Need AbstractAbstract: Legalization of Marijuana has received sufficient attention in the present day environment, where the talks of rights and democracy have been the norm. Most of the people have got conflicting views regarding the legalization of Marijuana. The whole legalization procedure aims at allowing the use of marijuana but ban on its advertisement campaigning. The group of population eyeing a ban on its legalization is considering the points that the legalization process so far has yielded no favorable result when applied to other substances.Marijuana use may be injurious to health and its legalization would breathe life in to an illegal substance and may wreak havoc with the lives of thousands.  The views in favor are of the view that cigarette , alcohol have been legalized despite of the fact that they contain carcinogenic substances while researches have proved again and again that Marijuana can in fact be used as an anticancer substance. The question of democratic rights is also considered because Marijuana use has been warranted in certain religious activities.

All in all legalization of Marijuana is a sensitive issue which needs careful planning and consideration from all aspects.IntroductionThe framework of policy regarding Marijuana is based upon 3 perspectives in the United States: prohibition, decriminalization and legalization. The current policy which is in force these days is composed of prohibition; this involves legal sanctions against its supply and demand. The policy makers in advocacy of  Decriminalization refers to the point that though it is an illegal activity but fines should not be imposed on marijuana users and handlers , though advertising the drug and it’s use should not be allowed . Legalization, which is causing a major upheaval is of the view that the use of Marijuana be legalized because of the fact that the use as such is not posing any threat to the Government and if legalized would help in the persistence and growth of the economy. It also states that it should be dealt on the same lines as tobacco and alcohol.

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Following is the research question for this study: How will Marijuana Decriminalization affect the public and the police? The theoretical framework of this study revolves around the positive or negative (economic, social, or cultural) effects of marijuana decriminalization on the citizens and on the police in the United States. The reasoning used in the identification of the framework was to take into consideration the variables and concepts that are related with the research question. The concepts are linked with marijuana decriminalization and effects on the public and the police. The variables that are linked with these concepts are negative and positive effects which can be economic, social, or cultural. Moreover, the public and the police that have been considered and the process of decriminalization that will be addressed in this paper are specifically discussed for the United States only. Therefore, the United States has been specified in the framework. The Labeling Theory will be used to evaluate the social effects; the Rational Choice Theory will be used to evaluate the economic effects; and the Subcultural theory will be used to evaluate the cultural effects.

The decriminalization of marijuana has been a hot issue in recent years in a number of countries such as Chile , UK , China nad some far eastern countries according to a report published by the FAD department need better statement and references here. The United States of America is one of them. Before the government decriminalizes marijuana usage and/or its possession, it is necessary to identify and realize the positive and negative effects of marijuana decriminalization. For this purpose, this research will review the existing literature on this topic. Moreover, an online survey will be conducted to identify these consequences. All this is necessary as any step taken by the government without considering all these factors can lead to undesired results. Normally, the interest of the public is the main factor in deciding any government policy.

However, this research will also take into account the interest and effects on the police, as decriminalizing marijuana can lead to major shifts in their behavior.This study will be conducted in the United States only. The reason for this is that the current research is designed to help the US government in deciding the future of marijuana decriminalization. Moreover, the primary research will take into account views of the general public only. There will not be any interviews from any significant government personnel like police chiefs. However, the policy would be to take into account views from people belonging to different cultural, social, and economic status.       Literature ReviewHistorical Perspectives on Drug Policies in United StatesIn order to delve into the consequences of legalization of Marijuana it is imperative that the effects of legalization of other drugs in the past be studied in detail.

Opiates were legal during the 19th century and the use became common (Mosher , 1991). Need references here Other drugs such as morphine and heroin found their way in cough suppressants as well as cocaine was used as an antidote to morphine and was used in medicine. Research shows that opiate addiction though increased from 0.72 per 1000 in 1840 to 4.9 per 1000 in 1890 but after that it started to decrease. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Marijuana use started becoming more common during the 1960s when the laws against its use weren’t enforced by law enforcement agencies. Figures from US Drug enforcement agency show that Marijuana became a secondary priority as apposed to Heroin.

