1. Selling Plan

1.1
Description of the Company

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Wimm-Bill-Dann is the is the largest manufacturer in dairy merchandises and one of the leader kids & # 8217 ; s nutrient in Russia. WBD has more than 35 production installations in Russia, Ukraine and Central Asia. The Company distribution web covers 100 % of the Russian district and besides includes the CIS. Serving needs more than 280 mln. consumers [ 1 ]
.

More than 17,000 people work at WBD & # 8217 ; s production installations and trading affiliates.

Wimm-Bill-Dann is the 1 of the first Russian company who start to bring forth packaged juice merchandises. Before WBD, no 1 in Russia produce packaged juice. Imported juice merchandises in modern packaging were virtually non-existent [ 2 ]
.

The most accepted trade names include: Domik V Derevne ( Little House in the Village ) , Chudo ( Wonder ) , Vesely Molochnik ( Happy Milkman ) , Imunele and Lamber. We besides have Russia & # 8217 ; s best-known juice trade name, J7. Another less popular trade names are Lyubimy Sad ( Favorite Garden ) , Chudo-Yagoda ( Wonder-Berry ) , and Essentuki. The most accepted baby-food trade name in Russia is the hallmark Agusha [ 3 ]
.

The Company ‘s gross has grown from $ 1,189.3 million for 2004 to $ 2,181 million for 2009 ( IFRS ) . Grosss for 2009 decreased by 22 % compared to 2008.

The mission of the company is to assist the full household live healthier lives by basking the alimentary and delightful nutrient and drink merchandises every twenty-four hours throughout their lives.

Highlights for the first one-fourth 2010 [ 4 ]
.

Group gross increased 19.1 % year-on-year to US $ 615.3 million driven by solid volume growing across all sections and helped by a stronger ruble

Group gross net income increased 2.3 % year-on-year to US $ 172.0 million

Group gross border declined to 28.0 % from 32.5 % compared to prior twelvemonth as a consequence of crisp additions in natural milk costs in the first one-fourth of 2010

Group net income about tripled to US $ 33.7 million from US $ 12.6 million a twelvemonth ago

Net income as a per centum of gross revenues increased to 5.5 % in the first one-fourth of 2010 from 2.4 % in the same period last twelvemonth.

1.2
Merchandises and Servicess

The chief dairy merchandises include: The chief dairy merchandises include:

o Traditional merchandises, such as sterilised milk, pick and butter, every bit good as traditional sour-milk merchandises such as kefir, bungalow cheese, soft bungalow cheese and rancid pick.

O Yogurts and dairy sweets, such as imbibing yoghurt, mousse, fruit-flavored milk and kefir, puddings and flavored bungalow cheese.

o Cheese merchandises, including difficult and processed cheese.

The drink merchandises include:

o juice and nectars produced from juice dressed ore,

o enriched juice-based drinks,

o traditional berry-juice-based drinks,

o mineral H2O.

The babe nutrient merchandises include:

o Liquid dairy merchandises for babies under the age of three ;

O Juices for babies under the age of three ;

o Meat, fish, poulet, fruit and dairy purees for babies under the age of three ;

O Merchandises for pregnant adult females and nursing female parents.

1.3
SWOT analysis

A SWOT analysis is a tool, used in direction and scheme preparation. It can assist to place the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats for our company.

This is a sum-up of the concern & # 8217 ; s most of import strengths, failings, chances and menaces.

Strengths

Good direction accomplishments ( will run concern )

Deep cognition and apprehension of both Russian market and foreign benchmarks.

Effective organisational construction & # 8211 ; efficient and fast determination devising.

Excellent quality merchandise ( adds to repute )

Failing

The battle to construct trade name equity

Opportunities

More offerings in economic system section

More monetary value cleavage

Expanding market portion

Menaces

High monetary value ( Price is the major menace. If the monetary value goes certain beyond the exact monetary value at the market it will affects the ingestion of the juice. Because when the monetary value goes higher clients go for the replacement ) .

Consumers become more prudent

Increasing provider monetary values ( ensuing in decreased profitableness )

Effective cost direction is important to survival

Tougher pecuniary environment, many companies forced to cut advertisement, head count, wages

More rigorous fiscal and adoption environment

Rivals could harm by acquiring aggressive in their promotional activities.

