For the first clip in human history, the population in metropoliss exceeds the population in rural country in the universe in 2007. Harmonizing to United Nation, population in urban country will accomplish 60 % by 2030. Due to the rapid migration of population, many metropoliss in the universe have transformed into megacities. The definition of megacities is metropoliss that have a population over 10 million ( Gunjar,2005 ) . For most states in the universe, metropoliss are the major economic part to their states. Cities are able to bring forth wealth to the states by fabrication merchandises that have a planetary value ( Saier, 2006 ) . On the other manus, most of the megacities in the universe are blighting with environmental jobs. Surveies conducted by World Health Organization ( WHO ) , show that around 20 metropoliss in the universe possesses at least one pollutant that exceeded the allowable bounds. Despite of the wellness and environmental concern, most of the megacities do non develop in a sustainable manner. Due to the economic system, political and societal restraints, the potency for megacities to lend to sustainability is non realistic.
Most of the megacities in the universe face with transit job. Transportation is non merely the largest part of nursery gas, but besides the major factor of air pollution in megacities ( Molina, 2004 ) . In “ Journal of Urban Technology ” , George Bugliarello suggests that to cut down the traffic congestion, metropoliss can present intelligent transit system that is inexpensive and effectual. However, for most of the developing states, they may non afford to the engineering that can assist better their substructure. Limited support is one of the major restraints. Successful substructure may assist to back up economic growing, but the allotment is chiefly affected by limited support and engineering ( Tobias, 2003 ) . Megacities such as Lagos, Dhaka and Jakarta which are holding traffic jobs, the Gross National Income per capita in 2008 for the states are trapped under the lower income class. The statistics signifies that these developing states are non able to apportion their limited support into sustainable development. Development such as building of metro or railroad will give important betterment in cut downing traffic congestion ; nevertheless, they usually cost billion of dollar which is non low-cost for most of the underdeveloped states. For them, acquiring rich is ever more of import than acquiring clean.
Among the megacities, Tokyo additions the most international prestigiousness in their transit system. Tokyo is the largest megacities in the universe, with a sum of 33 million of citizens occupied in 13100kmAAAA2 land. Most of their population uses the public transits daily, therefore reduces dramatically the figure of vehicles on the roads. However, the wealth owned by Japan helps Tokyo to keep their public comfortss good. The one-year GNI per capita is $ 38210, comparatively much higher than most underdeveloped states. Therefore, by comparing, Tokyo has greater capableness to keep and upgrade their transit system. Most of the developing states do non hold such great prosperity owned by Japan. Besides bettering transit system, they still have to apportion their limited support to other sectors such as medical services, instruction or occupation chance. Hence, most megacities do non hold much potency in lending to sustainability due to the tight budget. Beforehand, they need to hike their economic system so that they have equal support to back up sustainability development.
For many megacities in the universe, covering with transit system is non an easy undertaking. Besides budget, metropolis planning in many megacities is hapless because of the weak administrative organic structures. For case, in Instanbule, the metropolis has different administrative organic structure with the same duty. Due to the confusion of the power of administrative organic structures, no holistic metropolis planning can be implemented ( Siemens ) . In many instances, developing substructure requires the coordination of local and national or provincial governments. However, the local authorities may worsen the aid from provincial or national authorities as they deem the assistance as corruption of local anatomy ( Asian Development Bank ) . Therefore, municipalities become an obstruction for many of the megacities to develop. In Jakarta, support of substructure is really limited doing terrible traffic congestion in Jakarta ‘s traffic. The former Jakarta governor, Sutiyoso explained in “ 101 East- Megacities ” , that the cardinal authorities of Indonesia does non supply any support to back up the growing of public conveyance in Jakarta. City contriver is an indispensable key success of transit system in a megacity. Nevertheless, the successful illustration is improbably rare. The coordination between local authorities and national authorities is really difficult to accomplish.