Due to this lax policy of the Government Marijuana use became regular and in 1975, 6% of High school students confessed to daily use of marijuana. This figure increased to 10.7% by 1978. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Drug abuse as such follow trends , such as Cocaine use began to increase around the 70s which was almost a century after a major cocaine abuse epidemic and this continued to increase substantially so much so that by 1985 1/3rd of 18-25 year old was a cocaine abuser (drug library .org) need reference here . The reasons for this are assumed to be wide spread publicity and especially in official literatures of medicine that cocaine if used twice to thrice a week doesn’t really cause any harm.

Don’t start with IT It was only after much deliberation and coaxing by the authorities and through education that cocaine use among adolescents begin to drop. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Us And International Experiences With Marijuana Legalization And DepenalizationUntil now no country has legalized Marijuana. Some countries have allowed Marijuana use but have banned its advertisement etc and it is the conditions in these countries which should be pondered into and the overall effect on their economy and social setup be assessed.

Thus the following paragraph examines the use of Marijuana among adolescents in countries which have “decriminalized the use of the drug. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Johnston et al has inferred that demineralization of Marijuana didn’t have any impact in the US; his study was based upon marijuana use during the dimerealization of the drug in some states of the U.S during the period from 1975 -80. Another study by Chaloupka , based upon the time period 1992-94 has revealed contrasting results and has shown that youths living in dimeneralized states are significantly at risk for using marijuana . (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Don’t ask rhetorical questions What is the cause of these contrasting findings? Don’t start with It It might be due to the fact that if the statististics are compared we come to know that in the study conducted by Johnston the baseline marijuana use was higher in states which experienced demineralization as compared to the ones where it was altogether banned.

The high baseline rate may also be due to the attitude of the law enforcement agencies, as explained previously. Therefore it was imperative for Johnston to have compared the states on a more rational basis. As this study was school based, so the adolescents not accounted for may have caused a false negative picture to emerge. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)In a study by Paula (need year here) has concluded that the decriminalization which has been done but have retained the first time use as a criminal act. In addition to this step has helped in the overall reduction of the marijuana use, but still those states also showed an overall increase in the use.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)“Several territories in Australia have decriminalized use of marijuana. Studies comparing use in these territories with use in those that did not reduce penalties found no appreciable differences in use.” (Joffe, Yancy, 2004 need page number when quoting directly)The Netherlands have enforced a multi complex strategy regarding decriminalization and in this context Marijuana or any other drug use is not punishable but to posses drugs or to involve in the trafficking and possession of the drugs is regarded as illegal. Advertisement campaigns are banned as well. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)As a result of softening of the stance of the Dutch authorities especially during the period of 1984 to 1996, the use of marijuana became substantially increased. The studies conducted upon18-20 years old adolescents showed that the use of marijuana increased from 15%-44% and the use within the previous 30 days increased from 8.5%-18.5%.

In studies conducted in the United States from 1979-1992 have shown that use has decreased. Norwegian studies showed constant use until 1992 and then increased. In Spain, Stockholm, Hamburg and Denmark the use remained steady or decreased. All of these studies show that drug use is indeed influenced by drug policy. In the United States and Norway, increase in marijuana use has also showed that drug policies indeed have an effect on the use of the drugs. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)European studies conducted under the European school survey project on alcohol and drugs in 1999 showed that the proportion of students using marijuana in Netherlands was less in proportion to that in the United States. But it also revealed that the drug use was higher than in other countries of Europe.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)   Medical MarijuanaThe fact that marijuana is effective as treatment for several diseases has been the point behind legalizing marijuana use. Marijuana has been effective in alleviating nausea, especially chemotherapy induced nausea, to reduce intraocular pressure in Glaucoma and for treating muscular spasticity. Two reports conducted by the American medical association and Institute of Medicine , USA have acknowledged the fact that there is scanty data available to establish the use of smoked marijuana as an effective therapeutic regime and have advocated that more research on the subject be conducted to evaluate the health benefits of smoking marijuana. Besides this the research by IOM has mentioned that marijuana smoke contains stetrahydrocannabinol as a psychoactive substance and the risks out weigh the benefits of smoking marijuana. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004) Potential Effect of Decriminalization or Legalization on Us AdolescentsLegalization of marijuana though is aimed at adult population but this status will have an effect on adolescents, just like tobacco and alcohol. It has been stated that in 2003, 47.

