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  Management Development In Human OrganizationsIn organizational development, leadership development is the strategic investment in, and utilization of, the human capital within the organization. Management development is the growing of capacity of an organization; harnessing the human and material resources of the organization to achieve the goal for which it was setup. Human organizations on the other hand, are organizations that are responsible for the development of humanity. They are usually non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Their aims are to provide social services in the various spheres of human life.

In current perspective, for the management development of human organizations in the bigger establishments, no current distinction has been drawn between leadership and management and the programmes of development contain elements of both. The smaller organizations in the sector are limited by the availability of resources. Some of the also provide minimum in-house training to meet their statutory responsibility.There is a huge gap generally in the management development of human organizations.

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These gaps have led to there being no leadership program for new managers, thus people get promoted based on their professional expertise and are then expected to take up leadership and management roles. This results in a group of managers holding office with minimal procedural training and with clear gaps in their knowledge around managing people, managing resources and planning and managing programmes or projects. This also causes significant gap at the strategic business planning level.

A reduction in the range of programmes with a clear pathway that linked to progression that enables managers see what they require at different levels of management within the organization is created.Several approaches have been adopted to correct this situation and also in the most cost effective way. One of such methods is the use of e-learning. Access to technology and the limited staff skill have been identified as some of the barriers to e-learning.

Though e-learning was not being utilised, there had been real interest in developing and improving e-learning but with a preference for training and development to take a blended approach, thus ensuring that face-to-face development continues to play an important part.It should be known that e-learning has been applied in achieving professional qualifications as with the case of distant learning. But in this case we are talking about social service providers who have to interact with people on very regular basis. The e-learning facility will have to simulate, and adequately too, the interactions with humans. This is rather difficult bur it is hoped that someday it will be achieved.The overall aim of human organizations is to develop the human-being.

Thus emphasis will be put to building leaders in their organizational structure. Leadership development focuses on the development of leadership as a process. This will include the interpersonal relationships, social influence process, and the team dynamics between the leader and his/her team at the dyad level, the contextual factors surrounding the team such as the perception of the organizational climate and the social network linkages between the team and other groups in the organization. Leadership development builds on the development of individuals to become leaders.

In addition, it also needs to focus on the interpersonal linkages between the individuals in the team(in this case the human organization). This is in the belief that the most important resource that an organization possesses is the people that comprise the organization, all organizations address the development of these resource.There have been other development approaches that have been developed. Action learning sets have been developed and are being used in a number of organizations.

Whilst this growth in the use of other development approaches is significant, their linkage to formal programmes seems to be fairly loose and there is a question about the strategic use of such methodologies. Another way of learning that is also assuming greater popularity is tele-training. Tele-training is training that live instructions are conveyed in real time via telecommunications facilities, this training may be accomplished on a point-to-point basis or on a point-to-multipoint basis, and may assume many forms, such as a tele-seminar, a teleconference, or an electronic classroom, usually including both audio and video.Over time, the investment in management training seems to have increased. It may be that these trainings are more focused on in-house training though there is provision of external accreditation or quality assurance.

There is a consensus of agreement supporting the development of some form of national standards approach and a national framework of development to support the standards.The high number of people in human organizations that complete their postgraduate certificate is a demonstration of the value of accreditation. Most of these people are in highly pressured jobs and the completion of the final assignment to achieve their certificate required significant additional work.An evaluation of the programme has demonstrated that such an intervention can have impact for both the individual and the organization, however, the lack of robust management skills in such areas as commissioning, financial/business management and performance management (individual and organizational) are inhibitors to outstanding performance as leaders and managers.Clear recommendations have been given on the way forward for the sector, including both the development of robust standards and programmes, but also the development of less formal approaches including mentoring, coaching and action learning. Shadowing and secondment did not appear amongst their list of desirables, but lack of knowledge of this area of work may be a significant contribution factor.On the whole it will be seen that there is a need for the management development of human organizations to boost the efficiency of these organizations.

The right steps are being taken and in the right direction. With the increased funding for the organization development the best of human organizations can and are only getting better.With a well developed management that is properly trained and given refresher courses to update their skills in human organization management, their efficiency and effectiveness in the discharge of their duties will be greatly improved.

Professionalism will be enhanced, creativity improved and their patrons will have good value for their resources. Thus they will be more willing to stake their resources in the organizationReferences1.      Leadership and Management – the Investors in People guide to supporting the development of your leaders and managers. 20042.

      Leader to Leader edited by Frances Hesselbein and Paul M. Cohen. Peter Drucker Foundation 1999. Jossey Bass.3.      The Centre for Creative Leadership guide to Leadership in Action, Martin Wilcox and Stephen Rush.2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

4.      The Centre for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development, second edition. Edited by Cynthia D McCauley and Ellen Van Velsor. 2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.5.      A Manager’s guide to Leadership, Mike Pedler, John Burgoyne and Tom Boydell. 2004 McGraw Hill6.      Leading to Deliver – Evaluation Study, Cohort One.

April 2005 – the Taylor Clarke Partnership Limited and The Robert Gordon University.7.       Leadership development: A review in context.

The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 581-614. – Article by David V. Day, 2000.