Management Theories Essay, Research Paper
Assignment 1 Management Theories Scott Straughan
Investigate the development of direction as a theory and subject. Asses the relevancy of these theories to modern twenty-four hours directors and place the cardinal direction accomplishments that will be of importance to the director of the millenary.
For the intent of this essay modern twenty-four hours director shall intend directors of the present twenty-four hours. Management accomplishments are accomplishments that directors need to be good at there work.
In this essay I will be look intoing direction theories at the start of this century, so looking at the patterned advance of direction up until the present twenty-four hours, this will include research carried out by a figure of people which gave growing to HRM as we know it today. I will so place cardinal direction accomplishments in these theories and measure their relevancy to today s direction, I will besides place the direction accomplishments required in today s work force.
At the bend of the century there were a batch of of import developments in direction. Oil companies ( standard oil trust ) and ( u.s. steel, the first 1 billion dollar company ) were quickly spread outing. Smaller and medium sized companies had to better efficiency in order to last against the large giants.
Frederick Winslow Taylor ( 1856-1915 ) began to look at the measuring of work, he broke down each undertaking to happen out how long it would take, he so planned in front for Numberss of workers wanted and what preparation they would necessitate, he so decided what wages the workers were deserving consequently to what they accomplished. At the same clip Henry Ford ( 1896-1947 ) reduced his human body assembly clip from 12 and a half hours to ninety three proceedingss through utilizing these methods. Directors were get downing to be after in front more to increase efficiency, as competition increased research workers began to look at other ways of bettering efficiency even more, they started to look at the working environment.
Elton mayo ( 1880-1949 ) carried out the Hawthorne experiments, they looked at relationships in the workplace and working conditions. Mayo found that peoples demands and attitudes had much more of an influence on productiveness than the efficiency of the production line itself, this was called the human dealingss attack and is widely used today. The Hawthorne experiments looked at four countries: –
1. The light experiments
2. The relay assembly group experiments
3. The bank wiring group surveies
4. The interviewing plan
The intent was to increase productiveness. The light experiments looked at lighting and warming, mayo found even in hapless on the job conditions productiveness was still higher than norm, the workers were working harder because person was taking an involvement in them. The relay assembly group experiments took six female workers and gave them there ain separate countries to work in, they were given regular interruptions and freedom to speak. The individual who studied them besides worked as their supervisor, the workers were consulted before any alterations were made, and productiveness was massively increased, once more due to the fact person was taking an involvement in them. The bank wiring group surveies involved 14 male workers and was really similar to the relay assembly group experiments. Finally he carried out the questioning plan, this involved interviewing every worker ( 21,000 in sum ) , they were asked about their sentiment of the company they worked for and their attitudes towards their directors, the consequences were closely analysed afterwards. Mayo had found a manner to increase productiveness through better working dealingss and better working conditions. Productivity increased as a consequence of the followers: –
1. A feeling of importance
2. Good squad spirit
3. A common aim
4. A pleasant environment
5. Friendly supervising
Due to better working dealingss groups of workers worked harder, but what about forces motive?
During the war most of the immature work forces were contending, directors had to maintain up with an unbelievable demand, they were given older retired workers and adult females, adult females had ne’er been widely employed in mills before this clip.
Directors looked to research workers to acquire the maximal attempt out of workers. Abraham Maslow ( 1908-1970 ) argued people do non merely work for money, but for basic demands such as shelter, nutrient for endurance, and higher demands such as ego regard and assurance. This is called Maslows hierarchy of demands, Maslow describes fives types of demands arranged in a hierarchy, Maslow assumed people ever wanted more, one degree should be the incentive to the following.
Maslows hierarchy of demands
1. Physical demands basic demands such as nutrient, H2O, shelter, air, remainder, and sex.
2. Safety needs freedom from fright of menaces, security and stableness ( pensions and health care )
3. Social needs the demand for credence withi
n a group, friendly relationship, love fondness and comfort when experiencing down.
4. Esteem needs the demand for accomplishment and acknowledgment, regard for yourself. Directors can accomplish this through preparation and development.
5. Self realization needs the demand for a individual to accomplish their full potency, achievement and growing.
Not everyone meets these demands through work, some might derive them through societal activities with friends, and an activity such as playing in a football squad may accomplish this. However some people are happy after accomplishing the first degree and are non motivated to the following degree, while others strive to better themselves, this was the defect in Maslows theory. More research workers began to look at HRM, there was still a batch to be discovered, Maslow had started the work and now more people were following in his footfalls, they started to look at positive thought and the manner direction treated workers.
Douglas McGregor ( 1906-1964 ) looked at traditional direction manners compared to newer 1s, these were called theory ten and theory Y. He found old methods assumed people did non desire to work, had to be closely supervised and did non take much pride in their work, this was called theory ten, theory Y was wholly the antonym and argued people did desire to work and acquire a batch of satisfaction from taking pride in their work. McGregor argued if you treat workers as responsible and intelligent people who want to work, that is the manner they will act. He besides looked at winners and successful people and suggested these people took duty for their work and put themselves moderate accomplishable ends, low winners came from hapless cultural backgrounds, hapless instruction and felt they could non accomplish any ends they set, they could nevertheless be winners through preparation and development.
we have looked at the development of direction from the early 1900 s up until present twenty-four hours. All direction styles traditional or modern focal point on efficiency and productiveness. Traditional direction includes bureaucratic direction which relies really much on regulations, processs, subject and hierarchy, this causes a clear division between workers and direction and causes low productiveness. Scientific direction focused on the one best manner to make a occupation and did non take into history that workers know how to make their work better than direction, once more this method causes low productiveness. Modern twenty-four hours directors have regular meeting with staff to discourse any jobs they have, and place aid where it is needed. This is Nipponese manner direction vitamin E which emphasizes on HRM and increasing productiveness, modern direction still uses a batch of traditional theories though. Technology is quickly altering direction with the debut of computing machines, planetary communications and the Internet. The accomplishments a modern twenty-four hours director demands are altering every bit rapid as engineering, the workplace is going more informal where we socialise every bit good as work. Traditional direction was rigorous with regulations and authorization which workers were afraid of, there was no contact between direction and workers and it seemed they both had wholly different ends to accomplish. Companies now work together as a teem with a common end of increasing net income. Modern twenty-four hours directors are flexible to run into employees demands, they motivate and encourage workers to win, they have assurance, personal appeal and are patient. Directors should posses reding accomplishments and raising there workers, this is a more feminine attack and are called soft accomplishments. Make modern twenty-four hours directors bear any relevancy to traditional accomplishments?
Although traditional direction manners seem prehistoric compared to today they are still relevant, Maslows hierarchy of demands can be compared to the corporate ladder, more people choose callings alternatively of merely a occupation. Mayo s Hawthorne experiments finally led to Torahs being made on working conditions ( Health and safety at work act ) . McGregor s theory x and theory Y, all directors now assume people want to work and take pride in it to. If asked which is the most relevant I would reason Maslow, most people can associate to his theories as the corporate ladder and I feel it is widely used now as a forces incentive for employees.
As the millenary approaches directors are organizing even closer links with employees with the usage of soft accomplishments. Companies invest a batch of money in preparation of staff and can have grants from the authorities for this intent, assessments are now widely used to train and actuate staff. Directors are authorising workers more to oversee themselves and be responsible for their ain work load, this is partially because more people are working from place with new engineering. Business is now booming thanks to the work of research workers at the start of the century.
Baird L, Post J, Mahon J 1990 Management Functions And Duties