1.4
Plague Analysis

& # 183 ; Political analysis

– Government is going truly witting about the healthy state and healthy nutrient

& # 183 ; Economic analysis

– Economic factors are the chief factors in any industry who affect to the industry in many ways

– Inflation impacts extremely negative

& # 183 ; Social analysis

– Sociable plans

– WBD patrons assorted socially important undertakings, donates financess to orphanhoods, inns, churches and cultural constitutions.

& # 183 ; Environment

– Cardinal authorities is traveling to be earnestly concerns about environmental issues

& # 183 ; Technological analysis

– Through modern equipment WBD increases efficiency of its concern and can has up-to-date informations about their merchandises

1.5
Market
Analysis

Harmonizing to the Russian Union of Manufacturers of Juice by the terminal 2008 industry has concentrated in custodies of four companies of giants [ 5 ]
. there is a alone chance at the Russian market of juices. There are a batch of different participants at the market, but there is no the strongly marked leader. The chief participants control 80 % of the market

& # 171 ; Lebedyanskii & # 187 ; ( market portion 32 % ) ,

& # 171 ; Multun & # 187 ; ( market portion 22 % ) ,

& # 171 ; Nidan & # 187 ; ( market portion 17 % )

& # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; ( market portion 16 % ) .

Appendix 1 shows us the construction of the market of juices in Russia.

Harmonizing to the study & # 171 ; RosBusinessKonsulting & # 187 ; ( Russian market of juices. RBK. Market research, 2008 ) the premium section of the market is chosen by more comfortable portion of consumers. In connexion with turning incomes of the population the category portion premium, about 2006 & # 8211 ; 2008 has grown from 0,4 % to 2,7 % .

Drinks of an mean monetary value section are in demand at working modern immature people. The portion of this section practically has non changed in comparing with 2007 ( 12 % ) . Now there is a rapid development of the bottom norm and bottom monetary value sections of the juice market. Harmonizing to experts of the company in 2009 together these sections occupied more than 50 % of the market.

1.6
Market
Growth

Harmonizing to the research workers from & # 171 ; RosBusinessKonsulting & # 187 ; ( Russian market of juices. RBK. Market research, 2008 ) growing rate are traveling to be approximately 8 % during 2009 & # 8211 ; 2012.

As predicted production volume of the market of juice by the twelvemonth 2012 will be 3,5 bln. litres a twelvemonth. ( Appendix 2 )

2. Selling Scheme

WBD will establish the highest quality of fruit juice & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; . The scheme is to place & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; as a natural and healthy juice ; the scheme will seek to make client consciousness sing merchandise.

2.1
Mission

WBD & # 8217 ; s mission is as follows:

– Quality: Our fruit juices are the highest quality, most alimentary nutrient merchandises & # 8230 ; because we will accept nil less.

– Innovative: Our merchandises have ever been in the head of the wellness and nutrition moving ridge. Advanced merchandises, province of the art fabrication, quality confidence and industry expertness are the bases for our yesteryear and hereafter successes.

– Integrity: Our clients depend on the quality of our juice merchandises. Our committedness to the highest criterion is the foundation of our client ‘s trust in WBD. Delivering newly made juice to consumers depends on extended cooperation and common trust between provider and retail merchant. We stand behind our merchandise, our service and our word.

– Repute: Our juices have a repute on offering the most delightful, alimentary, 100 % natural with no unreal spirits, colourss and preservatives.

2.2
Marketing aims

& # 183 ; Market Share Objectives:

& # 183 ; To derive 40 % of the market for soft drink industry by August 2011.

& # 183 ; Profitability Objectives:

& # 183 ; To accomplish a 10 % return on capital employed by January 2010.

& # 183 ; Promotional Aims:

& # 183 ; To increase consciousness of the merchandise on the market.

& # 183 ; Aims for Survival:

& # 183 ; To last the current market war between rivals.

2.3
Key success factors

Key to success for & # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; will include:

– Supplying the highest quality merchandise

– Competitive pricing

– State of the art production and packaging engineering is a must in this industry

– Angstrom strong distribution web

2.4
The demographics of clients

– Young professional, ages 25 & # 8211 ; 45 ;

– Average income of $ 40,000+ a twelvemonth ;

– Involved in athletic activity ;

– Shop in upscale health/natural nutrient shops.

