MIGRATION AND SECURITY IN THE EU: TRADE-OFFS AFTER 9/11 AbstractThis research paper focuses migration and security issues in the EU in the post 9/11 scenario. We are living in a world that in retrospect can be divided into two parts; pre and post 9/11.
The paper is divided into two parts the first dealing with the issue of migration and the other evolvement of the EU institutional and policy approach towards migration. In the migration section the different types of migration are identified, general migration trends and benefits and challenges are looked into. The section also deals with the security threats arriving out of the post 9/11 scenario. The link between migration and security threat is also discussed in detail.
The latter part of the report focuses on the policy side of EU regarding migration, it contrasts the pre and post 9/11 policies of the EU.The report concludes that there is no significant increase in the security threats; rather the migration issue has been highly politicized. The most probable reason as inferred through this report is the enlargement of the European Union to include more member states. The policy of common asylum and border have restricted the migration opportunity since more states now fall into the EU border and it is becoming increasingly difficult for the people from the new members, which the states of origin feel to be desirable, affording better opportunities to integration owing to cultural homogeneity, as compared to the migrants from Asia and Africa.
INTRODUCTION:Methodology:Since the objective of this research paper was to analyze the issues of migration and security in the EU, a topic which could only be handled through secondary research at an individual level due to resource constraints; secondary research methodology was chosen. Many of the advantages of primary research were still obtained by the use of tables and charts or published public opinion polls, eliminating the need for conducting primary research.This research paper was the outcome of secondary research and the following resources were used:- Newspaper Magazines- Published Opinion Polls- Library Resources such as books, articles e.t.c.- Internet LiteratureFor this research paper, I have read a lot of book regarding the issues concerning migration, such as security and unemployment. One of the book that contributed a lot In my research paper is ,International Migration and Security: Immigrants as an Asset or Threat? :This book covered a lot of information about the western world and what they think of illegal immigrants, asylum seekers and migrants. The book also discussed about whether the migrants should be considered as a threat to any host country or they are the assets that the host country should value because they can be of a lot of use.
Such as they can work on low paid jobs when the prices of labour is very high in a country .The book also contains discussions from experts where they debate upon the impact of migration in their fields. Some key questions that were examined in this book were how the migrants can affect the security of a host country, law and human rights and political and social reforms.Other books that were also of great help in preparing this research paper were,The Politics of Insecurity: Fear, Migration and Asylum in the EU by Jef Huysmans , This book talks about the security , migration and European politics . The author in this book also emphasizes that security policies and responses do no appear out of the blue, but they are a continuous and gradual process.Managing Labour Migration in the Twenty-First Century by Martin , Philip , Manolo Abella , and Christiane Kuptsch . Which discussed about the labour migration and the need to manage the labour migration which is becoming the greatest challenge for the states nowadays .
The book presents a comprehensive analysis of the effects of labour migration today and presents a sensible and reasonable migration policies that is fair for both the labours and the host country . TerminologyThe Terminologies Used in this Research paper are:Eurojust: Eurojust is an EU body with a view to reinforcing the fight against serious organized crimeImmigration: It refers to the movement of people between countries due to certain reasonsEuropol: It is a European Law Enforcement Organization whose duty is to improve the effectiveness and co-operating of the authorities in the Member States in preventing and combating terrorism, stopping unlawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of international organized crime.EU: Stands for European Union (EU). It is a political and economic community comprising of twenty-seven states, in Europe. It came into being in 1993 by the Treaty of Maastricht.Asylum seeker: Asylum seeker is any per person who is seeking to be recognized as a refugeeInternational migrants: A person migrating from another country.
9/11: It is usually used in place of The September 11, 2001 attacks that were conducted by Al-Qaeda upon the United States of America.Push Factor : Push Factors refers to those Factors which either forcefully Push people to migrated or which attract them to migrate . Push factors includes Not enough jobs , Few opportunities,” Primitive” conditions, Political fear, Poor medical care, Not being able to practice religion, Loss of wealth, Natural DisastersForced migration: which means when a person is moved against their will, or moved because of some external factors (natural disasters and civil war) 1. MIGRATION – SECURITY NEXUSA.
MigrationMigration is the movement of individuals from one country to another or from one region to other. A migrant is a person who migrates in order to escape religious or political persecution, to find job for a better growth opportunity or it can be a person who is displace because of war or natural disaster. The causes of migration can be characterized into two, structural forces such as the global economy and the other is sociocultural differentials (gender, caste, etc).
And because of these reason the demographics of the receiver country changes accordingly. For example, when a lot of people from rural areas migrate to urban areas for search of jobs and better living standards, infrastructure problems may arise .Here it should be noted that a move within the same area is not called migration because in migration the migrates cannot continue the same day-today life as in he does not goes to the same job or school, socialize with the same people but different people.
In this perspective, a student who has come to England to study is not included in the list of migrants but a person who has permanently shifted from Pakistan to England is classified as a migrant. However, just because a person is not classified as a migrant does not mean that the movement has no measurable social impact on the populations.Types of migrationDemographers classify migration into two types.
1. Internal migrationAn internal migration can be classified as the movement of someone from one administrative territory to other such as between different states, cities. Internal migration includes:- Urban to Rural migration – it is common in development countries when the cost of living is very high in the urban areas.- Rural to Urban Migration – it is common in developing countries where more job opportunities exists in the urban areas because of industrialization- Local- Regional2. International migration.An international migration refers to the movement over national boundaries. A person who performs international migration is called international migrant.
That person can further be classified as legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, or refugees.It is important to differentiate the two types of migration because both of them happen for different reasons. Because of the structural barriers when migrating from one national border to another involves greater administrative procedures, expense and need much more motivation.Apart from Internal and international migration some demographers argues that a third type of migration exist which is forced migration: which means when a person is moved against their will, or moved because of some external factors (natural disasters and civil war)- General pre-9/11 migration trendsAfter the Second World War, a rise in international migration was encountered because of the growing interdependence among countries, increasing difference between the income level of the people and cheaper means of transportation between the developed and the developing countries. These reasons lead to an increase in the international migration , especially after 1970 .An estimates states that about 76 million to 82 million people migrated which increased by 18 million from the year 1970 to 1980 .