5% of high school students admitted to using cigarettes and alcohol. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)In case marijuana use is legalized, it would lead to massive ad campaigns by the companies and would in turn attract several adolescents towards marijuana use and will take the percentage of abusers to a higher level. This will be the same case as observed with tobacco just like when the Comprehensive tobacco settlement was reached, prohibiting under age sale, but still a lot of adolescents took to smoking. The marketing of tobacco continued and a recent study has noted that cigarette advertising in youth oriented magazines has increased by 54 million dollars. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Other studies have also showed the high rate of expenditure being spent upon youth oriented advertisement. Justice Sandra on this issue has stated that it is indeed a problem but as adult use of tobacco is legalized so no specific action can be taken until these companies advertise their products. Adolescents get into it due to this advertising but there is no legal procedure which can stop this.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Di Franza (2004) (Need Year Here) has shown that the Government and the state elements have failed to implement the Synar amendment , which prohibits underage sale of tobacco. In case marijuana is legalized then the laws would need to be enforced strictly and vigilance maintained. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)The problem of alcohol abuse is increasing in the facet that the it is Alcohol abuse  has similar problems. Don’t start with It It is being portrayed in a fascinating style in advertisement campaigns and the youth is picking it up and getting involved in underage drinking and binge drinking as well. These points are a clear to all of us that marijuana if advertised and promoted in such a manner would lead to disastrous consequences. As the advertisements would be aimed at adult population but still, the adolescent population will get involved in it in the same manner as it takes to tobacco and alcohol. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)The degree to which adolescents would get involved in marijuana abuse if it is legalized cannot be ascertained at the moment but studies have shown that prevalence of adolescent marijuana use is inversely proportional to the perceived risk associated with it. In the figure you can clearly observe that the proportion of 12th graders who reported using marijuana in the past 30 days peaked in 1978 and again in 1997, exactly the years in which the perceived risk was lowest.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Fig 1. Marijuana: trends in perceived availability, perceived risk of regular use, and prevalence of use in past 30 days for 12th graders (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Studies suggest that initial use might influence the first use of the drug and this might diminish as more and more people start using the drug. This might lead to the youngest of adolescents abusing the drug. This is a major risk factor for future use. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Speaking of a child’s development, moral development is the pivot around which the whole personality of a person revolves. To inculcate fine moral values in children they are taught from a very early age that laws are to be obeyed, in order to escape from punishment and this becomes instinctual and this approach is the best possible solution to combating drug abuse among adolescents.

If the drug is legalized this might waive off the punishment aspect and might lead to drug abuse among adolescents. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Parent’s role in regards to drug abuse cannot be overlooked as this is an important aspect. Studies have shown that the easy access to drugs is also one of the major causes of drug abuse among adolescents. At present a lot of people don’t delve into marijuana use openly but if it is legalized then they would do so openly and the children will have an easy access to the drugs and marijuana use may be promoted through his activity.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)The easy availability of the drug, marijuana will make it easier to get and the adolescents will be able to obtain it from a viable source. It has been proved time and again that if an adolescent is provided with a chance to use a drug he would do so, in spite of its health hazards. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Pacula and William have shown that an increase in price is also a major contributor to drug addiction. Considering the fact that marijuana is easy to manufacture, this might in turn lead to increased production and subsequently low price and wide spread use. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)Those in favor of the point that marijuana should be made legal are of the opinion that marijuana is safer than alcohol. This might cause young people to stop drinking and go towards marijuana which is relatively safer, but it has been demonstrated time and again that an increase in marijuana use will lead to an increased alcohol use as well, as more adolescents will use both the drugs simultaneously.

(Joffe, Yancy, 2004)A public health view point would suggest that an increase in the use of marijuana even marginal will have significant health risks and will ultimately cause a wide spread epidemic. (Joffe, Yancy, 2004)   Advantages of Marijuana LegalizationIn order to view the facts and figures in the appropriate background it is also imperative to have a look at both sides of the coin. Flipping to the other side there are a lot of points which the non government organizations and corporations are raising in the favor of legalization of marijuana.

