What are Managers
Rapid changes and fast paced environment encompasses today’s organization in any company that is towards productivity. Managers’ role became very viable as it adapt various changes. There’s no longer the word “I” in every accomplishment rather managers look into his achievement garnered contributed by his team. As a manager, you are no longer responsible for what you alone accomplish. You now must work with your direct reports to achieve the goals of your department and your organization.
A manager understands and conveys to his people the meaning of a system and what he expects of them. He explains the purpose and goals of his system in order to come up with a common goal that will serve as a guide for his members or his team. He also teaches his people to understand how the work of the group supports these aims. (Stewart, 1967)
Managers provide guidance, implementation, and coordination so those organizational goals can be reached. The modern manager coaches employees of the organization to develop teamwork, which effectively fulfills their needs and achieves organizational objectives. Today, traditional autocratic organization with its hierarchical system of management and an overbearing “boss” that forces performance out of people is no longer needed and accepted. The modern manager provides an atmosphere of empowerment by letting workers make decisions and inspiring people to boost productivity. (Ellis, C., 2005)
Eight Typical Roles of Effective Managers
1. Leader. The leader looks beyond the current day-to-day work requirements and decides what direction her organization will will lead to. They will lead their organizations forward by thinking strategically with critical decisions to make, that will place his organization on a competitive level. They form relationships beyond the organization to build and maintain the reputation of the organization.
2. Director. One who defines the problem, seeks solutions for it, and be able to find alternative solutions that will come up with a tactically solved problem. The director determines what to assign and guarantee that individuals understand what they are being asked to do.
3. Contributor. He is expected to be task oriented and work focused, ensuring that his own personal productivity is aligned with his subordinates and that will also serve as a motivating factor to be sure that their organization’s productivity is at its highest potential.
4. Coach. He acts as a motivator and mentor to his organization. He should be caring, empathetic, helpful, considerate, sensitive, approachable, open, and fair.
5. Facilitator. The facilitator promotes building cohesion and teamwork for his organization, and be able to minimize interpersonal conflict.
6. Observer. He should be able to identify what’s happening to his own team or unit. Determine if people are able to meet their objectives, and make sure that his team is on the right track that would meet their goals. The observer is also in charge for understanding what is important for the team to know and ensuring that information overload does not occur.
7. Innovator. The innovator assists in adaptation and change, must be able to keep up with current trends in the business that will enable him to stay competitive in his company. He should be able to address various changes in the company if needed.
8. Organizer. Careful planning and organizing tasks and structures are essential. The organizer should be able to Follow – up to make sure that what is committed to is completed by attending to technological needs, staff coordination, crisis handling, and so forth.
Types of Managers
Prior to involvement in project-related activities, middle managers perform business planning and resource planning activities in relation to the organization’s annual plan. Upon identification of new projects, they engage in project selection activities—which differ according to the nature of the organization—and accept, change, or reject a project. (Blomquist, 2006)
Managers perform various roles in order to meet the many demands of performing their functions. According to Henry Mintzberg (1973) he had identified ten roles that are common to all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups which are interpersonal, informational, and decisional. The informational roles link all managerial work together. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is given and available to all his team. The decisional roles make major and considerable use of the information. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole.
The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. The manager represents the organization in all matters of formality, in the figurehead role. The top level manager represents the company legally and socially. In the liaison role, the manger usually interacts with people outside the organization. The top level manager uses the liaison role to get information and favors that would be beneficial to his organization. The leader role defines the relationships between the manger and employees.(Mintzberg, 1973)
The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a sole position to get information. The three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work. The manager accepts and receives information, in the monitor role. As a disseminator, he conveys particular information into the organization. As a spokesperson, the manager distributes the organization’s information into its environment.
The unique access to information places the manager at the center of organizational decision making. There are four decisional roles. As an entrepreneur role, the manager initiates change. He deals with threats to the organization as a disturbance handler role. The manager chooses where the organization will use its efforts, as the resource allocator. As a negotiator, the manager confers on behalf of the organization. (Mintzberg, 1973)
Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the organization, so that others can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job consists of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplies, information, and money. Managers work in a dynamic environment and must anticipate and adapt to challenges.(Allen,1998)
Planning, organizing, directing, and controlling are considered as the job of manager that involves what is known as the functions of management. These functions are considered as goal-directed, interrelated and interdependent. Devising a systematic approach or process that would help the organization attain its goals comprises what planning is. It prepares the organization for the future. Organizing includes arranging and coordinating the necessary resources to carry out the plan. In order to accomplish organization’s goals, there should be a process of creating structure, establishing relationships, and allocating resources. Directing involves the guiding, leading, and overseeing of employees to achieve organizational goals, while controlling involves verifying that actual performance matches the plan. If performance results do not match the plan, corrective action is taken. (Mintzberg ,1990)
There are 2 distinct managerial style, managers were either autocratic or diplomatic. Today, however, the best managers know that there are more than two styles of managing and they need to be good in all the styles. Let’s discuss at the autocratic and diplomatic styles.
The Autocrat vs. the Diplomat
Autocrats believe that if they softer and lenient with their subordinates, employees will take advantage. This kind of approach is seen as a sign of weakness. Though, this kind of managerial style is said to be rampant in management today. You have to wonder why this is so. Partly it has to do with the fact that so many managers are given no training. They are left to find their own way, so they begin acting as they think they should. They think in terms of being a “boss.”
Diplomatic managers spend time with people explaining not only what is to be done but also why it’s done. The boss type doesn’t want to be bothered. This person’s attitude is “Do it because I said so.” The diplomat realizes that the more people understand of what and why, the better they perform. (Belker, 2005)
The autocrat makes every decision and treats his staff as making robotic responses to his or her commands. On the other hand, the diplomat getting everybody involved knows that the time spent up front, and pays off with huge dividends down the road.
Belker (2005) explained that the autocrat produce fear while the diplomat builds respect and even affection. The autocrat made his employees afraid of him and causes tension when discussing some matters while the diplomat subordinates are at ease with their managers and they feel that they could relate even personal matters to their boss. The autocrat believes the diplomat is a wimp. The diplomat believes the autocrat is a dictator. The difference is that the autocrat uses authority constantly, while the diplomat is judicious in its display. (Belker, 2005)
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