Malaria remains the major tropical disease in the universe today, killing about 1 million people yearly ; about 243 million instances led to 863,000 deceases in 2008 [ 1 ] . Incidence rates of malaria are 350-500 million per annum [ 2 ] . However, over the last three decennaries malaria has impinged upon countries where it had antecedently been eliminated or had successfully been controlled, compensating the accomplishments accomplished in recent old ages. Malaria is endemic in 108 states with about 3.2 billion lives at hazard of transmittal.
One-half of the universe ‘s population is at hazard of undertaking malaria and persons populating in African states are most at hazard ; South of the Sahara in Africa about 60 % of malaria instances worldwide occur, 75 % of planetary Plasmodium falciparum malaria instances occur and more than 80 % of malaria deceases occur. Plasmodium falciparum is the most common cause of malaria in this part and is responsible for 18 % of deceases in kids under the age of five. Malaria is contracted from a bite by a female mosquito of the Anopheles household infected from an earlier blood repast from an person infected by the parasite of the Plasmodium genus. The most common of which are Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum ( besides considered to be the most infective. ) The World Health Organisation in their 2009 World Malaria study suggests that mosquito and parasite opposition to anti-malarial drugs are a “ major menace to accomplishing planetary malaria control.
” Observation of drug efficiency has revealed early opposition to artemisinin incorporating anti malarial drugs taking to the outgrowth of opposition containment enterprises. Research from Zanzibar, Zambia and Sao Tome and Principe has highlighted that important lessenings in malaria incidences and deceases have been reflected in significant diminutions in ‘all-cause ‘ deceases in kids under five old ages of age, bespeaking that concentrated attempts to cut down malaria through control methods may assist cut down child mortality by two tierces in African states by 2015 [ 1 ] . Throughout the last 10 old ages at that place has been a turning demand for alternate methods of vector control which keeps insect powder usage to a minimal due to increase in development of opposition to them, environmental pollution, prohibitory costs and logistical troubles [ 3 ] . Presently there are limited surveies on the consequence of Anopheles larval control taking to stamp down malaria in tropical Africa but their consequences have indicated that the targeting of larvae, particularly in semisynthetic parts, can well cut down transmittal of malaria under suited scenes.
Besides these methods are peculiarly disposed for urban parts, where larval denseness is limited, particularly possibly in combination with indoor residuary crop-dusting ( IRS ) and other preventive attacks such as insect powder treated cyberspaces ( ITN ) [ 4 ] .Larvivorous fish have late been introduced in Kenya as a method of mosquito control. Oreochromis niloticus, normally known as ‘Nile Tilapia ‘ , is farmed in the Highlandss of western Kenya and in recent times has demonstrated possible as a bio control agent [ 5 ] . It is of African beginning and is native from Sudan through to West Africa. Oreochromis niloticus is of high economic value and is widely established outside its natural home ground and is considered to be the largely universally civilized fish of the Cichlidae household, 2nd to O.
mossambicus. Nile Tilapia fish are fecund and rapid breeders, engendering every twosome of hebdomads [ 6 ] . There are many benefits to utilizing these fish as a biological control method against the Anopheles mosquitoes: 1 ) Supply a sustainable beginning of income to the local community, because following six months after debut to the wetland countries ( pools, rivers and lakes ) , the larger fish are ready to be harvested. 2 ) Oreochromis niloticus are low cost to purchase so are commercially feasible. 3 ) The fish would be widely accepted by the local community. 4 ) They are ample, speedy to turn ; one time introduced into a home ground they inaugurate themselves really quickly.5 ) Mosquito larvae are unable to construct up a opposition. 6 ) Oreochromis niloticus populations are normally self-sufficing and are non dependent on presence of larvae to last.
7 ) Have the ability to digest a wide spectrum of H2O conditions ( can boom in fresh, sea and brackish H2O ) . 8 ) Reports have shown that in the presence of Oreochromis niloticus, Anopheles larvae have a well longer developmental period ; taking to adult females being smaller, impairing their ability to seek hosts and bring forth sufficient sized egg batches, hence cut downing their efficiency as vectors of malaria. However, there are some jobs associated with debut of the Nile Tilapia fish as they cause harm to their new home grounds through their excavation, doing devastation to river Bankss and increasing turbidness in the H2O, which decreases the visible radiation available to aquatic workss.
Their rapid constitution into their new home grounds besides means that they compete with native fish zoology and because they merely eat peculiar types of aquatic workss they cause alterations in the local aquatic works zoology. Other studies have shown that the usage of larvivorous fish, in this instance the guppy Poecilia reticulata, is more cost effectual than a chemical larvicide ‘temephos ‘ by about 3 times, when travel, supervising, protective steps and application costs were considered [ 7 ] . However the chief cost of the undertaking were the biweekly studies of the larvae but if these were to be carried out by the local community Kusumawathie and his co-workers found that costs could be reduced by 79 % . It was besides found that Poecilia reticulata was more effectual in cut downing larval denseness than temephos. Mosquito cyberspaces have long been a preventive method against mosquito bites and hence malaria transmittal.Treatment of the cyberspaces with insect powders besides greatly increases their efficiency, peculiarly utilizing a fresh method known as 2in1, whereby the cyberspace is treated with 2 insect powders, to foremost increase efficiency and to secondly cut down opposition of the mosquito to the insect powders used [ 8 ] . Recent undertakings report using a rosin with the insect powder to the net to forestall a lessening in efficiency following washes, known as PermaNet [ 9 ] .