According to recent statistical figures the cost of maintaining a marijuana free society is exorbitant. These take into account the finance spent on the law enforcement and drug regulating acts set down by the FDA.Experts argue that this money might be diverted to more useful pursuits such as investment in health, education and other public service activities. According to experts pursuing something as bizarre as marijuana, prosecuting people for acquiring it and to have cases against them is as good as burning the tax payer’s money. These are considered as futile activities, which lead to no gain what so ever and the result is an undue burden on the economy and society (MLA, 2005)Failure of legalization of marijuana has stalled progress in the field of cancer research. In a research study conducted by Manuel Guzman (The Guardian, 2000), which has been published in journals of international repute it has been proved that the cannabinol derivatives like marijuana have got a promising future with regard to cancer treatment .An experimental research carried out in Madrid By Manuel Guzman and his team at the Complutence university has demonstrated that cannabinol, the active ingredient of marijuana destroyed malignant tumors in laboratory rats.The mice used in the project showed death of the malignant tumors cells when subjected to strains of tetrahydrocannabinol .

This was a surprising observation.Cannabis compounds are thought to trigger apoptosis (a process of programmed cell death whereby a cell undergoes self destruction by virtue of enzymatic degradation) and help in the same manner as the gene P53 of the human body. P53 is the gene responsible for the anticancer properties in a normal human body (Cotran, 2006). In case of a normal human body the gene affects cell division process and is responsible for the apoptosis in case the cell is damaged by an inciting stimulus. Similar is the mechanism of action of Cannabinol, a major substance present in marijuana, which is responsible for the major actions of the drug.This has got future implications and more research based on the subject could lead to a better understanding of the substances involved and which of the chemicals is responsible for the anti cancerous effect of the drug. This is all opposed to tobacco use or cigarette smoking, which in more than a million occasions has been proved to cause cancer. Researchers and supporters in this regard are of the opinion that on one hand Government has allowed sales, promotion and easy availability of a carcinogenic chemical (tobacco) while on the other hand it has declared illegal a substance which can actually cure cancer.

It is indeed though noteworthy.This blatant refute of facts is by no means acceptable. If tobacco with all its cons can be accepted and brandished as a legal commodity then why marijuana should be treated any differently. This calls for an open discussion on the subject. Researches are being denied their right to use marijuana as a beneficial substance for the human race.

Synthetic marijuana which has been manufactured as well does not lead to addiction and is in fact being used in a lot of useful roles , though it’s uses are limited, marijuana has proved to be of benefit in cases of chemotherapy induced nausea and for the treatment of glaucoma ( a condition of raised intra ocular pressure which may lead to blindness if left untreated). Although not currently approved for any clinical use, Marijuana and certain synthetic analogues have several potential therapeutic applications (Goodman , 2005) .These include anathematic effects, bronchodilation and the capability to lower intraocular pressure. The natural cannabinoids have inconsistent effects as analgesics, but some synthetic agents are active.

Some cannabinoids have useful anticonvulscent actions. Work on the synthetic substances has shown that the psychological effects can be separated to some degree from the potential therapeutic actions.Nabilone is a synthetic analog that may be significantly better than pro chloro perazine in reducing nausea, vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy; its side effects include somnolence, dry mouth but only minimal euphoria. Nabilone also lowers intraocular pressure, perhaps synergistically with agents currently used for the treatment of glaucoma and appears to work when applied topically (Katzung, 2000).Dronabenol another cannabinoid derivative has anti emetic properties.

Marijuana use in case of asthmatics has been of proven benefit. Drugs such as Albuterol, terbutaline and salmeterol may get replaced by marijuana if effective and sufficient studies are carried out. The role of marijuana as a pain reliever cannot be denied and can become a substiute for morphine if properly used (Harvey, 2007).Coming to the issue of legalization, it is a wonder that with so many medicinal uses marijuana is being treated as mere an addictive substance only. Despite its risk of addiction it ranks below alcohol according to an analysis (Doyle, 1996) which states that alcohol consumption leads to more than 100,000 deaths annually in the United States.

