Mandan Indians Essay, Research PaperThe History of theMandan Indiansin North Dakotaand the impact of theEuropean invasionHistory 262& # 8220 ; A North Dakota winter & # 8221 ; ( Encarta 95 )Life on the fields is difficult. The winters are long and so really cold. Few trees block the strong winds out of the cragged West. The fields yield small to prolong a household. So we work, we grow nutrient, we hunt, and we trade our excess for goods brought by the mobile folk.The Mandan people were a Native American folk of the northern fields. They struggled against a hostile clime, prospered though harassed by hostile folks, and created a rich cultural life style in prehistoric America.
This is the narrative of the Mandan people before, during, and after the invasion of the Europeans.PRE CONTACTThe Mandans believed they were created beneath the Earth, and lived there for a long clip. After a difference between & # 8220 ; First Man & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Lord of Life & # 8221 ; a hole opened that allowed a pipeline to turn down to them. With the vine came light and the opportunity to go forth their subterraneous confines. With the aid of other animate beings ( spirit animate beings ) the hole was enlarged and they began to mount out, but the vine broke go forthing half of them behind to populate beneath the Earth. This was said to hold happened near a lake to the E when & # 8220 ; Good Fur Robe & # 8221 ; was head. & # 8220 ; Good Fur Robe & # 8221 ; , is believed to be the male parent of agricultural life for the Mandans, he is thought to hold taught them to populate on the Earth ( Densmore, pg 7 ) They called themselves & # 8220 ; Numakake & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; work forces & # 8221 ; ( Dictionary of Indian Tribes, pg 438 ) .
The name Mandan is thought to be a corrupted version of & # 8220 ; Miwatani & # 8221 ; which is believed to be a name the Sioux used to mention to the Mandan villagers ( Densmore, pg 3 ) . The Mandans survived by building earthen Lodges in which they lived, stored nutrient, wintered their farm animal and sit out the cold North Dakota winters. These Lodges surrounded a place that contained a ceremonial Lodge and a sacred cedar station enclosed by wooden boards. Life centered around the Lodge.
There were smaller household lodges around a larger ceremonial Lodge for meetings, music, narrative relation, and of class ceremonials. The construction of these Lodges was rather luxuriant. Large log stations were erected in circles one inside the other with the outer circle about 20 five pess across and the innermost 10 pess across. The ceremonial Lodge was slightly larger. The outer ring of stations were about four pess tall and the innermost about 15 pess tall. Across each brace of stations beams were laid, organizing rings that decreased in size as they increased in tallness.
?( Holloway, & # 8220 ; Mandan-Hidatsa Tribes Earth Lodge & # 8221 ; )On these beams in turn smaller limbs were laid until Earth would non fall through. Then Earth was built up thick plenty for grass to take root. This would keep the Earth together and forestall the eroding of the protective and insulating bed of Earth. Fires built in the centre of the Lodge would supply heat so a hole was left in the centre of the roof to let the fume to get away. The small towns were ever located on the high land at the junction of two rivers. This was a more defendable place since assailing folks could merely come from one way and provided the Mandan people greater safety and security.
The side of the small town non protected by a river was protected by two lookouts of sharpened bets with a three to four pes ditch between them.The Mandan people were non merely husbandmans. The work forces besides hunted the American bison and other fields animate beings for nutrient every bit good as ceremonial intents. When the small town went on a runing trip they lived in tepees so they could follow the herd while roll uping meat and pelt. These trips were embarked on each spring after a ceremonial called the American bison dance.& # 8220 ; The Buffalo Dance & # 8221 ;The most exciting event of the old ages festival was the Buffalo Dance. Eight work forces participated, have oning American bison teguments on their dorsums and painting themselves black, ruddy, and white. Dancers endeavored to copy the American bison on the prairie.
Each terpsichorean held a rattling in his right manus, and in his left a six-foot rod. On his caput, he wore a clump of green willow boughs. The season for the return of the American bison coincided with the willow trees on full foliage.
Another dance required merely four tribesmen, stand foring the four chief waies of the compass from which the American bison might come. With a canoe in the centre, two terpsichoreans, dressed as grey bears who might assail the huntsmans, took their topographic points on each side. They growled and threatened to jump upon anyone who might interfere with the ceremonial.
Onlookers tried to pacify the silvertips by fliping nutrient to them. The two terpsichoreans would swoop upon the nutrient, transporting it off to the prairie as possible enticements for the coming of the American bisons.During the ceremonial, the old work forces of the folk round upon membranophones and chanted supplications for successful American bison hunting.By the terminal of the 4th twenty-four hours of the Buffalo Dance, a adult male entered the cantonment disguised as the evil spirit of dearth. Immediately he was driven away by cries and stone-throwing from the younger Mandans, who waited excitedly to take part in the ceremonial.When the devil of dearth was successfully driven away, the full folk joined in the big Thanksgiving banquet, symbolic of the early return of American bison to the Mandan runing evidences.