2.5 Merchandise

Merchandises sold as fruit juices may be sweetened if the label states the presence of the added sugar or other wholesome, alimentary sweetener agent ( saccharin is non a alimentary sweetener agent ) , but they should non incorporate added H2O.

Fruit juices should be manufactured merely from clean, sound fruit in clean equipment. Proper readying involves thorough lavation, screening to take wormy or spoiled fruit, and paring. Fliess should non come in contact with the fruit or equipment.

WBD will offer a wide scope of juices to accommodate the client, down to the smallest item.

The company will offer a scope of advanced juices, including

– 100 % pure carrot juice, nil added

– Carrot and Apium graveolens dulce juice

– Beet and apple juice blend

– Angstrom lovely jazz band of Beta vulgaris, carrot, pear and ginger

– Tomato, Beta vulgaris and ginger

– Chinese gooseberry, apple, pear and some leafy vegetables

– An invigorating mix of apple, pear and orange

– Carrot and orange

WBD will utilize organic ingredients so that consumers will acquire even more goodness from the drinks. For a moderately healthy individual there is hence no demand for vitamin pills nor dietetic addendums: a natural juice from WBD contains the richest natural beginning of minerals, vitamins, enzymes and other critical hint elements that will vouch plentifulness of energy and verve to assist your organic structure neutralise toxins, hike its immune system and by and large assist you go through your busy twenty-four hours.

All drinks are newly juiced to order and to bask them at their best we will urge to devour them within 8 hours after unfastened the bottle. Remember besides that by devouring organic green goods, you help continue our planet ‘s natural balance and protect its biodiversity.

2.6 Monetary value

Different monetary value in different seasons

Summer is a good season for fresh juices in Russia. The mean temperature in Moscow during the summer is 24 & # 8211 ; 28C. ( The summer of 2010 is highly hot it & # 8217 ; s about 30 & # 8211 ; 34C ) . The company can alter their merchandise monetary values harmonizing to the season. So in winter the monetary values might be somewhat less than in summer.

Price Level

Maintain monetary value degree in all sections at 15 % higher than rivals to reenforce the quality image.

2.7 Topographic point

Distribute direct to the client where possible.

Distribution channels

& # 183 ; Direct channels

Selling the merchandises in the different departmental shops by utilizing ain conveyance. In this instance the company will hold more net income border.

& # 183 ; Indirect channels

Selling the merchandises through whole Sellerss and bureaus to cover all country.

Intensive distribution:

& # 183 ; Retail mercantile establishments, Hyper Mall, Supermarkets

& # 183 ; Small stores

& # 183 ; Entertainment zone: Restaurants, Cinemas, Parks, Theaters

& # 183 ; Petrol station

& # 183 ; Newsagents

& # 183 ; Schools

& # 183 ; Sports, Health nines, Gym

& # 183 ; Entertainment locales

Geting shelves

In order to expose merchandises more clearly and attractive for the clients in the large departmental shops & # 8211 ; the company should acquire cardinal shelves & # 8211 ; in attention-getting places. Normally we should maintain our merchandises deep-freezes near the entryway of the shops.

2.8 Promotion

WBD will advance merchandises in several ways.

WBD will make sponsorships with different exhibitions, presentations, shows and events.

Examples:

& # 183 ; Festivals and shows: & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; committees and facilitates cutting border creative persons, instrumentalists, interior decorators, film-makers, etc to curate and make events and occurrences. During any event a mix of multimedia: music, picture, advanced engineerings in amusement and show, should be present. & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; Entertainment component by no agencies should be limited to laser shows and voguish DJs. ( the sample of advertisement see Appendix 3 ) .

& # 183 ; Interactive amusement with content creative activity by consumers: Like in Web 2.0. and 3.0, & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; enables consumers to input into amusement and show by sharing/creating content. For illustration, screens with unrecorded mystifier of images made from consumers & # 8217 ; content ( images, pictures, exposure ) , or music and visible radiation shows made of consumers & # 8217 ; content ( voices, music, ringtones, etc ) ; synergistic 3D games and simulations.