Table below gives a summary of the number of migrations occurred in every 10 years time .Indicators of the stock of international migrants by major area , 1960-2000Estimates shows that number of international migrants increased sharply during the time 1980-1990 by 54 million. However most of the increase was caused because of the disintegration of the former USSR, as people who were first used to be considered as an internal migrants when moving from one Soviet republic of birth to another Soviet republic now became international migrants when their respective republics gained independence. A similar increase was also noticed in the same period when former Czechoslovakia and the former Yugoslavia weredisintegrated, although the increase was not as large as compare to the increase In the USSR disintegration.In late 1990 we also saw a decrease in the number of international migrants when the former German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany reunited.During 2000, international migrants were counting to 175 million making 1 in every 35 person on earth as an international migrant .
The estimates of international migrants in the developed and the developing countries indicates that there is an increments in the number of international migrants of the people . It can also be observed that the international migrants in developed countries were 6 million in 1960-1970,9 million in 1970-1980, around 15 million in the 1980-1990 and over 21 million from 1999-2000 which suggests that most of the migration was taken place in developed countries mainly because of the push factors . Moreover during 1980 , the number of international migrants increased to 27 million if we do not include international migration because of the disintegration of the former USSR , in this the developed countries accounted for about 55 percent . During 1990’s also the number of the international migrants increased but there was no change seen in the international migrant to the developing countries .By saying that there was no change in the international migration to the developing countries does not mean that there was absolutely no change at all . The flow of refuges and other types of international migration continued nevertheless the increase in the number of international migrants to the developing counties was neutralized by the declines in the number of migrants in other developing countries.Furthermore, Certain regions of the world had seen a greater migration rate than others . Regions such as Northern America and USSR are one of those .
The international migrants in North America grew from 17 percent in 1960 TO 23 percent in 2000 and in USSR the migration stood at 4 percent in 1960 to 17 per cent in 2000. Asia is one of those regions where the share of international migration declined as people migrated for a better living and safer jobs to developed countries. In Asia share of internationals migrants dropped from 39 per cent in 1960 to 25 per cent in 2000. Apart from that Latin America and the Caribbean also witnessed a share decline in the share of international migrants which reduced to more than half from 1960 to 2000.If we talk about Europe then excluding former USSR, the share of international migrants have increased very significantly over the years , especially in 1990s . From period between 1960 to 2000 , the region’s number of international migration rose from 14 million to 33 million , which if we denote by proportion of the total population will become to 6.4 per cent in 2000 .
In 1960 , the international migrants in Europe was 4 million more than what was in US but by the end of the century US had more migrants then Europe because US was less cheaper then Europe and easily accessible.By the data available, it can be seen that the number of international migrants by sex were almost equal. The number of females migrants in 2000 were 49 per cent of all the international migrants, which is a 47 per cent more than what it was in 1960 (Table II).
The proportion of females among international migrants has always remained higher in developed countries as compare to the developing countries .By 2000 , female migrants were a bit more than the male migrants – 51 versus 49 per cent – although there share had declined in the developing countries had declined to under 45 per cent , which shows that although the number of female migrants had risen but therise was not seen in all the regions of the world but to some regions . For example the share of female migrants decline to 43.3 per cent by 2000 in Asia . and in regions like Latin America and Caribbean , Northern America , Europe the share rose .Table II : Females in the stock of international migrants by major area , 1960 and 2000Over the last decades of the twentieth century, International migration increased markedly. The overall migration of people rose from 76 million in 1960 to 175 million in 2000, doubling over the 40 years . This rise is not seen in all parts of the world but to a few regions.
Even without the effect of the disintegration of the USSR, the world has seen a higher growth in international migrants migrating to the developed countries as compare to the developing countries. In fact, the estimates for the 1990s shows that there had been a hardly any change occurred in the international migrants in developing countries.Estimates also showed that the women migration rate had been high especially when migration was directed to developed countries.
The late twentieth century have although witnessed some key changes in the international migration trend. For example Before 9/11 United States , in particular , had 1 out of 5 international migrants living in the country . Benefits vs. challenges for the receiving countriesMigration like any other thing can have benefits and can pose challenges for both the origin country and for the receiving or destination country.Benefits for the receiving country: - Migration of young labor force may be of great advantage to the industries and to the receiving country when the average population of the country is becoming old . The young labor force can put a new energy in the industries because they are much more energetic and ambitious. Other than this the industries also save cost because the immigrates usually settle for lower salaries and wages as compare to the country’s national.- People can bring new culture to the receiving country and if the receiving country is very open to new experience, then the new culture can be readily accepted with the society which creates an healthy environment.
It can also help companies of the receiving countries understand their potential consumers of different cultural background and make new products for them.- Some countries are adversely affected by their old age labor market and if migrants are allowed to shift in those countries, they can contribute a lot in the factories and industries as most of the migrants are young and so energetic.- There is always a need for unskilled workers in a country therefore; allowing migrants to shift can satisfy the unskilled workers need for a country.- migrants pay taxes from their earning and also contributes to the GDP , and they are less likely to claim welfare because many of them wants to earn and spent their earning to the origin country as remittances.- When the Host country is in economic recession, migrants are often the first people to bear the brunt of job lay offs as most of them does not have permanent jobs.
This can be a benefit for nationals of a country.- When a person migrates to another country with a motive to earn money , they are more resourceful, entrepreneurial and ambitious than the average person which means new ideas flowing into the surroundings .Some facts that proves why migrants are beneficial for the receiving countries:- Some receiving countries are boosting and their economies are healthy as a result of migration of new work force from different countries.
This is helping them overcome their labour force ageing problem.- Many of the Migrants do the jobs , that are difficult , dangerous , dirty and low paid.- 87% per cent of the migrant salaries are used within the host country in taxes and in spending for their living. For example, a demand for new houses by the migrants in Spain helped the country sustained the construction industry.Challenges for the receiving country: When people migrates from different regions of the world they come up with different cultures . Their culture and the culture of the receiving country may sometimes lead to negative social behavior , causing tension in the society because of the clash between the culture of migrants and the nationals .
