Page 1Merchant EmpiresAbstractAccording to Philip Curtin, Trade and Exchange are represented as “The most important external stimuli to change”.  Philip Curtin is a Professor Emeritus at Johns Hopkins University and historian on Africa and the Atlantic slave trade. He has published an estimate that from the 1500s to 1870, around 9,566,000 African slaves were imported to the Americas.British Merchant EmpireEngland, English or British are the first people to start Trade and Exchange as a Business in early 1300’s. They introduced Long Distance Trade to the Modern World – James D.

Tracy (The Rise of Merchant Empires).  The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for a time was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, which sparked the era of the European colonial empires.

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British Emperors (Kings and Leaders) keeping development in mind exploited other countries and developed the British Empire. They started exploiting by the word “Trade and Exchange” which has leaded the whole Empire the dominant power for 6 Centuries (13-19th).British Merchant Empire is the Largest Empire in the world which is called “Never Ending Sun”. The Empire was spread from the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, South and North America, trading and exploiting the nations. British Empire became the richest Merchant Empire in the west by Trading with other countries, the common goods that are traded are Clothes and other Fabrics in return they used charge Gold and Diamonds. (Anthony, Pagden (1998).

The Origins of Empire. The Oxford History of the British Empire, Oxford University Press, 441). Page 2Origin of British Merchant Empire (1497–1583)The foundations of the British Empire were laid at a time before Britain existed as a single political entity, when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Portugal and Spain in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. The early stages of British Empire is limited to European Countries only by expanding there business to neighboring countries like Spain, Portugal and Ireland. British Empires have made huge explorations to find the trading countries. They started colonial rule in many countries by establishing there own Government by appointing Governor Generals.

The Merchant Empire of British is the first empire to use Slave Trade, which is abolished by introducing The Slave Trade Act (citation 47 Geo III Sess.1 c. 36), was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807 the long title of which is “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade”.

Colonial Trade of British EmpireBritish Empire Started Colonial Trade with American Countries in starting of 16th Century,  The Caribbean initially provided England’s most important and lucrative colonies, but not before several attempts at colonization failed. An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in 1604 lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits. Colonies in St Lucia (1605) and Grenada (1609) also rapidly folded, but settlements were successfully established in St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627) and Nevis (1628). The colonies soon adopted the system of sugar plantations successfully used by the Portuguese in Brazil, which depended on slave labor, and—at first—Dutch ships, to sell the slaves and buy the sugar.

 In the British Caribbean, thePage 3Percentage of the population comprising blacks rose from 25% in 1650 to around 80% in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10% to 40% over the same period (the majority in the south).  (Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire – Penguin, 62 ; 72-73)Company Rule in IndiaDuring its first century of operation, the focus of the East India Company had been trade, not the building of an empire in India. Indeed, the Company was no match for the powerful Mughal Empire, which had granted the Company trading rights in 1617. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the British East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s. British ruling directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force of the Indian Army, 80% of which was composed of native Indian Soldiers.ConclusionAs Philip Curtin said Trade and Exchange are represented as “The most important external stimuli to change”.

British Merchant Empire has developed rapidly with wealth and power with a base of External Trade. Even of today there are some countries which are still under the rule of British Merchant Empires. The everlasting Merchant Empire of Britain is taken as a example of Modern Trade and Travel.;;;;;Page 4ReferencesLloyd, T (1996). The British Empire 1558-1995. Oxford University Press, 258.Nigel, Dalzell (2006). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the British Empire.

Penguin, 135.Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire.

Penguin, 73.The Glory of Merchant Empire in Europe – Princeton, 1990.Angus Madison. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (p.

98, 242). OECD, Paris, 2001.James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and fall of the British Empire.

Abacus, 17.Colonial Trade at http://www.stmaryscity.org/History/Economy.

htmlPhilip D. Curtin – Professor Emeritus at Johns Hopkins University www.getCITED.org. Get CITED Inc. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.;;;;;;;;;;;;;;