( Welker 1996 ) The life of the Mandan folk was reasonably unregimented, divorce and polygamy were common. The work was, nevertheless, aggressively divided along gender lines. The work forces did the hunting and combat, while the adult females did the horticulture and took attention of the Lodge ( Dictionary of Indian folks. pg 439 ) . When the conditions permitted, the households gathered on the Lodge. The work forces played games, told warrior narratives, and the adult females made apparels. In the eventide people gathered on the Lodges and sang vocals.
The tops of Lodges were besides used to hive away big points like sleighs and bull boats ( Densmore pg 5 ) . Bull boats were made by stretching fells over wooden frames. Enemy scalps were besides displayed on the tops of the Lodges so they could be seen from outside of the small town. Outside of the Lodge a scaffold was made on which maize was dried, this besides provided shadiness for the farm animal during the heat of summer ( Densmore pg 4 ) .One of the ancient values of the Mandans that has survived for centuries was the accent on the & # 8220 ; Good & # 8220 ; Man & # 8221 ; . The thought of the & # 8220 ; Good Man & # 8221 ; is that of one who does non seek to laud himself or lift above his fellow adult male. This appears to hold permeated the Mandan society ( Dictionary of Indian folks.
pg 439 ) . They treated friendly visitants as invitees and shared their nutrient and places with many who passed the small town. This pattern gained the Mandans many merchandising spouses, as did the pattern of defying alliances with Sioux and Chippewa war parties ( Densmore, pg 12 ) .
Unlike some Siouan folks that practiced self anguish and mutilation for the immature to be inducted into society. The Mandans appear to hold practiced small subject when investing kids into society of seniors.The chief interactions between separate Mandan small towns were conducted in Dance Societies or Clubs that met sporadically ( Densmore, pg 84 ) . The societies were composed of differing age groups and were progressive from one to another ( Densmore, pg 108 ) . Some of these dance societies for work forces included the Buffalo Society, the White Society, the Foolish Dog Society, and the Fox Society. The dance societies for adult females included the Goose Women Society, the Little River Women Society, and the Skunk Society.
These societies met with some ceremonial and fear described in the unwritten history of the Mandans ( Densmore, pg 84 ) .Within the small town there were of import semi-political places. The maize priest was said to hold supernatural powers and ever knew what type of maize and other harvests each household grew. He besides provided all of the seeds to the villagers for the following old ages & # 8217 ; harvest ( Densmore, pg 36 ) . Each small town besides had a War Chief and a Peace Chief. They were chosen from amongst the elder work forces of the small town ( Dictionary of Indian tribes pg 439 ) .
If a adult male wanted to do war he would softly offer a gift of baccy and inquire the other work forces of the small town to fall in him ( The war party left softly and was frequently accompanied by the married woman of a slain warrior. She would be given the scalps of the enemy to demo she had avenged her hubby & # 8217 ; s decease ( Densmore, pg 145 ) .The burial imposts of the Mandans are similar to those of other Siouan Indian folk. The dead were placed on scaffolds outside the small town on degree land and left at that place. When the scaffold fell the skulls were placed on a clump of wild sage.
Villagers would travel to where the skulls rested and speak with their asleep friends and relations ( Densmore, pg 6 ) .In their interactions with other more mobile tribes the Mandans appear to hold profited by merchandising their excess harvests and farm animal for things non available locally. It is believed that through the Arikara to the south maize from the Mandans was traded as far south as Mexico, particularly during southern drouths ( Fort Berthold College Bulletin ) .EUROPEAN CONTACTThe Mandans & # 8217 ; unwritten history describes a steady move to the West and north because of onslaughts from more hostile folk and the demand to happen fertile land to cultivate. In 1738 when Verendrye made the first contact with the Mandan Indians, they lived at the oral cavity of the Heart River near present twenty-four hours Mandan North Dakota ( Densmore, pg 6 ) ( Mandan ND is where this pupil spent his childhood ) . Europeans introduced another ground to travel Smallpox. The first variola epidemic was recorded in 1781 and the population estimated at four 1000 dwindled to about one thousand five hundred ( Dictionary of Indian tribes pg 440 ) . Smallpox was most likely brought to the Mandans by Gallic pelt bargainers.
It, along with Sioux torment, caused the Mandans to go forth their places at the junction of the Heart and Missouri rivers.They moved north twice more. They stopped where the Knife river joins the Missouri, and built a new small town. This was where Lewis and Clark discovered them.