This can also cause local struggles to start against the minorities or the majorities as well as racial discrimination may also take place in the receiving country for example preferring Muslim against the Hindus, or preferring white against the black for jobs. A clash in the culture may also increase the crime rate of the receiving country where people try to make their voices heard by doing illegal acts.- Most of the people when they Migrants are with a particular age groups , but after a time when the migrants becomes old , can become an economic problem as the government would have to look after their needs in areas such as hospital , clothing and shelter.- A greater need of security is required in the host country. Migrants usually come for earn money and if in case they fail to earn then they may be involved in some illegal activities which can increase the crime rate .B. Security issues- New security threatsAny activity whose appearance is likely to break the social equilibrium and peace in a region of a world can be classified as a threat . Growing international migration into the countries whether they are voluntary, forced, regular or clandestine migration can give rise to criminal activities if the authorities of a countries fails to work effectively .
There can be three times of threats that can arise because of immigration. On the security level , the admission of new migrants into a country can be a source of recruits by a terrorist group and they can be involved in possible terrorist activities . Apart from that , migrants can also form networks of criminals that can contribute to the urban insecurity or they may be a potential communities to be recruited by any terrorist groups. On the economic level , immigrants can be major contributor in the workforce of any receiving country hired on a low compensation which can be detrimental to the own citizens of the receiving country because hiring migrants only low compensation can increase the lay off of those people who are working for high compensation . Also if the assistance is provided to the migrants can contribute in the erosion of the purchasing power of the citizens. That could in the long run creates frustration amount the own citizens of the receiving country and can result in acts of violent discrimination with regrettable consequences.
 On the socio-cultural level , the difference between the culture of immigrants and the culture of the citizen of a country may give rise to a national identity conflict through several mechanisms . people coming from different countries ( migrants ) may feel hurt because of discrimination , social injustices and other tension-creating acts , and could use violence against the citizen of the country in order to demand for their rights . There are various forms of trafficking , particularly the trafficking of human beings through migrations , are also one of the threats arising form migration .
Other threats from migration may be Organized Crime . Migrates from different countries and regions may also be involved in organized crimes such as cross – border trafficking in drugs , women , and weapons . The prime reason for doing this may be to earn lots of money which they were not able to earn in the origin state . More over organized crime may also give rise to terrorism.Organized crimes are often associated with weak or failing states and there are many instances when the revenue from drugs dealings have fuelled the weakening of state structure .
There are few cases when the organized crime has even dominated the state.How migration facilitates the proliferation of the new security threatsMigration of people from one place to the other, usually traveling large distance as a country, may be because of various factors. Political instability, occasional wild upheavals, climatic problems, economic downfall, uncertainty of future especially those looking for jobs may be some of the many reasons. It might be legal or illegal such as the concept of refugee where people find a safe haven to live their lives.Migration may be a good thing for the migrating party as they are going to a place they think is best for themselves and their family.
It might also be a positive thing for the host country where it is accumulated skilled people who can help their country. But on the other hand, migration poses a security threat too.Migration causes a minority to be formed in the host country. The minority may soon have their own wants and needs.
They would soon have their own say. We might see a change in the host’s culture and value as an effect of migration. The majority living there might feel revolting of some cultural or traditional behaviour in their country. If the immigrants take place in an organization, then people already present there might feel threatened too.Obviously, the host country might also feel an immerging threat to their territorial integrity and political independence.
When the minorities, like the Pakhtoons in Pakistan, have their own voices and demands, they are in Pakistan distributed along the Western border. They are living there majority as refugees, to escape the disturbing situation in Afghanistan. They require food and shelter and they use resources like gas, electricity.
They demand for proper living conditions. All these and more demand pressurizes the host country. Not meeting those can have drastic effect.These grumbled minorities may find themselves as elements of political riots and disturbances. We have seen many demonstrations on the roads. They plant flags and chant slogans against governments. They put up posters and graffiti on the walls and damage public properties. They play important role in causing social instability.
There is increased crime rates and wide spreads killing. They might also lead to the concept of xenophobia and racial discrimination and violence.In one extreme we can be positive of the fact that there is an import of creative, intelligent and skilled personnel but it has a negative side of it too.
Never had Pakistan heard of suicide bombings until recent years. Today we are fighting the war on terrorism because of this major reason. Reading up the history about the bombings in Pakistan and the origins of Extremists, we would be amazed to know how migration helped to cultivate the negative idea so much so that every third day we can read news of bombings and wide spread killings .
Migration can also influence the security if demography .It might deteriorate the already aging population. Where a country might need young and energetic people to work on the fields, we might find more old people. It might also affect the philosophy of welfare state and the concepts of social security system whereby people may not willingly pay proper taxes if they felt that others do not do the same and they do not share common values with them.The internal security is threatened on a large scale. The heightened crime rates among the migratory people are relatively higher than the natives.
It gives birth to international crime network dealing in weapons, illegal material, valuable goods and drugs .There is increased cases of human beings trafficking and reports of terrorists using illegal (or worst) legal methods to enter into a country. With people, there is also a migration of disease. These people might come in with fatal and never-heard of diseases that common in their own country .States want to control this migration that really shakes a country from its roots.
Immigrants might not come in as “mischief mongers” but the hard time they have to spend as displaced families may bring them down to the hideous levels. They have a family to support thus they have to earn money by hook or crook. Many do not have proper education.
They know not of the people they are going to the meet. They might get mixed up with national criminals without realizing this fact. Especially after the incident of 9/11, the concept of migrations has really changed in the minds of people . As human beings, it is the responsibility of all to help their fellow human beings, but a proper methodology and a “controlled” procedure can help to reduce this problem. These people should be contained within a boundary.
If they are migrating as refugees, because of some problem in their own country, then the host country should sought to solve the problems in that country so that these people can go back and live peacefully in their homeland. 2. EVOLVEMENT OF THE EU INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY APPROACH TOWARDS MIGRATIONA. Migration to the EU- Specific historical patterns of the migration to the EUMost of the European states now are net immigration countries . Countries which are more established then other EU countries such has France , Germany , United Kingdom , Austria , Sweden , Switzerland and Denmark have seen the immigration flow for more than 4 decades now .Despite of the policies that have restricted migration to countries , immigration flows still been continuous in the form of family reunion , refugee flows and labour migration . Many of the countries have witnessed a high level of immigration since 1990s. Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK are some of the countries where the immigration flow is very high since 1990sThe second category of EU countries became net receiving countries in 1980s , because of the growing prosperity in these countries .
