French Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded Olympic Movement in 1894 describing Olympism as a meditative work of body, intellect and spirit and endeavored to encourage artists, athletes to build a modern society in sports and art. The Olympics began from Stockholm in 1912. There were many difficulties in conducting sports, transport arrangements and selection of amateurs resulted in low quality of work . XI Olympics held in Berlin  were officially stood as good performance. Due to Second World war crisis, Olympics could not be held between 1940-1944. In 1948, London city hosted Olympics art competitions, and set up British Fine Arts Committee which was considered good. After a long discussion of IOC in Rome from 1949 to 1952, it was decided that Olympics would be in the form of cultural exhibitions and festivals instead of competitions.
The first Olympics art festival of Games was held in 1956 in Melbourne and thereafter was held periodically for every four years viz., 1968-Mexico, 1972-Munich, 1976-Montreal, Moscow-1980, Seoul-1988, Barcelona-1992, Sydney-2000, Athens-2004. Among these, Games held in Seoul and Barcelona, brought a great recognition to Olympics worldwide. IOC lays emphasis on adhering to the regulations of Olympic Charter, which have to be followed by the hosting city. It is also mandatory to include cultural activities vis-à-vis to the sport competitions in Olympics. Olympic Organising Committee enables bid proposals for cultural programmes which is an important element in Olympics. Olympic Sponsorship Programme enables funds raise in Olympics through the media of television for sponsorship of Olympic sports around the world. The impending Olympics are to held in Beijing-2008 and London-2012.
2. Travel Arrangements
Around nine million tickets are expected to be sold according to the sources of ODA and they will be made available from the year 2011. Tickets to the stadium will be sold by call centers, internet services [web site] and box offices. The consumers have to make payments through VISA card. London will endeavor to prioritize transport services to satisfy spectators. System of public transport will function to the utmost satisfaction of audience. The Olympic Park will be linked with 10 rail lines and three stations serving the park. There will be a train for every 15 seconds carrying spectators to the venue. These 10 lines will be able to transport 2,40,000 audience per hour.
2.1 Olympic Act 2006
Section 10 of Explanatory Notes of Olympic Act 2006, explains that OTP in consultation with ODA will design transport plans for the Games and implementation. A detailed work of construction of transport arrangements, route mapping, closure of roads and restrictions is required to be done.
Section 11 prescribes about Olympic Route Network (ORN) within England, the areas which will be used for travel to venues and accommodations.
Section 12 prescribes about cooperation among ODA and OTP in facilitating transport services in London Olympics.
Section 13 prescribes about negative functions that affect Olympic Games directly or indirectly operating on the road without the permission or consent of ODA unless a thirty days permission is granted by ODA are subject to have violated the rules and such activities are not approved by ODA.
Section 14 prescribes about traffic regulation orders that :
14(1) the roads have to be part of Olympic Route Network (ORN). Subsection(4) permits traffic authorities to make regulation orders for Olympic purposes on roads as and when required which is part of (ORN). [e.g. parking of vehicles ]
Section 15 prescribes about enforcement of traffic regulation orders. Violation of regulation orders would attract a fine ranging from ?1,000 – ?5,000. ODA is vested with powers for fixing of fines for the purpose of Olympics. However, local authorities and London Transport will remain as ‘enforcement authority’ for several other purposes.
Section 16 prescribes about road closures in connection with the events of sports, social events or entertainment activities and no restrictions are imposed within the time of events of Olympics.
Section 17 lays provisions for Rail Regulations. Under national work of Rail, an objective oriented work in maintenance of providing lighting arrangements at depots, tracks, stations in order as transport facilities especially for Olympics has to be provided under the guidance of ODA.
According to Section 18, interpretation and definition of principal terms are described in section 10-17.
Apart from the above, a wide range of cars and accommodation are to be arranged by ODA to facilitate athletes and other people to make the Games more enjoyable and rewarding.
2.2 Construction and designing
ODA will invite tender biddings from 2009 [some of the tenders have already started] for the delivery of venues, furnishing of venues, setting up Olympic Park and for transport arrangements. An MOU has been signed between London Cross Rail Links (CLRL) and Department for Culture, Media and Sport for 2012 Games/Legacy to ensure joint working on projects with coordination on the principal site of Olympic Games Lea Valley. There is a huge scope for jobs at venues, in construction and designing, volunteers, beginning from a single person to the company businesses for making speedy money within the duration of Olympic Games.
3. Transport Planning
· ODA is working on creation of green space, land and waterways in Olympic Park.
· ODA is also working on transport facilities at Stratford for designing a new park for promoting walking, cycling, biodiversity, public transportation and to provide new facilities to the vicinity adjacent to the park.
As per the statistics of Olympic Transport Plan (OTP), Stratford city has 1.5 million sq.ft of retail space, 4000 hotel beds apart from residential area, the city has 19.2 shopping visits. Due to traffic congestion in the city, a new plan for road traffic has to be designed for bus lanes.
· Stratford Regional Station has to be set up for entry and exit to Olympic Park.
· Olympic ‘Javelin’ Shuttle train for transporting spectators using high speed trains from CTRL service. These services will run from King’s cross, St.Pancras to Stratford International within seven minutes.
· As per (TfL) and LOCOG Javelin has a capacity to carry 25,000 passengers per hour.
· Stratford platforms will be extremely populated with Javelin trains. Therefore appropriate steps have to be taken to make arrangements for speedy and sufficient exit routes to clear the platforms and ensure safety of Olympic candidates as well other passengers.
· Pedestrian route maps have to be worked out which are designed from Stratford International and Regional Station to connect to Olympic Park.
