Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party
Although Mao Zedong established the People’s Republic of China during the fall of 1949, much of the year was quite difficult for Mao’s founding of his new government. In fact, even the final days of 1949 were difficult for the Chinese Communist Party as there were numerous battles with anti-government revolutionary forces that wished to continue their war.
Of course, the main problem faced by the Chinese Communist Party and Mao during 1949 was the Red Army’s battle with the forces of Chaing Kai-shek. This war raged for years but 1949 proved difficult as the United States was aiding Kai-shek’s military whereas China was reliant upon the USSR for its supplies. Unfortunately for Mao, the USSR could not directly aid China as it would have led to an open conflict with the USA which was a situation the USSR wished to avoid. Additionally, much of what the USSR promised to supply was never delivered. The reason for this remains unknown but perhaps the massive losses the USSR suffered during World War Two may have had an impact on this decision.
There were a number of steps taken to deal with these problems including the fact that Mao’s Red Army was ultimately successful in defeating Kai-shek’s Nationalist forces but the aforementioned guerilla counter revolutionaries proved a thorn in Mao’s side until the other method of dealing with the problems was initiated: the onset of massive brutal repressions were ordered to crush the counterinsurgency. In addition to this particular problem, Mao also needed to address his land reform agenda which proved more complex than initially thought. This, along with suppressing revolutionaries, required a consolidation of power that would take several years until completed.
Spence, Jonathan. MAO ZE DONG: A LIFE. New York: Penguin, 2006.