Ireland , Portugal , Greece and Finland are one of those countries . The other reason for the flow of migrants is the redirection of migrants following the introduction of more restrictive policies in north European receiving countries Comparison of Inflows of foreign population in selected European Countries , 1992-2001The third category of EU countries have also become host countries . The flow of migrants started after 1989 in former socialist countries on the EU’s eastern borders when the migrants attempted to enter more prosperous west European host countries . These trends is still persisting in many EU candidate countries and associated states in Southeast Europe.Inflows of foreign workers and asylum seekers into the EU-15,1995-2002 The absolute number of family-related and protection-seeking migration have roughly remained constant but the labour migration and their total share in the migration flow have increased tremendously since 1999 .Moreover, the composition of recent flows varies from country to country.
In 2001, Migrations flow from some countries were very significant, such as Moroccans in Belgium; Iraqis and Afghanis in Denmark; Russians in Finland; Moroccans and Algerians in France; Poles and Turks in Germany; Romanians and Ukrainians in Hungary; Albanians, Romanians and Moroccans in Italy, Iraqis in Sweden; and Indians in the UKIt is important to know why European countries have so much high rate of migration. If we try to analysis factors for this high rate of migration then we will see that one important factor is the change in policies of the EU host countries. Although the legal migration programmes have not changed but still some EU countries have opened up the doors for selected labor migrations and this is why we have seen a rise in labour migration.Although the migration of labour has been rising because of the demand in the EU countries but still they cannot absorb all would-be labour migrants.A second reason of migration to EU countries is the relationship between the EU and its neighbours to the East and South . At the start , the removal of restrictions on travel for nationals of communist countries opened up multiple channels for regular mobility such as intra-company transfers, migration for further studies , temporary labour migration programmes, but it also created possibilities for irregular migration, smuggling and trafficking into the western Europe host countries through Central East and Southeast EuropeIt is to be noted that the flow of migrants is going to continue and perhaps increase over time because of the labor market demand and especially when the restrictions on the free movement of nationals from the new EU member states are lifted.Immigration population in the EU-15 by originBenefits for the EU from the migrationEU can be benefit from the migration of people in several ways :Growth :If all the factors are constant or favourable for the economy of the EU, then greater deployment means more economic prosperity for EU.
Research shows that those countries that have the highest migration rate are among the wealthiest and growing countries of the world. This means that if EU continues to welcome migrants, then it can become more prosper. Traditional Immigration countries such as Canada, US , and Australia are among those countries whose economy have grown by the rise in immigrations .Economic prosperity in EU countries needs to be maintained and this presupposes the deployment of production factors – labour and capital .
– in a efficient manner . Technological progress , investment in more effective machines and techniques and training programmes increases the labour productivity or output per hours . But this high labour productivity is not enough to keep the growth engine running . The number of working hours is also of importance in maintaining the economic growth of a countries . More Immigration especially of working age people means more hands and more growth for EU countries .
Efficient working class : As the population of the EU countries becomes old , there is a greater need for energetic people in the labour force of EU countries . Continues and rising immigration can overcome this problem.More people , More ideasWith more people migrating to EU , and working for different companies , they can contribute a lot through the brain storming process and can also help the companies in bringing new ideas . With this the companies can make a lot of new products and services which eventually can increase the GDP of that country .
Cheap Labour :Most of the EU countries have problems with inflation , there cost of living is very high as compare to any other parts of the world . This also mean higher cost of labour . Immigrants from other part of the world can be hired on low wages which saves can save cost for the companies and the country as a whole . Having Cheap labour can be very beneficial for EU . The cost of making any product can decrease by having a low cost labour and this way the EU can compete with other countries such as China or India .Diversification of workforce:A population that is rich in cultures and languages provides enormous social, cultural and economic benefits for the Country .The world has become a global village which requires knowledge of people from diverse cultures , beliefs and background . To compete in the global market there is a great need for EU countries to retain people from different cultural , ethnic background.
Diversity can also be beneficial for employers. Those employers that respect individual differences can increase productivity which can in turn increase the GDP of EU countries .Having a diverse workforce can help understand different cultures which reduces costly lawsuits, increase creativity and business image . All of these will finally benefit of EU countries. Traditional challenges related to the migration to EU (assimilation of migrants, etc.)Migration to the European Union by people from around the world has raised great concern for it’s well being and stability. However, in the wake of adverse demographic forecast and the need to have foreign labour, migration continue to take place.
Birth rates are low and population is ageing, as a result, questions regarding their social system are raised. Although the restrictions for migration to the EU is still there but at the same time there is a the need to have cheap foreign labour, outsourcing, and to capitalize on foreign markets.Even though the migrants are able to bring economic benefits and contribute to the labor market, their existence is not much cherished in the society. They face many disadvantages in the fields of education, legal rights, justice, health, employment and many differ in living standards.
Immigrants usually are isolated in certain regions only which accounts for most of their population concentration and thus, are not accepted to integrate properly. About 4 % of EU’s population comprises of people belonging to developing nations which is a little above 13 million people. Even though becoming nationals after living for a substantial number of years the immigrants might not be accepted as one of their own in the society. This not only is true for the developing countries’ people but also regarding the people of their own boundaries, such as the Portuguese.
These immigrants not only include students and workforce but also the people who are joining their relatives residing in these countries, for example, marriages that lead to migration. Consequently, immigrant population has been increasing recently and would leave a deep impact on the EU states provided, their declining trend in birth rates and an increase in aging population.Public related resentment of these migrants leads to discrimination and at timesViolence as well. Discrimination has further paved way towards, for instance, Muslim minorities residing in the EU states after conflicts at the international level and September 11 attacks in particular. People belonging to different religions and societies deserve proper integration.
As a result of minority related tensions and in the wake of recognition regarding immigrants, the EU made new policies; it recognized integration as a necessary part of refugee and immigration strategy.The European Council in Tampere, in the year 1999 found a new strategy under the title; ‘Fair Treatment of Third Country Nationals.’ Even though the primary responsibility lies at the local and international levels related to integration, the European Union aims to spot light integration to pave way to economic and social growth.Post entry rules to the EU states have been revised in terms of religious and racial discrimination, employment, health and social inclusion. Main focus has been set to achieve an ‘equal program’ for immigrant integration in such regard.
