is a plane crash. There are many reasons why plane crashes occur. One may be on the performance of the plane’s equipment and another is the problem in the member of the crew in a plane. (Raphael, 2002)
Obstacles of Effective Communication in Teamwork
There are some factors to consider that hinders effective communication with in a team wherein such obstacles that must be known and must be minimized to have an effective communication. First to consider of the barriers in effective communication is the language being used by the team. The choice of words and language is very important to achieve an effective communication. This is because if the choice of language to be used by the members of the team will affect the quality of the communication. If the language or the choice of words is not understood by one of the members of the team, miscommunication or misunderstanding will arise. Example of this case is when one member of a team uses different language or deviates a little to the majority language of the team. If one member of the team will speak to the team, there might be a big possibility that the members of the team will have a wrong interpretation on what the member is trying to say. This may occur also when the majority of the members use the majority language and the member of the team that uses the wrong language will not determine the point of the majority of the team (Ceasar Douglas, 2007).
Another obstacle of an effective communication is the transfer of information at the wrong time. This can be observed in an aviation company. It is very important that the crew in the airplane and the pilots must transmit information to have a safety flight, especially when emergencies arise. In a Cockpit-To-Cabin Communication, almost all instances, effective communication is required. One is the takeoff and landing. It is very important for the flight attendant to prepare the cabin before and after takeoff and landing of the plane. These instances showed the highest rate of accidents. A good example of effective communication is needed is when to instruct the passengers that take off or landing is imminent. In this situation, the passengers may prepare them selves for the takeoff and landing. The pilots in the cockpit must transfer this information to the flight attendants for the preparation with enough time for preparation. Right time of transferring the information is basic for effective communication. After this, the flight attendants must transfer the information that the cabin is now ready for takeoff or landing.
The quality of the information also affects the effectiveness of a communication. If the information being transmitted is not clear, vague and ambiguous, then ineffective communication may arise. If the environment where the information travels is a noisy environment, the receiver may not receive the message clearly because the quality of the message is being blocked by noise. There will be unreliable message and inconsistency of the information. The use of computer-mediated communication also affects the effectiveness of communication. In this mode of communication, there is a vagueness and not clear transfer of information due to the complexity of the mediator (Lori Foster Thompson, 2003).
Another to be considered is the body language that is being used by the team. The misreading of the body language, tone and other nonverbal mode of communication will hinder the effectiveness of a communication. When a member of a team, like in football team, if one of the member of the team wants to inform the rest of the team that there is a need to score, he must transmit the message clearly with the use of his body to inform the team.
Methods of Dissemination in Communication
Perhaps the most effective method of communication is the face-to-face or the interpersonal. It is very human in content and experience and often is recalled as a cherished or terrible experience. Perhaps this was the only tool available to the primitive man. Technology progressively replaced the human factor in communication. However, the audiovisual media has the many features of the primitive with the availability of sight sound and movement and the added advantage of enabling communication to masses and from distances. Studies have underlined the effectiveness of this media in sending persuasive messages. When the visual element is absent the media is called audio media (loud speakers and radio) and the audio element is absent it is called visual media (cartoons pictures, statistical data). Print media made up of newspapers, magazines, handouts etc are other well-known tools for marketing communication. The media can support one another. Print media can highlight what is in the broadcast media and similarly radio can give coverage about what is in the press.
Criteria for Selection of Media
One of the conditions for the selection of a particular media is its acceptability to the targeted audience. However there can be constraints of availabity of that media and the capability of harnessing that media in a milieu; the media may not available to the target group. Another factor to be considered in media selection is the timeliness of the production. The adage the early bird catches the worm is nowhere more true than in marketing communication. (Browne, 1998) An immediate opportunity has to be communicated as fast a possible and lag due to production time constraints and dissemination problems might make the message improperly timed. Quantity is important, as certain volume of one medium has to be sufficiently supported by another medium of a certain volume to achieve optimum result. Finally, there is the suitability criterion of language, vocabulary graphics etc used in the communication. (Perse, 2001) A newspaper advertisement will be an exercise in futility for an illiterate target group. Media planning in the competitive business environment is no frivolous task and media managers can leave nothing to chance in this field.