Accidents due to drunken driving made up one fourth of the number, alcohol related homicide and suicide account for 8 to 11 percent of deaths due to alcohol. The cancers attributable to alcohol such as esophagus and cancer comprise around 17% of the deaths. The ultimate price of liver cirrhosis which an addict has to pay, which has got no treatment options besides a transplant surgery and that too is not an easy task to undertake.In a study by Donald Tashkin at the University of California who has studied marijuana and it’s derivatives for almost 30 years it has been proven that the use of marijuana or the long term use of marijuana does not lead to any neoplastic activity . The study was postulated on the fact that there would be a positive association between Marijuana and lung cancer, but it was found out that there was no association and all and instead Marijuana has a cyto- protective effect (Kaufman, 2006).The study also included effects of tobacco use and when presented to the American Thoracic Society it showed that there was no association between marijuana smoking and cancer, while on the other hand cigarette smoking showed a 20 fold increase in cancers in people smoking unto two or more packs a day.

From a social point of view marijuana has got certain implications. It is clearly stated in the US constitution that the Government cannot prohibit or prevent the free exercise of religion. Now marijuana is used in certain religious activities. Rastafarians constantly use Marijuana as part of their religious rite and the Hindus and Christian community also use in during their religious festivals (Swagga.com, 2006).It may be argued that the use of marijuana has got an established religious value and putting it on ban; doesn’t it tantamount to curbing religious freedom?  Mr.

Chamderlal has repeatedly questioned this approach of the government on countless occasions. While the hub of democracy and freedom of expressions and home to millions of immigrants of different religious backgrounds, American policy should not allow any legislation to be made as long as it is affecting any religion.This should be brought up in the court and indeed it has been on more than a few occasions but still efforts are underway to establish marijuana’s use as a purely religious affair. In February 2006 the US supreme court gave a ruling in favor of a religious group seeking protection against prosecution for their religious use of Hoasce ( a tea made from plants containing Dimethyl tryptamine) (mjlegal.

com, 2006) . DMT is also listed in the list of controlled substance act, just like Marijuana. It can be said that if a substance like Hoasca could be legalized just on the basis of a religious background by the Supreme Court of the United States of America, why can’t be Marijuana.

But cases filed in this respect have failed. In December 2006, a federal judge in Albuquerque, New Mexico ruled against the founders of a church who claimed that Marijuana was for religious use (Stephannie, 2006).The court ruling ordered that the defendants didn’t have sufficient grounds to testify their use of marijuana as a religious issue. This proves that while other drugs are being allowed for legalization purposes, the fate of Marijuana hangs in the balance.Another argument in opposition to Marijuana’s legalization states that its use leads to violence. This was the argument that was also given as a strong statement when Marijuana use was made illegal.

But this claim that use of marijuana leads to violence can jest be attributed as a “false”. In a research article (Jeffery A Roth, 1994) it has been shown that and proved beyond doubt that Marijuana use does not lead to violence of any sort. On the contrary Alcohol has been demonstrated as the “only substance”, whose consumptions leads to aggressive behavior.The research also considered other substances of abuse and has given all the statistics related to drug use or abuse. The fact to be considered is that if alcohol is such a psychoactive substance then why is it that its use is legalized and that of Marijuana has been kept as illegal.It is human nature to try thing which are banned. Even before the legalization of alcohol, people used to do the same thing with alcohol as they do from marijuana, bought it from the black market.

Now this is causing a lot of problems. Today’s youth when in need of having marijuana , tend to find it from illegal resources, that may sound something not out of the ordinary but the long term effects that these people might be having is a long association with the illegal market.In this may they may become dependent upon them for providing their needs and in the long run they might be exploited by the groups selling these drugs illegally. Besides it puts a huge strain on the economy.  The next question comes of the responsibility and freedom to choose.In today’s environment the average American is well oriented with his surroundings and is intelligent enough to gauge his own benefits. Being independent is all about making decisions and the decision to use marijuana or not remains the responsibility of the person himself.American economy will indeed prosper if marijuana use is legalized.