After November 2003 member states are now required to legislate on racial discrimination on the grounds of race and religion and to establish a constitutional body for the provision of assistance to individual victims. As of December 2003 a ban has been imposed on religious discrimination in employment. Previously, in October 2002, the JHA Council had asked the European Commission to initiate proposals for a more comprehensive integration strategy.
Some major hindrances matter in securing an agreement for integration throughout the European Union States. Public resistance to migration is feared also is the EU involvement regarding their conditions to abide by terms related to integration. Most importantly, the decision categories of integration such as employment policy and religious discrimination lie under the authority of different committees, directorate generals and different ministries at the national level. They further fall into the heads of European Commission, European Parliament and various ministries. Thus, with various barriers it is difficult to have a proper coordinated strategy.Moreover, member states’ own models are not absolute with lack of strict reliance on these policies as views regarding integration strategies differ throughout Europe.The European Commission has recently developed measures for proper acceptance of immigrants.
If these measures are practically adapted to, they would lead to a well defined social, cultural, political and economic integration of the migrants all over the European Union.People migrating to the EU states need a legal status and access to rights that facilitate integration and make their living more secure. This would include family reunification and employment opportunities.
More responsibility should be taken by member countries for maintaining a balance between the locals and the migrants by creating awareness about the contribution made by skilled migrant workforce. Barriers that create trouble should be abolished and wrong information about them should be corrected at a national and international level.The civic participation of migrated individuals should be acknowledged as they have been residing in EU since quite a long time as contribute to the GDP of such countries through their skills.
They should, therefore, be given authority in decision making and sharing their ideas and perceptions.On the other hand, The EU is trying to get as much skilled labor as possible and restrict the entry of illegally entered migrants. Migratory pressure is mounting, especially on the southern borders.Not only are the migrants faced by the challenge to adapt to a different place altogether but also are the member states who have to manage and implement integration strategies within them. A new budget line was voted for in December 2006 by the European Parliament to finance policies regarding migration. This being titled “Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows” for the period 2007-2013 is meant to manage migration to the EU with a budget of 15 million Euros. Accordingly, this policy is meant to deal with various issues such as the information on immigration, return of illegal entrants and employment of people returning to EU states again.
Likewise, it is also designed to help and support member states with strong migration taking place within them, specifically at the borders.Illegal Immigration in member states in the Mediterranean and Atlantic region cause immense pressure on them though not a threat. The trend has risen quite substantially in the past two years; therefore, the EU policy is designed to help with such an issue as well besides helping the migrants.”This new programme complements and financially underpins the EU policy which must adopt a comprehensive response to the management of migratory flows, a challenge which is constantly growing and evolving. The EU is facing a rapid increase in migratory pressure, especially on its southern borders. In response, the EU must therefore increase its capability to respond to these challenges through enhanced solidarity and burden sharing in the area of reception as well as in the cooperation between Member states in the field of return of irregular migrants,” said Franco Frattini, the vice president and commissioner responsible for migration and security issues Pre 9/11 development of the EU institutional and policy approach towards migration Many would argue that after 9/11 migration to the EU has been restricted. Surprisingly for them, migration has not been restricted in the wake of any possible threat; yet, it has increased substantially due the skilled workforce settling in these nations.Some security procedures have imposed greater restrictions to the dismay of a few but on the contrary; some benefits have even improved to the extent of acknowledging the educated and skilled individuals who continue to reap benefits to the host countries in return.
Before 9/11 migration to EU states was comparatively low in terms of present percentage worth of rise. As declining population has become an issue, it is acknowledged that developing nations’ citizens would be taken as contributors to the well being rather than assume as terrorists.The seven EU member nations agreed upon an immigration policy in the year 1999 at the time of Tampere Summit. The directives have been implemented regarding anti discrimination and integration policy yet it remained to be properly acted upon.
According to the Amsterdam Treaty before 9/11, it was decided by the European Commission to have a general criterion for migrating into any of the states. However, it was not possible for all the states to abide by a single rule due to migration differences and security purposes. 9/11 incident onwards, economic stability got in the lime light due to which immigration policy had to be made more flexible and anti discrimination paid more heed to due to rising unrest regarding minorities and security issues raised.
European Criminal Law has been based on the Napoleonic model (pre 9/11) and has in collaboration with the FBI and CIA created a centralized decision based agency. Previously, these requirements were as part of the European Union plan as per the requirement of judicial integration. Presently, all member states are steadfast on this plan in relation to the war on terror and abide by these rules.Prosecution and execution rules apply in the same manner to all citizens of these seven states no matter what nationality they belong to.
Inter comparison as well as intra comparison would account or the same punishment. However, before 9/11 punishment level used to vary.Ironically pre 9/11 agendas and rules for immigration were not too strong, however, the incident proved to be inevitable but now, the restriction are well looked into again and policies have become strict, yet the migration level is booming.
B. The impact of 9/11 to the EU institutional and policy approach towards migrationWhat kind of threats migration brings to the EU?Migration may bring threats such as lay offs for the citizen of EU , It may also increase the welfare burden to the Host country where the migration is taking place Other than that Terrorism and Political and Threat can also arise by the migration of people to the EU .Terrorism:It can put the whole EU nationals life at risk , when any terrorist activities occurs its damages are huge claiming life and can be very costly also in terms of money . Terrorists movements have increased over time with will connected electronic networks and well-resourced movements.
Terrorists are willing to use unlimited violence to cause massive casualties everywhere and EU is not exception.Recent waves of terrorism is global in nature and is linked to violent religious extremism . the recent and dangerous wave of terrorism have arose out of complex causes . Pressures of modernization , cultural , social and political crises are some of those complex causes . EU is both a target and a base for terrorist activities . Many of the countries such as Germany , UK , Italy , Spain and Germany has been found to have logistic bases of Al Qaeda .Political/Security ThreatAnother type of security threat identified is the perception of the migrants or refuges as a political threat by the host country.
