Management

Introduction

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This generation is in the epoch of organizational reform and innovation. The time is marked with rapid changes in the demography of workforce, changing corporate culture, and changing institutions. In the light of the rapid shift in today’s organizations, the skills required of managers, beginners in the profession and even aspiring students in the discipline, rest on the foundation of knowledge on the whole gamut of organizational development. Corporate America is not without its complications. When the company “succeeds,” there is with it (the success) a corresponding notion of responsibilities and liabilities. Organizations thrive today because of the policies and guidelines they have managed to fixed firmly in their set-up and translated into their day to day affairs. Big businesses have the competitive edge over others – i.e., over small entrepreneurs, because they have arrived at their positions in the market place by securing certain parameters in the many facets that comprise their organizations. This is especially true on government laws and regulations (McKenna, 2000).

Discussion

~Management and leadership explained

Management and leadership theories are intricately related to a degree. My understanding is that leaders should be able to manage in most ways while most managers are not necessarily leaders or do not automatically possess leadership traits or abilities. Hence management theories focus on acquiring leadership qualities while leadership theories focus on the technical aspects if and when leaders who hold the reins lack technical know-how. They are distinct from each other precisely because there are those elevated to managerial positions that lack people skills or traits that make them handle people better or effectively (Clement, 1981). Management and leadership tasks are not that different that they can reside in one person. When a person develops managerial skills, he or she may not necessarily possess leadership abilities even with training. There are some who may develop abilities or acquire these characteristics important to governance for instance, and will still have to learn alongside the managerial competence (Clement, 1981).

~Important leadership traits

Beckhard (1969) elaborates about what leadership is like, drawing the line between this and that of management. Leadership has to do with change, enthusiasm and encouragement for the tasks, and influence. These three vital traits, each one linked with a specific function for leaders include:

1) The imagination to innovate:  To promote innovation, successful leaders assist in cultivating novel view, the ideas, paradigm, and applications of expertise that makes an organization distinct. 2) The professionalism to perform: Leaders offer personal and organizational capability, assisted by personnel preparation and education, to implement impeccably and dispense worth to ever more difficult and exacting customers. 3) The openness to work in partnership: Leaders create associations and linkages with partners who can enlarge the organization’s contact, improve its contributions, or strengthen its systems. Since an organization is composed of people, this leader knows a lot about human nature so he can appropriately anticipate and adjust to various personalities (Beckhard, R. 1969).

~Important management traits
These include the following (not necessarily in this order):

–   He/she must have the ability to inspire team members

–   He /she must know what the priorities are in his/her department

–   Has the ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time and constantly reprioritizes these tasks

–   Possesses a sense of humor

–   Can take all kinds of opinions and reactions hurled at him/her

–   Up-to-date technical skills

–   Has the ability to say ‘no’ mostly without making people angry

– And more importantly, has a good sense of values of family, faith and country.
Basically, the same as the management traits that must be possessed, since those in management are expected to influence people and are expected to lead. But as mentioned, these are traits, more naturally present in leaders per se, but are expected to be developed among those in the management levels.

Bruffee, author of Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, explains in précis the need for a more efficient, economical and equitable management of the people in the industry or organization has never been as pronounced as it is today. This need has never been brought about by factors which inevitably affect not only the established structures and ways of doing things within the personnel area but also by the more meaningful and substantial task of managing the organization’s most important asset – the human capital. Among these factors are: stiffer competition in business; rapid changes in technological, competitive and economic environments; the explosion of technical and managerial knowledge; spiraling wage and benefits cost and so many others. These factors have no doubt been responsible for the emergence of the personnel function as a vital area in the implementation of corporate strategy.

Demick and Miller (1993) place in context what an organization is like and settles how it can affect behavior in general and when that is established, proceeded to explain leadership and management in this context. In organizational behavior which is basic to the management of human resource, it points to the inquiry and application of learning about how people, individuals, and groups perform, operate, and work in organizations. It accomplishes this by means of adopting a system approach. Explicitly, it infers people-organization affairs in terms of the entire person, group totality, complete organization, and total social structure. Its intention is to put up enhance relations by attaining human goals, organizational purposes, and social goals. In such a milieu, the goals to effect change are influenced by several significant factors which are crucial to the overall results. Hence, there are expected leadership behaviors that maintain momentum during the change process.

Organizational behavior is actually a complex and dynamic mechanism. It includes the application and integration of theoretical perspectives from the social and behavioral sciences to shed light on how and why individuals behave in a variety of ways in organizations (Demick and Miller, 1993). Included in the study are the ways the individuals carry out their tasks, the structure, design and operation of human persons in simple and complex organizational set-ups.

This is accomplished utilizing the systems approach or systems model. The latter is meant as interpreting people and organizational relationships in reference to the whole individual, “whole group, whole organization, and whole social system” (Knoster et al., 2000). The objective is developing improved and enhanced relationships by attaining individual aims, organizational goals and social aspirations (Mangelsdorff, 2007).

Specifically, any student who pursues the study of the concepts involved in the matter will examine how individuals work in groups; acquire insights into human strengths and interpersonal relationships. Intertwined in the study is to delve into theories or principles of motivation of personnel, effective leadership with the goal of formulating a sound thinking and values of management and leadership. Moreover, organizational behavior investigates scientific data and utilizes a variety of research traditions to further understand how individuals work and function efficiently in diverse forms of structures (Shortell et al., 2000)

Organizational behavior, when scrutinized closely, thus far covers a lot of topics. It embraces the understanding of structure, design of the organization itself. It also includes the study of the work design, policies and practices of the human resource, job design, and decision making as an organization. Furthermore, it also examines the organizational culture, its dynamics where change is aimed to be implemented (Revans, 1982). The elements of organizational behavior lean upon management’s plan and philosophy, vision and objectives. Basing on this foundation springs the organizational culture where the formal and informal types of organization and the social environment are best understood (Knoster et al., 2000).

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Reference:

Beckhard, R. 1969. Organization Development: Strategies and Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. John Wiley ; Sons, Inc. Permissions Department, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ07030 USA.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence,         and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993.
Clement, R.W. 1981. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Management training. Human Resources Management, Volume 20, pp.8-13.
Mulhauser, Greg. Management Skills and Leadership Skills. Accessed March 15, 2008. ;http://coaching.mulhauser.net/executive/manage-vs-lead.html#evidence;
Jaques, E. (2002). Social Power and the CEO: Leadership and Trust in a sustainable free enterprise system. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books in McMorland, Judith. 2005. “Are you big enough for your jobs? Is your job big enough for you? Exploring levels of work organizations. University of Auckland Business Review. Vol. 7, No.2.
Knoster, T., Villa, R., ; Thousand, J. (2000). A  framework for thinking about systems change. In R. Villa ; J. Thousand (Eds.), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp. 93-128). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Mangelsdorff, David A.2001. “Organizational Behavior and Theory. Accessed March 6, 2008 ;http://users.idworld.net/dmangels/orgbeh.htm;
Shortell, Stephen M. and Arnold D. Kaluzny. 2000. Health Care Management: Organization Design and Behavior, Fourth Edition, Delmar Publishers Inc.
Revans, R. W. 1982. The Origin and Growth of Action Learning. Hunt, England: Chatwell-Bratt, Bickley
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Sullivan, Eleanor and Phillip J. Decker. 2005. Effective Leadership and Nursing Management in Nursing, with Student Video (4th Edition).
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