Supportive Communication Elements
The style of marketing communication that is followed by many organizations have an integrated approach. In this approach, there are many components. Only if all the components function smoothly the goal can be achieved. Some times these are called supportive communication elements. Marketing communication is no more a matter of advertising in radio, television in the print media. (Harris, 1997) For achieving the best possible communication with the consumers the sender of the message should use a host of tools like advertising, public relations, direct marketing, interactive- internet marketing, sales promotions and personal selling. (Gerbner, 1980)
The focus of integrated communication is not short-term gains. Short-term gains may
be achieved quickly. However now a business enterprise is viewed as a long-term project. More and more entrepreneurs realize that the most valuable asset of an organization is the people. So increasingly, businesses tend to hold on to the view people first. This attitude has a salutary effect on the performance of the company because people contributed their might because they realized that the organization and they are inseparable. The respect to persons comes from an ethical awareness of values and ethics is intrinsically related to any lasting enterprise. In a free market, the most productive staff, the finest suppliers and the cheapest and most flexible sources of finance can do better than to stay with a business that cheats or treats them unfairly. (Chris, 2002)
Various behavioral theories are used to achieve the integration of people with an
organization. Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow have contributed much to our understanding of factors that make people contribute their best. In Herzberg’s view, there are job factors that motivate employees. Marsow identified a rank of human needs that motivate people. In Hersberg’s analysis company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators. According to the theory, the lack of hygiene factors can generate job dissatisfaction, but their existence does not stimulate or produce satisfaction. He listed five factors in particular that were powerful determiners of job satisfaction. These are achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. These are the satisfiers associated with long-term positive factors in job performance while the dissatisfiers had only short-term effects only. The integrated marketing communication gave lot of value to these theories because of the focus on long-term effects. In Maslow’s theory, there is a general pattern of needs identification and satisfaction that people follow in normally the same sequence. He also put forward that a person could not make out or pursue the next higher need in the hierarchy until her or his currently recognized need was significantly or completely satisfied, a concept labeled prepotency. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often shown as a pyramid with the survival need at the broad-based bottom and the self-actualization need at the narrow top. Many enterprises have been influenced by these theories and changes brought about in the structure of the organization have yielded excellent results.
Integrated marketing communication has made certain demands in the manner of staffing and training. The traditional functioning of the organization as separate compartments did not call for too much interaction with other departments. Now it is necessary for various departments to rub shoulders with one another. This augments the chance for conflicts: When individuals are required to work together, personality conflicts are magnified. This will lead to disagreements, which can cause strained relationships. Expect that some of your team members will be very disturbed by this (Biech. 5). Therefore at the recruitment stage the personnel should be selected taking into consideration the social qualities. There is a great stress placed on emotional quotient of the staff. The capacity of being a team player is essential in the backdrop of integrated marketing communication. The integrated marketing communication also calls for people who are capable of multi-tasking. In fact, most Universities have tailor made their curriculum to meet this challenge. (Wright, 2002)
The integrated marketing communication has also brought about a paradigm shift
towards the attitude of the company boss. The style of leadership in integrated marketing communication cannot be one of the commander and the commanded. In fact, the functional leadership of the boss, which managed from his/her isolated fortress of the innermost office room, cannot be copied any more. His/her role is one of a team builder and he/she has to see to the emotional content of his/her staff.
Effective communication is vital for Paula’s group that should work together. Communication therefore, will be Paula’s tool in making the relationship within her group to be more efficient in handling their obstacles. When a team such as the case of Department X is working together in making a given project, the group must realize that effective communication within the members of the group will benefit to the success of the group. Communication in this case became useful such that the speaker which is Paula, using appropriate communication channels, could obtain a clearer picture of being a team with her members as the receivers Working together as a group will make the project’s goal be attained faster than in an individual. Like in the design of a building, the engineers must work together by providing the team with information needed to make the project be successful. They must share their own knowledge and experience to come up with a good design of a building and not individual efforts because it will only cause delay of the project.
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