Instances such as bombing of the world trade centre by a group of middle eastern immigrants and asylum seekers or the murder of CIA employees are examples of political / security threat that the EU may face.After the war on Afghanistan and Iraq, EU faces much more security threat .Terrorist actsMay be a response to E.U foreign policy, such as support for a particular country, US in particular.Security threat may also seen in the EU when the immigrant groups are involved in smuggling of arms or people , forming alliances with domestic opposition groups, or participating Post 9/11 concerns in the EUAfter the terrorist attacks of September 11 , a common viewpoint of the European Leaders was that the European countries themselves provided a safe havens to the terrorists that were involved in the attacks on the world trade centre , and the way how they helped those terrorists was their immigration and asylum policies .
The European leaders realized the needs for more structured , well planned and new policies in regards with immigration and asylum seekers. After 9/11 . After the 9/11 event , immigration became the immediate issue of concern for Europe. It is believed that the initial planning for the 9/11 attacks was first done by the terrorist organizations in Britain and Germany .Immigration in EU has averaged around 1.4 million persons each year ,whereas in the US it is 2.3 million persons each year .In order to avoid extremism which can be a source of violence in EU , some news policies at country levels are made .
Germany , Spain , Britain and Italy have adopted harsher immigration laws that outlined provisions to expel those foreigners who are suspected to have likes to radicalism and violence .After the September 11 attack on US , European leaders became especially concerned about the Israel-Palestinian issue . They stressed the need to resolve regional problems , particularly with Iraq, Iran and the Israel-Palestinian issue because this could also led to terrorist activities in future .it has been fully agreed by the European Leaders that without the solutions to these regional issues , EU’s countries will also have a security threat .The need to cooperate In regards with the terrorism was also a concerned Therefore the EU has sought to speed up its efforts to harmonize national laws and to bring down barriers among the EU countries law enforcement authorities so that information can be readily available to everyone and in meaningful way . To avoid any terrorists activities from migrants of other countries steps such has establishing a common definition of terrorism and a list ofterrorist groups, an EU arrest warrant, enhanced tools to investigate terrorist financing,and new measures to strengthen external EU border controls was taken . o Public opinion (polls)o Elites’ opinionA general trend of answers from the public says that they are afraid of unemployment issue rising because of immigration. This is also the concern of opinion leaders and policy makers.
The Euro barometer that regularly organizes public polls in the EU member stats have results clearing suggesting the fear of citizen. A polls conducted in March 2000, specifically investigated attitudes towards minority groups in EU. The majority of the EU citizens agreed to the statement that “the presence of minority groups causes unemployment to rise ” . Almost two thirds of the Belgium citizens also agreed to the above statement.In March 2003 a similar poll was conducted which people were asking about to give about the expansion of the European Union. This too clearly Revealed the fear of unemployment and loss of welfare provisioning that can happen from the migration of people if EU is expanded.Approximately 64 percent of Europeans feared an influx of people from the new member states and nearly half of which feared the rise in unemployment that can rise because of the migration from new member countries .
Another opinion poll that was conducted in November 2006 on in which the European society reaffirmed the public’s fear of the presence of people from other ethnic backgrounds, especially regards with unemployment. Forty two percent of the EU citizens reported to have fear of insecurity from the people from other ethnic background while forty six percent of the EU citizens reported to have believe that the presence of other ethic background people are causing the unemployment .More detailed investigation of these Euro barometer surveys indicated that negative individual viewpoints have caused because of the factors such as Education ( Education reduces the negative attitudes about any thing and clear the mind if there is some confusion ) , family connections with people of other ethnic background and episodes of unemployment .A survey was conducted by Times online , in which it was found that 85% of the people think that asylum is out of control :The Mori poll — commissioned by Migration Watch UK, the independent monitor found that Every 8 out of ten people said that government has failed to control the asylum seeker . 76 % say that the ministers are not honest and open to the public regarding the actually scale of the immigration in Britain .Moreover the result also suggested that immigration and asylum was not based on racist and xenophobic attitudes and out of the 2057 people questioned , 70% of them has that it immigration is a good thing and it shows that Britain is a multicultural society .
Furthermore It was found in the Mori Survey that there is a powerful support for tightening up the immigration policy where 67% of the people said that the restriction should be much tougher than this .A representative same of 2057 people was interviewed by Mori between January 16 and 21,2003. Similarities and differences among the EU and US post 9/11 approach toward migrationIn order to avoid another terrorist activities like September 11 , The EU have undertaken certain steps which can identify the act of terrorism and fight against them, Joint investigation teams of police and magistrates were set up across the EU, a routine exchange of information about terrorism was established between the Member states , signing a co-operation agreement between Europol and the relevant US authorities; Eurojust was also established in to track down any terrorist activities . Also in the laeken summit , it was agreed to have a European arrest warrant and a common definition of terrorism that can be helpful in closing the loopholes of security within EU .On December 27, 2001, the European Council agreed on the resolution of freezing of funds; prohibition to provide funds, assets, economic resources or financial services to terrorists (individuals, groups or entities with links to terrorist organizations).
Later the names of organizations and individual was also issued and their accounts were freezed.In order to avoid another terrorist activities like September 11 , The US has also changed there policies regarding the migration of people to US . Some of them were a direct result of post 9/11 concerns and other were simply influenced .Some seven months after 9/11 the US brought a new policy for foreign students , travellers who visit for either pleasure or business, and to persons ordered deported. The policy calls for ,“Student Coming to U.S from abroad should have a permission letter from the U.S schools where have are admitted to prior entering the country .International Students , if they are already in the U.
S will also not be allowed to apply for any school and they must return to their home country in order to apply for the school .”“Tourists and business travellers can have a six month to an year extension under certain conditions , However they are only limited to stay in the U.S for 30 days or for any number of that’s appropriate for completing the trip.