Furthermore, pull offing substructure decently is frequently excessively complex. In “ Megacities: Sustainability, Transport and Economic Development ” , Justin Charles Tobias describes that many states around the universe suffer from complexness of pull offing substructure, including affluent states. He explains that portion of the challenge is the trouble to gauge the proper sum of support that is needed to apportion in the undertaking. The governments have to do certain that the sum of money that they invest into the undertaking must able to get by with the peak demand of the services ( Tobias, 2003 ) . Tobias adds that care cost is another challenge for most of the underdeveloped states. In Latin America, every dollar that they save from care will be them approximately three to four dollar of premature reconstructing cost ( World Bank,1994 ) . Consequently, most megacities still do non afford to build and keep substructure, since most of them located in the underdeveloped states. Budget and administrative organic structure are the ambitious issue for developing states to get by with, before they manage to do part in sustainability.
Apart from that, the general behaviour of the society may act upon the sustainability in a metropolis. The growing of megacities will really likely perpetuate the civilization of consumerism among the citizens. As the citizens ‘ wealth additions, income corresponds straight with consumerism ( Sadowski,1998 ) . Consumerism may assist to hike the economic system, but it besides means that more energy is consumed to bring forth more goods. In the book entitled “ Sustainable Energy Consumption and Society: Personal, Technological, or Social Change? “ , Goldblatt and David L. describes that consumerism is deeply-seated in most of the developed states such as United States and Canada for many decennaries. However, consumerism is besides bit by bit distributing to developing or less developed states, due to urbanisation in these states. Because of the increasing consumerism civilization, more energy is expected to be utilized to bring forth more merchandises. At the same clip, since the environmental cost and societal cost of fuel is externalized, the energy consumed is mostly ignored ( Goldblatt et.al, 2005 ) . Therefore, consumerism is really likely to do big energy ingestion when more megacities emerge in the hereafter.
Consumerism civilization is besides applied to the phenomenon where the population of metropoliss consumes more nutrient. With the monolithic growing of population in megacities, more nutrient is imported into the metropoliss to prolong the hungry citizens. Harmonizing to appraisal, for urban US citizens, bulk of nutrient merchandises travel over one 1000 stat mis earlier reach to the US consumer ( Saier, 2006 ) . This phenomenon emphasizes that the population of metropoliss is extremely dependent on the resources out of the metropoliss. When the population of the metropoliss becomes denser, sustainable development becomes harder to accomplish. They rely non merely on the nearby resources, but besides resources that far off the parts ( Heinken, 1997 ) . The chief ground is metropoliss are non able to bring forth their nutrient locally. They have to import most of the nutrient productions from the rural country far from the metropoliss. On the contrary, rural population is less dependent on the imported nutrient, as they are able to turn their nutrient locally ( Saier et.al, 2006 ) . Therefore, providing nutrient to the citizens takes more ecological footmarks. In the same manner, back uping the population of metropoliss is less sustainable since more energy is consumed.
Furthermore, consumerism gives rise to high volume of solid waste being disposed every twenty-four hours in most of the megacities. In most of the less-developed states, around 20-50 % of waste remains ungathered ( Sadowski, 1998 ) . The figure is expected to turn each twelvemonth matching to the population grow. In add-on, most of the megacities do non hold systematic program for pull offing waste. Therefore, the most typical and easiest manner to pull off the waste is by dumping into dump site. It is the most economic method, but besides the least sustainable manner to pull off solid waste. Open dumping is really debatable as it badly pollutes the H2O resources. Not merely that, dumping without recycling or recycling the waste drastically shortens the life rhythm of waste. However, in many instances, the rapid growing of waste in megacities overwhelms what can be handled by the governments. Hence, landfill job will go on for a period of clip before any drastic action is taken.
Apart from solid waste, consumerism besides leads to monolithic development of land. When a metropolis grows, the demand of land will increase to busy more citizens every bit good as to let the development of substructure. However, the development of land is non merely restricted to local land. Harmonizing to Saier, the high ingestion in US histories for about one one-fourth of land usage. Besides, the wealth of citizens is someway corresponding to the sum of meat ingestion ( Saier ) . Therefore, it is sensible to reason that the growing of metropoliss will increase the demand of land, either locally or internationally. Deforestation activities will spread out when the demand of land from megacities addition. Therefore, from the rate of growing of megacities in the universe, sustainable development is about impossible to accomplish. In the hereafter decennary, more lands will be needed to fulfill the demand of many fast turning megacities in the universe.