Two thousand five hundred dollars was appropriated from Congress and Jefferson & # 8217 ; s instructions to Lewis were sent on June twentieth 1803.& # 8220 ; In all your intercourse with the indigens, handle them in the most friendly and compromising mode which their ain behavior will allow & # 8221 ; . ( Annals of America Volume 4 pg 162 ) . As the expedition prepared to go forth St. Louis. Lewis and Clark sought out people experienced in Indian communicating, trade, and imposts.
They acquired diaries of old adventurers like James Mackay who wrote & # 8220 ; The Mandaines, & # 8230 ; are in general people every bit good as they are mild who lay a great value on the friendly relationship of the Whites & # 8221 ; ( Ronda, pg 12 ) . This sort of information insured that Lewis and Clark would depend on the Mandans to do the expedition a success.The expedition headed north out of St. Louis on May 4th 1904 with a complement of 45 work forces.
With them were packages of gifts for the indigens they would meet to show the peaceable purposes of the adventurers. The first Indians encountered were the Otos, followed by the Missouris, and so the Omahas. Each folk received the same address that addressed the desire of the & # 8220 ; New Father & # 8221 ; ( President Jefferson ) to prosecute inter-tribal peace, peaceable trade with the United States, and commitment to the new Father.
The new Father who had made the Gallic, English, and Spanish Fathers return to their places across the great sea to the E ( Ronda, pg 19-20 ) . As a mark of good religion gifts were given to each of the heads, smaller gifts for the Indians of lesser position.Next the expedition encountered the Yankton Sioux. A Yankton Chief called Half Man warned that & # 8220 ; those States above ( north ) will non open their ears, and you can non I fear unfastened them. & # 8221 ; ( Ronda, pg 26 ) .September 23rd 1804, the expedition was close present twenty-four hours Pierre South Dakota where the first authorities sanctioned encounter with the Teton Sioux took topographic point.
The Tetons were known to be demanding bargainers, powerful warriors, and every bit likely to do war with Lewis and Clark as they were to do peace. Lewis delivered his address, gifts were exchanged as were veiled menaces from both sides. The Teton Chiefs expressed their reluctance to follow and with great trouble the expedition continued northerly.
& # 8220 ; These are the vilest reprobates of the barbarian race, and must of all time stay the plagiarists of the Missouri, until such steps are pursued, by our authorities, as will do them experience a dependance on its will for their supply of merchandise. & # 8221 ; ( Ronda pg 27 citing William Clark 1804 ) .Lewis and Clark left the Tetons on September 29th. A Teton Chief and two of his warriors demanded and received transit to the Arikara small town ( Ronda pg 42 ) . Enroute during a storm the Chief began to fear the boat would be turned over and that he would be drowned.
He was put ashore. The expedition leaders were relieved to be rid of their hostile rider. The party passed two abandoned Arikara small towns before they came upon the Arikara People. The occupied small town was on an island three stat mis in length and covered with harvests ( Lewis & # 8217 ; s journal DeVoto pg 48 ) .
The Arikaras were an agricultural folk similar to the Mandans in lifestyle, but of Caddoan beginning and closely related to the Pawnee ( Dictionary of Indian tribes pg 440 ) . The Arikaras were one of the few folks known to dislike intoxicant. A Chief accompanied the expedition northerly to maintain the peace with the Mandans.
The group passed the abandoned Mandan small town at the junction of the Heart and Missouri rivers, and passed two more vacant small towns as they continued on. The chief Mandan small town was found at the oral cavity of the Knife river near present twenty-four hours Stanton North Dakota. The Mandans heard a address similar to the 1 told to the Sioux folk of the lower Missouri, and were much more receptive to the thoughts contained in this ( Lewis & # 8217 ; s journal DeVoto pg 59 ) . The thought of peace between folks was most appealing because the Mandans had been harassed by the Sioux for every bit long as could be remembered.
Lewis sent a exploratory survey squad further north and west. The wood supply was determined unequal and it was decided that the expedition would pass the winter with the Mandans. The party began to raise cabins and a sense of community developed between the Mandans and these soldier solons. The new community was called Fort Mandan. While readyings for winter were under manner, a adult male named Toussaint Charbonneau and his married woman Sacagawea, a Snake Indian came to the small town. Toussaint Charbonneau was hired as an translator. Which would turn out to be one of the wisest determinations of the expedition, non because of Charbonneau, but because of his married woman who became a great translator, usher, and peace negotiant.( Charbonneau and Sacagawea Encarta 95 )Because of the friendly dealingss with these visitants, the Mandans would non object strongly to any extroverted petitions from this & # 8220 ; Great Chief of Seventeen Nations & # 8221 ; ( President Jefferson and replacements ) .