Those persons that have been deported or expelled from the U.S. to surrender within 30 days or forfeit all rights to appeal and asylum.”Florida police were given full authority to detain any people who violates the immigration law which in the past only federal agents were allowed to do . Moreover , International tracking systems were established through which identification from national i.
d cards and finger prints could be generated so to avoid illegal migration of people in US .A visa waiver program was launched by which nationals from other countries could enter the US for a limited time without having to obtain a visa .This decision was influenced by a general crackdown of People in the USThe 9/11 attack on US and attacks on EU countries such as 7/7 attack in the United Kingdom and Madrid attack in 2004 have prompted both sides of the Atlantic to put their respective efforts in ensuring homeland security and combat terrorism .It has also been agreed that the increase in migration is one of the many factors affecting homeland security and terrorism .The policies of US and European countries are however different from each other regarding migration .While EU countries have preferred to work within their existing institutional architectures to combat terrorism and respond to other security challenges and disasters on the other hand United States has embarked on a wholesale reorganization of its domestic security and border protection institutions.
Questions o could the EU economically afford to reduce the migration flows?o Could EU be able to reduce the migration flows?The European Commission, on January 11, 2005 adopted a Green Paper regarding the approach to manage economic migration within the European Union. It’s purpose was to come to a decision regarding the management of developing nation’s migrants.With fast paced globalization migration seems to be inevitable and rather beneficial for EU members. As the need grows for skilled and cost effective labour legal migration in these countries is desirable. Moreover, the population is decreasing in many EU States creating a demand for both unskilled and skilled labour.
The migrant labour, as a result, would be of assistance to EU’s economic stability and competitiveness.According to forecasts, the demand for labour would increase after 2010 when the time of retiring would be at verge for the baby boomers. Estimates show that 20 million of EU’s workforce will be lost by 2030 and another 52 million by 2050. If qualified and skilled migrants are not accounted for in their workforce a serious threat could be imposed to the economic stability of EU member countries.In the wake of potential consequences and the need for labour, the EU has taken various measures and made policies regarding EU immigration. These include directives concerning the admission of students and researchers, (2004 and 2005 respectively), directives related to rights to family reunification (2003) and directives related to the status of developing nations’ citizens who are also long term residents ( also 2003).Developing countries’ nationals living in the EU contribute it’s economy whether they are self employed or employed by local employers.
5 million of such workers are presently living in the EU, however, rules for accepting immigrants varies from states to states as it becomes a problem for both the employers and the ones seeking employment to settle in after proper legal paper work..According to recent discussions, a proper framework regarding migrant workforce needs to be established throughout EU. As per a newly formulated framework, separate directives would be made based on the level of skills possessed by highly skilled, trainees and seasonal workers etcetera.After the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 the European Commission had proposed to have a common single national criterion for admission of migrants in all member countries. Unfortunately, the proposal was not approved by the Council.In the year 2003, the Commission highlighted a threat to their future economy; the decline in population and birth rates.
As a result of shrinking fertility rates and EU having a population of longer expectance it was to have more of an ageing population and less people in the workforce in the future. By the year 2020, 25 states are expected to face a reduction in working population by 6 million , which is a decline from 303 million to 297 million .Therefore, in order to have a stable economic growth and to maintain a competitive edge, it is necessary for the European Union to have migrant labour force.
On the other hand, it has been proven to outsource and offshore as well besides letting migrants enter as employing locals for certain jobs would incurs more cost. There would be some jobs that the EU nationals would not do, for example, in UK alone, workforce accounts for only 8% of total population yet contributes to 10% of the Gross Domestic Product of the entire country.EU would, therefore, might not want to reduce migration flows of legal workforce as they might rather want to restrict the entry of individuals entering illegally. These people migration to EU states are not a threat and do not as a result impose any security issues as they act as an asset to the member countries and help to contribute to their GDP and economic well being. With their declining trend in population restricting entry of educated labour might not turn out to be beneficial but rather a peril to the economy. – Overview of the post 9/11 EU policies relevant to migrationAfter the terrorist attacks on World Trade centre, we have seen historical events that have ‘changed everything’.
Under the new circumstances there was a great need to see the ongoing policies of EU. One of the policies that have been on discussion was on immigration and asylum. Already the immigration issue was very controversial in EU, the terrorist attacks of 9/11 have added a new life into this policy as movement of persons across borders was central to the 9/11 attack on US .
Just after the September 11 attack on US the European government started viewing their immigration policies in order to prevent another September 11 like attacks. In the Terrorist Attacks of 9/11, there was mostly arabs who were involved in it . EU first made a policy regarding Arabs, allowing them immigrations but on defined quotas. In addition to this, EU Signed an agreement with Tunisia , Morocco , Jordan , Israel and the Palestine authority stressing the need to fight against illegal immigrants . Keeping in mind that the populations of several EU member states are decreasing which can adversely affect the EU labour force consisting of both skilled and unskilled and so the competitiveness of the EU economy. The Commission decided to develop a balance Immigration policy that will help achieve EU goals and also can be a solution to EU upcoming problems .In recent years decisions have been taken that is considered to be the beginning of the EU immigration policy .The decision included the directive on the right of family reunification ( 2003) , directive that examines the status of third world countries nationals who have been living in the EU for a long time , and the directive for the migration of students and researchers .
Conclusion- Trends- Policy recommendations how to address the problemIt is argued that terrorist attack of 9/11 has lead the EU to tighten its policy regarding migration but surprisingly it is not because of the threat from terrorism. It has actually increased because of large amount of skilled workforce settling in these nations. Although restriction in migration policy may help EU reduce the threat of terrorism which is also important for the EU countries.In regards to migration policy , the US and European countries have different approaches .
While EU countries have preferred to work within their existing institutional architectures to combat terrorism and respond to other security challenges and disasters on the other hand United States has embarked on a wholesale reorganization of its domestic security and border protection institutions.It should also be noted that a strict migration policy is not very beneficial for the EU because there is a great need for skilled and cost effective labour force growing each year in the EU .Moreover the population is also decreasing the EU countries making roam for a higher demand of skilled and unskilled labours. Therefore if we see from other point of view then a migrant labour force can be of great assistance to EU’s economic stability and competitiveness.Finally it can be concluded that the security threat to EU has not increased significantly and the migration issue is just highly politicized by the Authorities.
And the most appropriate reason of politicizing the migration issue is because of the enlargement of EU .The policy of common asylum and border have restricted the migration opportunity since more states now fall into the EU border and it is becoming increasingly difficult for the people from the new members, which the states of origin feel to be desirable, affording better opportunities to integration owing to cultural homogeneity, as compared to the migrants from Asia and Africa. Bibliography :A Secure Europe in a Better World. p.18.A well-argued overview of the economic benefits of migration can be fount in P.