On balance the rosin used in the PermaNets to adhere the insect powder to the cyberspace is effectual in keeping the viability of the cyberspaces following standard washes, and combination cyberspaces are more effectual against mosquitoes and decelerate the development of opposition, but are more prone to taint when washed, cut downing their efficaciousness.Figure 1: Map of the Union of Comoros, a grouping of islands in the Indian Ocean, situated off the East African seashore in the northern part of the Mozambique Channel, between the northern portion of Madagascar and north-eastern side of Mozambique. [ 10 ]The closest neighbouring states are Tanzania, Madagascar, Mozambique and the Seychelles.Eight different Anopheles mosquito species have been documented in the state and the undermentioned Anopheles species are malaria vectors, A. Funestus, A.
Gambiae, A. Merus and A. Coustani, and the chief malaria parasite is Plasmodium falciparum [ 11 ] . The islands of the Union of Comoros provide a really good paradigm and a good country to transport out this research because the mosquitoes under probe are confined to the islands, so there is no hazard of taint with other mosquitoes from neighboring settlements. The National Project on the Fight Against Malaria ( PNLP ) , which is run by the Global Fund, is supported by the authorities through the freedom of revenue enhancements on bed cyberspaces, insect powders, and malaria medicine [ 12 ] .
This research experiment aims to supervise and cut down mosquito larval denseness and incidence of malaria eruptions following the debut of larvivorous fish into wetland countries in combination with the usage of insect powder treated bet cyberspaces in the Union of Comoros as a paradigm for application across the African continent.If proven effectual as a combinable method of control, farther possible exists for a planetary usage as malaria vector control.This undertaking will be carried out in two stages.
Phase 1 will imply set abouting an environmental appraisal of the effects of presenting the larvivorous fish to wetland countries of Grande Comore. Phase 2 is contingent on Phase 1and will affect implementing the experimental phases.The experimental stage will run for a twelvemonth on the chief island of the Union of Comoros, Grande Comore ( Ngazidja ) , which is a lasting malaria transmittal zone made up of 396 square stat mis of lands.
It will affect the debut of the larvivorous fish, Oreochromis niloticus, normally known as Nile Tilapia, which will besides supply a beginning of income and nutrient to the local community who will be helping in the monitoring of larval denseness. By affecting the local community in the undertaking, costs will be reduced and they will be educated about better protecting themselves and their households from malaria.Insecticide treated cyberspaces will besides be made available to every house as portion of Phase 2, ( population ~400,000 ) on the footing that the mean household is 4 members this would be between $ 400,000 to $ 500,000 as ITNs cost between $ 4 and $ 5 in Mozambique, one of the nearest mainland states [ 13 ] .
Phase 1-Environmental Assessment
This will dwell of commissioning an environmental appraisal of debut of the larvivorous fish, Oreochromis niloticus, which will be reviewed by the authorities of the Union of Comoros before Phase 2 can be instigated. Initial support will be required for this appraisal which will follow with local demand but the proposal will be based around UK statute law which is in line with European directives [ 14 ] . This initial appraisal will besides supply a base line larval count which can so be used as a control in the latter phases of the experiment.
The environmental appraisal will concentrate on the impact that debut of the Nile Tilapia fish will hold on the environing country, in peculiar the appraisal will analyze the effects on: Biodiversity, human wellness, local zoology, population, local vegetation, dirt, H2O and landscape. Both in the long term and short term, and whether the debut of the fish will hold a positive or negative impact on the issues listed supra. Another point to see is whether the Nile Tilapia fish will be acceptable to the local community as cultural heritage is an of import facet of the environmental appraisal.
Phase 2- Experimental Approach
My squad will dwell of myself and two station doctorial workers, it would be preferred to use two post doctorial workers with the relevant experience from the Union of Comores, but if this was non possible two station doctorial workers from the UK would be acceptable. Funding would be required to cover my squad ‘s travel and their wage which would be based on UK rates of wage. A group of 40 persons from the local community will besides be required to help in supervising the mosquito larval denseness, and will be paid a wage based on local rates of wage. The group of workers from the local community will besides hold the chance to farm the larvivorous fish. Following debut of the Nile Tilapia fish to wetland countries and the distribution of ITN ‘s to occupants ‘ houses, my squad and I will supervise mosquito larval denseness and the incidence of new instances of malaria.
Larval denseness of the pools will be monitored hebdomadal utilizing dip trials, whereby 10 larval dips of 2.5 liters each will be taken from the borders of the pools at random, from which the mean larval denseness per dip can be calculated. As a control, an untreated fish pool will besides be monitored. Anopheline mosquito larvae will be indentified with a morphological key to distinguish from Culicine larvae. [ 5, 15 ] Detecting the incidence of new instances of malaria is comparatively simple and can be done through supervising local wellness services and infirmaries for the twelvemonth that the field test is in topographic point.Other Considerations- Arrangement of seminars, workshops and lectures unfastened to the public discoursing the undertaking, its purposes and expected consequences, in order to convey to the local population the demand for this research. Educating the local people to cover drains, to impart H2O resistance or into fast streamlined watercourses, to run out wetland countries, or to construct armored combat vehicles to hive away H2O below or above land ( overhead armored combat vehicles ) will all forestall genteelness of mosquitoes in dead H2O, hence diminishing the incidence of malaria.
This promotion and instruction will besides necessitate support.Justification of Resources- Funding is required for the stuffs and equipment needed to execute the dip trials, wages of workers, leasing of a lab base in Grande Comore ( likely to be the capital, Moroni ) and for travel of my co-workers from the UK ( if post doctorial workers are UK based instead than from the islands of Comoros. )Beneficiaries – If this undertaking is successful in cut downing Anopheles larval denseness and the transmittal of malaria, many malaria endemic states will be able to use the same methods used, i.e. debut of larvivorous fish and better distribution of insect powder treated cyberspaces where they most are needed.
This will greatly cut down the figure of instances of malaria and hence deceases in these states, peculiarly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 18 % of deceases in kids under the age of five.