Based upon the fact that the Government is getting billions of dollars as revenue from the sale of tobacco, cigarettes and alcohol. If marijuana too is legalized this will cut the costs incurred on its probation and instead will boost the country’s economy (Campbell, 2003).So far law enforcement agencies have failed to curb the use of marijuana. What remains to be used is to use this drug to enhance the country’s economy rather than spending billions on a use less activity. In his article, Walter wink favors legalization by stating, “I’m not advocating giving up the war on drugs because we can’t win, I’m saying that we lost because we let drugs dictate the means we used to oppose them.” Instead of letting the drugs stay as illegal commodities, he is of the opinion that when legalized, this drug will have repercussions on the world drug market, “The only way to do so is to ruin the world market price of drugs by legalizing them.” It is through legalization that the crime rate related to drugs especially marijuana would be decreased.Most of the addicts engage in antisocial activities just for the sake of the “next dose”, if the status of the drug is legalized then this would cut down its price drastically and addicts would not have to run towards the unacceptable means of obtaining their “next dose”.

Marijuana if allotted a legal status would result in opening up new vistas for research and education in the field. It would cut down the costs incurred on the steps to curb marijuana related activities, it would give religious freedom as well as social freedom plus this would have positive financial outcome on the economy of the country.These are some of the claims made in favor of legalization of marijuana. Though the active legalization of marijuana is indeed not near but the Government should take a balanced approach on the subject. Instead of taking only a single view point into perspective policies cannot be formulated.

In order to formulate policies it is imperative that a balanced approach be adopted (Waster, 2005).Decriminalization of marijuana should be allowed at the start of this process. This means not to allow advertisements as such but allowing the drug to be sold and bought and no charges should be leveled against possessors of the frog.

This might provide a sense of responsibility to the American citizen and no longer might HW opt to refer to under hand dealings and who knows this might be the start or the initiation of a drug free society.An economic boom may take place later on, on which the American economy would flourish. The advertisement and investment that would follow marijuana legalization is something which might have managinimous effect on the investment and economic opportunities.  As has been stated in previous studies, decriminalization of marijuana in some states has had a positive impact on the society.If viewed in the context of tobacco and alcohol use, it seems unfair to have allowed liberty to these substances and to limit marijuana.

It has been proved again and again in the studies and a few of which have been provided in this paper that marijuana is far less damaging then either alcohol or tobacco.We fail to comprehend the thought behind legalizing a cancerous substance and on the other hand labeling a cancer curing agent as illegal. This puts into jeopardy all the calls for a fair and just American society. This even undermines the situation of law in this context.More importance and concern should be given to the situation with a neutral view point in mind. These points should be discussed in a neutral panel and a favorable outcome may be expected.

Any ruling that may be given should be done so after having the clear concept of the implications that our actions may have on the present world and the future generations. We owe this planet to our future generations, let there be decisions made on merit so that Justice prevails and the concept of United States of America as a democratically free, tolerant country is upheld.     Chapter ThreeMethodologyBooks, Journals, and online resources have been used during the compilation of this research. Online resources proved to be more useful as they had recent statistics and arguments as compared to books. Moreover, a lot of data and information are present on the web regarding this issue. However, books and journals were also useful as they are more reliable resources than websites.

Both the qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used. However, the focus will be more on qualitative research as there will be descriptive arguments related to the pros and cons of marijuana decriminalization. Moreover, all the effects cannot be measured in terms of statistics. However, quantitative research method will also be utilized where appropriate to support these arguments.An online survey questionnaire will be used, as it does not cost much and saves time as compared to interviews and case studies, which need more time and research. Such surveys can be sent to people through emails regardless of the location of the respondent.  This way, people from different cities and states can be surveyed easily.

The sampling will take into account people from different cultural, social, and economic status. The desired sample would be to include 10 persons from each state belonging to different status. This will help in identifying effects that are limited to people of a specific status. Furthermore, particular theories will be used during the survey. The specific theories will be Labeling Theory (for evaluating social effects), Subcultural Theory (for evaluating cultural effects), and Rational Choice Theory (for evaluating economic effects). See Appendix A for the survey questionnaire.

Moreover, extensive secondary research will also be conducted during the course of this paper. This type of research is extremely useful, as it is possible to get the experts’ views on any issue through these sources. Moreover, many researches are available that have been conducted in the past regarding this issue.ReferencesAllen Wastler, Marijuana Legalization could make millions of dollars, June 7 2005, http://money.cnn.com/2005/06/07/commentary/wastler/wastler/Accessed on August 13, 2007 Betram G Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, pg 150 -175 Eighth edition, Published by Lange Publishers Cotran, Kumar, Stanley Robins, Basic pathology, 7th edition published by W.

B Saunder’s Company Doyle, by the numbers-Deaths Caused by Alcohol, Scientific American magazine, December 1996 issue. Duncan Campbell, America’s Black economy flying high, May 2, 2003, http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,947880,00.htmlAccessed on August 13, 2007 Goodman And Gilman Pharmacological basis of therapeutics , pg 520-521, 2005 edition , published by Macmillan Publishing , Co, Inc Jeffery A Roth, Research in brief, US Dep’t of Justice, published February 1994 Marijuana Legalization organization, copyright 1999-2005 MLOhttp://www.

mjlegal.org/Accessed on August 13, 2007Joffe, Alain, Yancy, W. Samuel, (2004, June) Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth. Pediatrics. Vol. 113 No. 6, pp. e632-e638Marc Kaufman, Study Finds No Cancer-Marijuana Connection, May 26, 2006, Washington Post Marijuana-The Herb of Inspirationhttp://www.

swagga.com/ganga.htmAccessed on August 13, 2007 Religious Use of Marijuanahttp://www.mjlegal.org/religious.htmlAccessed on August 13, 2007 Richard Harvey, Pamela Champe, Lippincot’s Illustrated Pharmacology, pg 100-150, 3rd edition, 2007, published by Lippincot Williams and Wilkins Stephanie Innes, Court overrules church’s use of pot as sacrament, Arizona Daily Star, Published 12/27/2006;The Guardian, March 1, 2000;National Clearing house for Alcohol and drug information, A short history of the drug laws , internet article published on  http://www.

druglibrary.org/schaffer/LIBRARY/shrthist.htmA Promising Future: Alcohol and Other Drug Problem Prevention Services Improvement. CSAP Prevention Monograph 10 (1992) BK191;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;Leo,The first two chapters are written very well.  Please note comments throughout.

  You need to discuss more how you will operationalize your research.;Dr. Joe;;;;;;;Appendix AOnline Survey Questionnaire;Questions regarding Labeling Theory and Social Effects;Do you think that the fact that marijuana users are considered serious offenders leads these users to get involved in other small crimes?;Do you think that decriminalizing marijuana will remove the label of unethical practice that is currently linked with marijuana usage?;Would you support marijuana decriminalization if surveys show that marijuana users are more likely to quit other small crimes after marijuana decriminalization?;Do you think that if marijuana usage becomes a norm, something like alcohol, some people in the police will also start using it?;Please give your suggestions or views (if any) on marijuana decriminalization and its social effects on police and public in the USA.;Questions regarding Rational Choice Theory and Economic Effects;Do you think that marijuana decriminalization will put an end to the monopoly of drug lords who are also involved in other crimes?Do you think that the tax revenues from marijuana business would stimulate drug lords to quit this business (since this step would cut their profits)?In you opinion, if the drug lords leave marijuana business due to taxation, will they move towards other legal businesses or illegal businesses?Considering the negative effects on the performance of those employees who will use marijuana after its decriminalization, do you think that tax revenues from marijuana taxation will exceed the probable economic loss due to the low performance of employees?Please give your suggestions or views (if any) on marijuana decriminalization and its economic effects on police and public in the USA.Questions regarding Subcultural Theory and Cultural EffectsDo you think that some specific subcultures are more involved in the business of marijuana?Do you think that blacks are more involved in the marijuana business?Do you think that decriminalization of marijuana would affect any subculture and its performance inside the police? Something like cops of a certain subculture will not be strict with small offenders if marijuana is decriminalized.Considering the previous question, do you think that non-adults belonging to a certain subculture (probably the same subculture in police that will be lenient about marijuana rules after its decriminalization) will be more likely to use marijuana?;Please give your suggestions or views (if any) on marijuana decriminalization and its cultural effects on police and public in the USA.;