There were some menaces from the Teton Sioux who had allied themselves with the Arikara. However the Mandans and the Soldier-Explorers made it through the winter without great trouble ( Ronda, pg 96-97 ) . On April 7th, 1805 the expedition left Fort Mandan merely to return in August of 1806.The experiences of the folk with the adventurers and bargainers were ripplings on a pool compared to the moving ridges of alterations to come.
The folk was greatly influenced by the Europeans, but had small if any influence over those same Europeans.The Mandans lived near the Knife River for some clip until another smallpox epidemic in 1837 about killed them all. Most estimations put the figure of subsisters at less than one 100 50. This caused them to travel once more.
They joined the Hidatsa and Arikara and relocated to a topographic point called Like a Fishhook Village ( Dictionary of Indian tribes pg 440 ) . This small town was located further north near a trading station called Fort Berthold. The US authorities forced the Mandans to follow some of the white adult male & # 8217 ; s thoughts like the English linguistic communication, authorities sponsored schools, and reserve life. However the folk now possessed all they had of all time possessed, before the white adult male came. They had runing lands, land to turn nutrient, and they had peaceable isolation from the Government wars with other Indian folks. But they were losing their Mandan individuality. The Fort Berthold reserve was defined in the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851 Unlike most ulterior authorities traffics with Native Americans, an Executive Order of April 12th 1870 greatly increased the size of the Fort Berthold Reservation ( Densmore pg 11 ) .
The Reservation boundary lines were once more adjusted in 1880, nevertheless this clip they would encircle a smaller country. Other redrawing of the reserve boundary lines occurred in 1891and 1910.Interestingly the Europeans who migrated to North Dakota in the early 1900 & # 8217 ; s lived much as the Mandan did. My ain Grandparents lived in turf houses, cultivated the prairie dirt, grew their ain nutrient, and sold the excess to purchase other basics.A 3rd and concluding variola epidemic hit in 1937. By this clip the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara folks were intermingled.
It is hard to asses the Mandans from this point because of the association of the & # 8220 ; Three Tribes & # 8221 ; . In the 1950 & # 8217 ; s Garrison Dam was constructed on the Missouri. It flooded many of the older small towns on the reserve and forced the occupants to travel one time once more. The reserve survives today, with a worsening population, of less than four 1000 people ( Fort Berthold College Bulletin ) .DecisionThe Mandan Indians were a peaceable folk whose greatest enemy appeared to be a disease called variola.
Because of their friendly nature, the folk may hold been more susceptible to catching that disease, as they were more likely to hold close contact with the white adult male. They allowed the Europeans into their small towns, and unwittingly allowed variola in every bit good. Those folks that fought the white adult male lost their warriors in conflict, the Mandan lost their warriors to a deathly disease. As a consequence the Mandan may hold suffered more in their traffics with the Government than the folks who fought it.The narrative of the Mandan Indians mirrors the narrative of Native Americans as a whole. The Natives suffered at the manus of the Europeans through war, disease, or both.
Their lands were taken at the discretion of the US authorities without consideration or compensation. The deficiency of regard for Native American deepness, diverseness, and stateliness is a great calamity.Plants CitedPrimary BeginningsDensmore, Frances. Mandan and Hidatsa Music. Washington Government printing Office,1923.Annalss of America Volume 4 1797-1820.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1968: pages 158-164Holloway, Dennis. & # 8220 ; , & # 8220 ; Solar Virtual Reality Tour of Native American Architecture & # 8221 ; . Picture of & # 8220 ; Mandan-Hidatsa Tribes Earth Lodge & # 8221 ; Internet site & # 8220 ; archvr @ newmex.
comThe Diaries of Lewis and Clark. DeVoto, Bernard editor. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston:The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1953: pages 33-87Welker, Glenn. Return to Indigenous Peoples & # 8217 ; Literature, & # 8220 ; The Buffalo Dance & # 8221 ; .Internet site & # 8220 ; gwelker @ mail.lmi.
org & # 8221 ; , 1996.Secondary BeginningsRonda James. Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.
1984: pages 42-112Encarta 95. Microsoft, Encyclopedia. cited images used with permission of Microsoft corp. Redmond Washington, 1994Fort Berthold Community College Bulletin, & # 8220 ; Reservation Background Information & # 8221 ; .
Author Unknown. Internet site & # 8220 ; northdakota.SurfBISNet.com & # 8221 ;The Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas Volume II.
American Indian Publishers,1980: pages 219-223 & A ; 438-441