& # 183 ; Purposeful engineerings for entertaining and educating: & # 171 ; Seila & # 187 ; Stationss with content transmittal, powered by QR codifications, Bluetooth, etc. Content can be assorted, e.g. music, utile instant information, picture, images and exposures.

a ) Word-of-mouth

Making consciousness among consumers: the chief aim for this stage is to make consciousness about the merchandise among consumers who will turn into possible clients. The viva-voce consequence is the end here & # 8211 ; it will give a boot to bo

ost initial gross revenues.

B ) World Wide Web

The web site will be tool to acquire closer our clients and understand them better and will function an public-service corporation value.

degree Celsius ) Online Ad:

& # 183 ; Internet Ad

& # 183 ; Affiliate Program

vitamin D ) Radio & A ; Television Ad:

& # 183 ; Comcast Spotlight

& # 183 ; Commercial Radio

& # 183 ; Television commercial

vitamin E ) Promotional Campaigns:

& # 183 ; Club Events

& # 183 ; Billboards and retentions

degree Fahrenheit ) Print Ad:

& # 183 ; Print media

– Advertise monthly in magazines that are specifically targeted to production directors in the automotive, Marine and heavy industrial sections.

– Advertise monthly in magazines that are aimed at production directors in the general industry.

– Advertise quarterly in magazines that are aimed at buying officers.

& # 183 ; Newspapers

& # 183 ; Sunday Advertisements

g ) Praseodymium:

& # 183 ; PR release to be initiated each month to assorted trade diaries and magazines.

Lost Customers

– Contact monthly all past clients that have non re-ordered to inquire why non and see whether we can win back their concern.

Existing Customers

– Follow up all new clients two hebdomads after they purchase to guarantee they are satisfied with the merchandise.

– Send quarterly newssheet to bing clients to maintain them informed of our other merchandises.

– Attempt and up-sell all questions for our standard scope to our premium scope.

3. Control of Performance 3. Control of Performance

The intent of WBD ‘ selling program is to function as a usher for the company. The undermentioned countries will be monitored to estimate public presentation:

& # 183 ; Gross saless: quarterly and one-year.

& # 183 ; Production Costss: quarterly and one-year.

& # 183 ; Customer satisfaction.

& # 183 ; Market portion analysis.

Competitor profile & # 8211 ; Keep updated rival profile.

Marketing information system & # 8211 ; Document on every question & # 171 ; How did you hear about us? & # 187 ;

Produce monthly gross revenues studies by merchandise, by market section, by district and gross revenues representative.

4. Scheme and Implementation Summary

Large soft drinks companies advertise direct to consumers, patron featuring events, concerts, wireless plans, etc. Competing with such big runs is evidently unrealistic for a little soft drinks manufacturer. A branded merchandise will profit from promotion instead than advertisement. This is easier to accomplish if the merchandise is unusual.

The scheme of & # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; is to concentrate on our niche market which is health/natural nutrient shops that serve the immature active professional.

Selling Scheme

& # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; will present its merchandises at 20 % off regular monetary value during the first month. In add-on, & # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; will co-sponsor local athletic charitable events to raise the visibleness of the trade name name.

Gross saless Strategy

The gross revenues scheme is to construct client trueness in the new markets. & # 171 ; WBD & # 187 ; will increase its gross revenues force to concentrate on the new markets.

5. Individual Critical Reflection on Learning Outcomes

& # 8226 ; The specific beginnings of value offered by my chosen company Evaluation the extent to which my advertizement has contributed to the value offered by the company to its clients.

Wimm-Bill-Dann has some specific beginnings of value for its clients. The first 1 is quality. Its fruit juices are the highest quality, most alimentary nutrient merchandises & # 8230 ; because it will accept nil less. The 2nd 1 is inventions. Its merchandises have ever been in the head of the wellness and nutrition moving ridge. Advanced merchandises, province of the art fabrication, quality confidence and industry expertness are the bases for Wimm-Bill-Dann yesteryear and hereafter successes. The 3rd one is unity. Its clients depend on the quality of its juice merchandises. Its committedness to the highest criterion is the foundation of its client ‘s trust in WBD. Delivering newly made juice to consumers depends on extended cooperation and common trust between provider and retail merchant. Wimm-Bill-Dann bases behind its merchandise, its service and its word.