To work out the consumerism in megacities, the mentality and life style of citizens warrant immense alterations. Citizens are needed to educate with the sustainable ways of life to heighten the sustainability development ( Bugliarello, 2008 ) . and However, the solution seems unrealistic. Goldblatt and David L. explain that the high ingestion life style started by the Western has been imitated by the developed and less developed universe. Due to the advertizement from telecasting, cyberspace and communicating media, they help to advance high degree of life style which stimulates the consumerism mentality. Besides, the outgrowth of shopping promenades in megacities increases the handiness of citizens to merchandises. The tendency is bit by bit speed uping in most of the megacities where their citizens possess higher buying power. Added by Goldblatt and David L. in their book, if the universe population follows what US consume of non-renewable resources, the universe will devour seven times resources every bit big as soon ( Honkasalo, 1998 ) . If consumerism continues, our planet will possible non able to prolong human being in the hereafter.
On the other manus, Slums are another immense challenge for most of the megacities in the universe. The figure of slums in the Earth is surprisingly immense, particularly in less-developed states. In Mumbai, about half of the population are slums who populating in chunky metropoliss ( Steward Brand ) . Despite of the turning figure of slums in the Earth, Steward Brand considers the phenomenon as good intelligence. In one of his Google ‘s talk, “ City Planet ” , he argues that homesteader metropoliss are “ green ” . Even though they are crowded, they use minimum stuffs and cost of edifice ( Steward Brand ) . Nevertheless, Steward seems to supervise the effects of overcrowded slums. Most of slums in megacities like Mumbai or Jakarta live in insanitary status. They live without clean H2O, nutrient and they are threatened by the terrible pollution. Therefore, slums are vulnerable to diseases due to the about cold populating status. In 1990s, the slums in Lima, Peru suffered from cholera eruption, which is normally related to hygiene job among the slums ( Divya ) . Though slums may look to utilize really less resources, Steward Brand ‘s position about how slums can promote “ greener ” environment are prone to unethical and inhumane. Sustainability should be implemented to take to better life of present coevals and the endurance for the future coevals. ( Dordrecht Springer-Verlag New York Inc ) Sustainability besides requires the present quality of human life be sustained and improved ( Tobias,2003 ) . Everyone in the society deserves the equal criterion of life, including the slums. Consequently, the suggestion from Steward Brand to advance more slums should be objected, as it is likely to strip the human rights.
Besides, in Steward Brand ‘s talk, his thought of metropolis life promotes “ safer and exciting life ” for the slums is unsound and flimsy. Surveies that conducted in rural and urban country show that crimes rate in metropoliss are invariably higher than rural country ( Glasear,1999 ) . Unemployment, poorness and income inequality which are the norm in metropoliss are prone to more offense rates. With the turning size of metropoliss, offense rates are tend to increase ( Weatherburn,2001 ) . Crimes such as cutpurse, slaying, colza and robbery are much common in metropoliss than urban country. In add-on, metropoliss are troubled with pollutions, where slums are the major victims of pollutions. Therefore, metropoliss life is more likely to endanger the safety and the wellness of people. As explain by Tobias, sustainability development of metropoliss should besides better with the present life of citizens.
The new outgrowth of megacities is an ineluctable tendency for many decennaries to come. By 2015, there will be a sum of 22 megacities in the universe ( United Nation,2003 ) . To reason, megacities do non hold possible to lend to sustainability. Due to the rapid growing rate, most of the megacities in the universe are non good managed by the governments. They to a great extent pollute the environment, from the traffic congestion and landfills. Citizens including slums who inhabit in the metropoliss are most likely the victims of pollution. Due to limited support, most of the megacities are non able to put better substructure in their states. In add-on, the complexness of the administrative organic structures system holds and complicates the development in some megacities. In term of societal facets, the growing of megacities will promote consumerism civilization in the metropoliss. Consumerism gives rise of more energy ingestion together with more production of waste. It can be expected that the tendency will go on for a period of clip until the job in megacities are solved.
World Bank ( 1994 ) . World Development Report 1994: Infrastructure for Development. New York ; Oxford University Press
United Nation ( 2003 ) . World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision.