1) What  the six steps mean.These steps are very important because it enable a manager to clearly define a problem in deep detail so as to understand the inconveniences caused and the possible ways to solve. Once the problem has been known then the manager can come up with the SMART goals:-1.      Specific                      Should be directly defined. Clear to anyone that has a basic knowledge of the project2.      Measurable    Should be quantifiable/ able to estimate.3.

      Agreed upon Attainable, achievable, acceptable, action-oriented4.      Realistic                     Relevant, reasonable, rewarding, results-oriented5.      Time bound               should be achieved in a specified period of time.Applying them in academic environment and the business environment.Once a person has evaluated the SMART goals it will be very easy to forego the decision which is not suitable and pick the one that is viable.

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In academic a student should define the goals according by knowing the subjects for the semester. Then estimate the expected goal according to perceived ability per subject. Accept that the estimated mark will be attained which should be reasonable and not exaggerated. All these assumptions should be promised to be delivered within a specific time period. In business the same method applies to all persons involved, problems are identified then a plan is made to solve them by estimating the resources needed and what the company agrees to invest or spend on solving the problem(measurable).

All these factors should not strain the company’s budget and other resources-the budget should be real-.Finally the whole project should be done and delivered in a specific and planned time period. Gary A. Klein (1998) Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions MIT Press