& # 8226 ; The contemplation of my accomplishment of up to three of the faculty larning results

I think the most of import acquisition outcomeI gained from the doing selling program is seting together its different parts. I went through all the phases of composing a program for Wimm-Bill-Dann, from market analysis to revenue/cost spreadsheet computations. This experience is of the practical usage for me. With this cognition it will be easier for me to get down my ain concern and to experience more comfy in developing other selling programs. Particularly utile was doing market analysis, which involves a batch of attempts and which helps to understand the procedure of constructing the concern measure by measure.

The following of import larning result I gained is absolute necessity to happen a manner of effectual communicating with clients. I am certain that the function of communicating in selling scheme is perfectly necessary. It provides reassigning information, thoughts, and programs among multiple clients.
It is a vascular system of any selling scheme. Communication procedure is inevitable for marketing procedure and specify how a merchandise or services would be. All possible selling maps and functions such as merchandise arrangement, publicity could non be decently performed without effectual selling communicating.

Another good acquisition result worth adverting I & # 8217 ; ve learned from the procedure of doing selling program is placing which marketing thoughts have existent commercial potency.

There are three really good tools that can assist to do a successful selling program. The first 1 is to make exceeding public-service corporation & # 8211 ; to place where and how the new merchandise or service will alter the lives of its clients. The 2nd 1 is puting a selling strategic monetary value & # 8211 ; it must non merely attract clients in big Numberss but besides help to retain them. And the 3rd tool is constructing a profitable concern theoretical account & # 8211 ; a good concern theoretical account is itself a powerful defence against imitation.

& # 8226 ; My outlooks at the start of the faculty

At the start of the faculty I expected that there are three options to contend the challengers: onslaught, coexist, or go low-priced participants. None of these options is easy, but the right selling program can assist larn which scheme is most likely to work. It is recommended non to establish the monetary value war with your rivals. Alternatively companies should increase the distinction of their merchandises by utilizing a combination of tactics, intensify distinction by offering more benefits to consumers.

& # 8226 ;
The experience I bring to the faculty in the context of the acquisition results

In the context of the acquisition outcomes I brought to the faculty a batch of experiences. First of all, breakthrough pricing scheme can destruct rivals and agitate up industries. By offering lower monetary values and better services than its challengers Wimm-Bill-Dann merely took their clients off. The innovation and deployment of new ways of making work enabled Wimm-Bill-Dann to construct client trueness.

Wimm-Bill-Dann faced a figure of operational challenges from the first yearss of its creative activity, but it overcame each of them one by one. By utilizing the theoretical accounts of the most successful Internet retail merchants of that clip, they identified features that are largely appealing to clients: value, convenience and choice. These three features are the chief pillars that create a stable base for the company.

The initial pricing theoretical account that Wimm-Bill-Dann deployed was similar to that offered by traditional drinks manufacturers & # 8211 ; bear downing for a film, transportation costs and extended rental fees. But confronting a defeat from their early clients sing the monetary values Wimm-Bill-Dann shifted to its popular organic drinks, which became Wimm-Bill-Dann & # 8217 ; s cardinal insight value.

Soon after that Wimm-Bill-Dann adjusted its pricing system it helped to significantly simplify the plan and made it easier to explicate the plan. This obliging market proposition added a new group of fans for whom drinks were a regular portion of their day-to-day life.

In order to better balance client demand, Wimm-Bill-Dann developed a proprietary recommendation system that increased the use of Wimm-Bill-Dann & # 8217 ; s merchandise line by fulfilling clients.

& # 8226 ; The experience has been used to accomplish the acquisition result

I used this experience through the procedure of making the selling program and realized that normally the barriers are low and there is no individual rival that controls important market portion. But at the same clip environment is likely to acquire tougher and tougher due to raising sum of possible rivals and increasing set of characteristics and applications with convenient and besides riotous services that can be used in order to take down the cost construction and monetary values consequently. To be successful a company should increase the distinction of their merchandises and services.