Stalker ( 2001 ) ,The No-Nonsense Guide to International Migration (Oxford ) , 63-99Birkland, Thomas A. 2004: “’The World Changed Today: Agenda-Setting and Policy Change in the Wake of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks”, Review of Policy Research, 21(2): 179-200.Boswell , C . 2002 . Addressing the Root Cause of Migratory and Refugee Movements :The Role of the European Union .Working Paper no 73. Geneva .Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit .
UNHCR .Cohen, R., ; Layton-Henry, Z.
(1997). The politics of migration. Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA: E. Elgar.Cohen, Steve 2003: No One Is Illegal. Asylum and Immigration Control. Past and Present, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
Eurobarometer (2003),“Enlargement of the Europeon Union – Flash Eurobarometer 140 ”EOS Gallup (March),85Eurobarometer(2007),“Europeon Social Reality – Special Eurobarometer 273 .”TNS Opinion ; Social ,(February),68Fidler, Stephen. “Migration Ins and Outs,” Financial Times, May 21, 2002.Futo , P .and M.Jandl,ed.
2005.2004 Year Book on Illegal Migration ,Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe .A survey and Analysis of Border Apprehension Data from 22 States .Vienna: International Centre for Migration Policy DepartmentGeorgios, K. (2007). European Migration Policy In The Aftermath Of September 11: The security-migration nexus.
Innovation, 20(1), 1.Gott , and K. Johnston ,K. (2002) The Migrant population in the Uk: fiscal Effects.home OfficeGuild , Elspeth (2005). International Migration and Security: Immigrants as an Asset or Threat? (Transnationalism) . RoutledgeHaffajee, Ferial. “Migration Turning the Brain Drain Into Financial Gain,” Financial Mail, June 1, 2001.
Hailbronner, Kay 2000: Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy of the European Union,The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Huysmans, Jef (2006). The Politics of Insecurity Security, Migration ; Asylum in the EU (The New International Relations) .
Routledge.International Dialogue on Migration, International Organization for Migration, 2001.International Migration : Quarterly Review , 38 (3) ,pp 3-131 , 2000 . Special Issue (1): Prospective on Trafficking of Migrants .International Organization on Migration (2003),world Migration 2003 .
Managing Migration : Challenges and Responses for People On the MoveJanuary 12 ,2005.http://www.euractiv.com/en/security/eu-opens-debate-economic-migration/article-134074 (accessed March 9,2008).july 9 , 2007.http://europa.
eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/1035;format (accessed March 13,2008).Lavenex, Sandra 2001: “Migration and the EU’s New Eastern Border: Between Realism and Liberalism”, Journal of European Public Policy, 8(1): 24-42.Lavenex , S. and Emek Ucarer ( 2002 ) , Migration and the Externalities of European IntegrationMartin , Philip , Manolo Abella , and Christiane Kuptsch. Managing Labor Migration in the Twenty-First Century. Yale University Press, 2006.
Michael S. Teitelbaum and Sharon Stanton Russell, International Migration and International Trade, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1992.
McDonald ,P.and R.Kippen 2001 “ Labor Supply Prospects in 16 Developed Countries,2000-2050,”Population and Development Review ,27(1):5-40.
Munz,R.and H . Fassmann(2004),Migrants in Europe and Their Economic Position:Evidence from the European Labor Force Survey and from other Sources ,paper prepared for the Europeon Commission,DG Employment and Social Affairs .Nonneman , Walter ( July 2007 ) . European Immigration and the Labor Market.October ,2003 .http://www.migrationinformation.
org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=170 (accessed March 13,2008).October 9 ,2001.http://www.vdare.com/roberts/restrict_immigration.htm (accessed March 13,2008).Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2004) , Trends in International Migration 2003Richburg, Keith. “Illegal Workers in W. Europe Do Continent’s Heavy Lifting,” Washington Post, Aug. 3, 2002.Salt , J ., Current Trends in international Migration in Europe . Strasbourg : Council of Europe , Strasbourg , 1998Scott, J., & Joseph, C. (2004). The Migration Economy; With the rapid rise of foreign workers, the world is rethinking its immigration policies. Newsweek, 36.Simon, J. L. 1989. The Economic Consequences of Immigration. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Report of the 61st General Assembly of the UN.Smith, James P., and Edmonston, Barry. The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration, National Research Council, 1998.Taylor, Robert. “Time to Rethink Labor Migration,” Financial Times, June 21, 2001.United Nations, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2003 Revision (POP/DB/MIG/ Rev. 2003), data in digital form.Zlotnik,H .1998 . “ International Migration 1965 -1996 ,”Population and Development Review ,24(3):430-470.  United Nations, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2003 Revision (POP/DB/MIG/ Rev. 2003), data in digital form Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2004) , Trends in International Migration 2003 United Nations, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2003 Revision (POP/DB/MIG/Rev. 2003), data in digital form Guild , Elspeth (2005). International Migration and Security: Immigrants as an Asset or Threat? (Transnationalism) . Routledge Nonneman , Walter ( July 2007 ) . European Immigration and the Labor Market. International Organization on Migration (2003),world Migration 2003 . Managing Migration : Challenges and Responses for People On the Move A Secure Europe in a Better World. p.18 OECD 2004 OECD 2004 OECD 2004 Munz and Fassmann,2004 A well-argued overview of the economic benefits of migration can be fount in P.Stalker ( 2001 ) ,The No-Nonsense Guide to International Migration (Oxford ) , 63-99 October 9 ,2001.http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=170 (accessed March 13,2008). july 9 , 2007.http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/1035&format (accessed March 13,2008). October 9 ,2001.http://www.vdare.com/roberts/restrict_immigration.htm (accessed March 13,2008). Eurobarometer (2003),“Enlargement of the European Union – Flash Eurobarometer 140 ”EOS Gallup (March),85 Eurobarometer(2007),“European Social Reality – Special Eurobarometer 273 .”TNS Opinion & Social ,(February),68 February 9, 2003.http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article869879.ece (accessed March 13, 2008). January 12 ,2005.http://www.euractiv.com/en/security/eu-opens-debate-economic-migration/article-134074 (accessed March 9,2008).