& # 8226 ; My remark on the positions on the procedure

The procedure of doing selling program is really ambitious. On my sentiment selling scheme is must be deemed as the best 1. Constructing selling program from the land ( clients & # 8217 ; demands ) is a difficult work. The procedure helped me to recognize that Wimm-Bill-Dann selling program should be based on the right scheme stairss and tactics, such as: a ) scheme focal point ( presenting drinks is a service that needs to be focused on definite market demand backed by appropriate merchandise, strongly targeted clients and going pricing theoretical account ) , B ) adjusted merchandise scheme, degree Celsius ) justified pricing theoretical account ( to aim long-run client relationships and vitamin D ) right mark market.

& # 8226 ; Assess the anterior cognition and skill the acquisition result

I had anterior cognition and skill the larning outcome how to make a practical concern program. I spent hours orienting all the thoughts and traveling through all the phases of composing a concern program including debut of concern thought and why it is attractive to get down it, overall market entreaty, client value proposition, net income expression, cardinal resources and procedures, and fiscal statements. This experience was really practical for me in the hereafter to get down my ain concern or even to work with other people in developing their concern thoughts.

Another anterior cognition I had was that diverseness of ways to pass on with clients can be a cardinal driver in accomplishing selling ends and marks. Through a series of instances, practical applications, presentations and synergistic duologues I understood both the importance and the power of diverseness and how to pass on and pull off it in existent life. I developed an apprehension of diverseness as a competitory advantage in selling environment.

The significance of invention in making potentially interesting and utile selling program is another anterior cognition I had before. Advanced selling theoretical account or thought may alter any industry wholly supplying competitory advantages and benefits. Invention and deployment of new ways of making work is all about marketing invention, but directors normally ignore and uninterested inventions. It is really of import to be advanced particularly in our yearss when new thoughts get shorter life period.

& # 8226 ; My remarks about the alterations as a consequence of this acquisition

I understood that selling program is really of import in order to win in any concern. Normally the barriers are low and there is no individual rival that controls important market portion. But at the same clip selling environment is likely to acquire tougher and tougher due to raising sum of possible rivals and increasing set of characteristics and applications with convenient and besides riotous services that can be used in order to take down the cost construction and monetary values consequently. To be successful a company should increase the distinction of their merchandises and services.

& # 8226 ; My remark about the procedure of larning

When I was undergoing the procedure of larning I felt that there are some really of import selling bases to win. The first 1 is the doctrine & # 171 ; Grow and divide & # 187 ; . Such doctrine is instead good. It doesn & # 8217 ; t permit the company to go a big mechanistic construction unsuitable for furthering invention. The following 1 is innovation civilization and direction support.

& # 8226 ; The inquiries that I have been refering the acquisition result and the actions that I am traveling to take to turn to them

Refering the larning result I have the following inquiries. How to increase the sum of practical illustrations, games and instances in making selling programs. It provides a category extra to theory practical apprehension of how to implement all those booming selling thoughts. Inviting particular invitee which are able to portion their experience is all really helpful for educational procedure. All this can be pupils interested in the category and pull their extra attending to practical issues.

I would besides propose increasing squad working as a really practical and perfectly necessary experience in any selling field. It besides helps to construct the web with other pupils. Working in a squad helps to derive an ability to make a duologue while pass oning and better communicating accomplishments. Possessing this accomplishment helps to place existent jobs, develop solutions, and make common apprehensions. It is besides of import to be able to set yourself in & # 171 ; other & # 8217 ; s places & # 187 ; to virtually reassign yourself to the topographic point of your communicator in order seeing yourself from the other individual & # 8217 ; s position. Bing a portion of a squad gives pupils a opportunity to portion their thoughts and have more chances in their unpredictable hereafter.

Another refering for bettering the larning results in the MBA plan is making Marketing Incubator. The intent of this brooder is to supply the pupils an chance to set their selling thoughts in pattern, to do them work in world. It is may be organized as competition with honoring a squad with the best concern program fiscal support to set this thought in pattern. This would decidedly promote pupils to convey and develop the most practical and dependable selling thoughts.

nutrient manufacturer analysis client

[ 1 ]
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wbd.com/profile/geography/

[ 2 ]
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wbd.com/profile/history/

[ 3 ]
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wbd.com/profile/snapshot/Default.aspx

[ 4 ]
Delivers volume growing and portion additions in Q1 2010. WBD

[ 5 ]
Russian Union of Manufacturers studies. 2009.