· Athletes who are accommodated within Olympic Park at Stratford in East London will be at the venues within 20 minutes.
· Others who are accommodated outside Olympic Park, will be transported by cars, vans and coaches along the route 240KM (ORN).
· Congestion free travel arrangements will be made for IOC members, athletes and other media representatives. Most of the members of IOC will be accommodated in hotels in Park Lane in Central London.
High intensive security through installation of CCTV and Travel Safe Officers.
New television information systems and providing real-time travel information on mobile phones.
4.Importance of Transport arrangements
500 acre Olympic park will be venue for 14 sports. Transport for London (TfL) considers that Olympics Games are the world’s largest sporting event. There is a participation of 200 nations with 16,000 Athletes, team officials and 38 sports competitions will be held over a span of 16 days. 55,000 members called as ‘Olympic family’ including athletes, officials, media representatives, VIPs and sponsors safety and security is primarily dependent on efficient transport system for handling events as per the schedule. Also an estimated ticket selling of 9,700,000 with an expectant number of 500,000 spectators each day of sports event. The ODA considers that it is important to bring the entire team of media, broadcasters and athletes to the stadium on time and therefore transport timing is very essential . Also public are paying an exorbitant sum for deriving the maximum happiness out of the Games and therefore, efficient unhindered transport system would make the event a great success. Olympics held in Atlanta, Sydney and Athens faced a problem in road mapping in bringing people through buses and cars as drivers were brought from other parts of the country who were unfamiliar with the routes. A budget allocation of ?692million for transport has been made out of which ?150million is considered as operational budget for Games.
5. Installation of MIS and Communications Technology
Management of Information Systems is an organized design through computers, to perform the duties and responsibilities of each department in a pre-set standard. Set up of audio, video communication facilitates to the easy and smooth functioning of the events. The purpose of MIS is to make available the information in an organized manner, for tourists, visitors, spectators and other people who intend to be a part of the event. Internet web services, LAN and WAN net works, email alerts, would enhance proper flow of information all through the sports event. The key systems which require planning and design to for each department efficient working are:
- Arrangement of Tickets [e-ticketing, Oyster card]. Residents of UK have to follow the purchase of ticketing process in order to view sports within the stadium. Spectators from foreign countries have to use biometric passports or buy tickets through web site enrolment process.
- Transport Arrangements [Bus and Train routes, schedule of timings of pick-ups and droppings. A change in road management is proposed to be shifted from automatic number plate to tag and beacon technology services. Usage of smart cards, in extending train services in stations] .
- Accommodation for ‘Olympic Family’ [Availability of Rooms, suites and lodges]
- Hospitality arrangements [food and dining accessories, menu charts, suppliers, water and laundry facilities].
- Security check system [within the venue and London city, set-up of spy-cameras, CCTV cameras, televisions, display boards, vigilance communication systems. Also application of digital technology instead of analog for analyzing human behavior.]
- Traffic Rules and guidance to visitors.[Display Boards, banners at the venue, instructions through web site, distribution of brochures, catalogues, facility for enquiry counter etc].
- 24×7 call center, FAQ, on-line web services will assist the public in transport arrangements.
- Medical Facilities [availability of doctors, medicines, ambulances and apparatus of medical aid and kit]
- Advertising and media will arrange for announcing speaker systems, communication systems [mikes, televisions, computers, mobiles and wireless phones]
- Administrative department will interact with every system assisting in methodical working. Accounts and Finance will allocate funds for each system and also monitor on collection of revenues received through ticketing, sponsors and television broadcasting channels.
- Commentator system will be made available in English, French and Italian. Results of sport competitions will be displayed on PCs at the venue sites which broadcasts to the through television all over the world.
- There will be an access to sport competitions through terminals.
- Games Management system will provide the details of entire participants, venues dates and timings.
5.1 Budget Allocation
?7.2bn is estimated to be spent on IT Systems for London 2012. The following is the break-up of the budget.
· ?204m for Information Systems.
· ?63m for telecommunication Systems.
· ?12.5m for internet applications.
5.2 Significance of MIS in Olympics
Management of Information Systems is an important tool through which information technology is applied in various sectors in order to bring the entire working system into an organized manner, each according to the hindrances it is confronted with. The implimentation of information technology pertains to the development and application of software engineering which is designed and developed according to the requirements of a particular sector. MIS is one of the most successful system in current day technological designs as it enables smooth functioning, efficiency, accuracy, speed and fast delivery of information and enhances competitive strategies within organization and for global access which is a hill-task in a conventional method of working or to organize a public event such as Sports. The design and development of MIS must satisfy the following criteria.
· High-growth, methodical, progressive and performance-oriented
· Prevent and minimize risks and provide timely remedies in real-time crisis.
· Must enable supply-chain networks.
· Must enable efficient distribution channel management
· Must enable efficient customer relationship management
· Must enable more efficiency and productive output.
· Must enable safe mode, organized, highly integrated and intelligence working system.
· Must eradicate even minute problems, facilitating access to resolve the issues while saving time.
· Must enable globally a sophisticated and easy method of access.
· Cost-effective in designing and maximizing the resources, opportunities to deliver quality information and well-organised working system.
· User-friendly and easy to comprehend and operate.
· Security level with encryption in designing will enable confidential information to be inaccessible to unauthorised.
· Must be profitable leaving a scope for plethora of profit-making activities.
· Availability of large information for further development and growth of organization allowing verifications, scrutinisations and to build a genuine database of tourists, visitors, atheletes and participants.
· Must enable a friendly working environment as well making the event to be a great success and rewarding .
· Above all, the entire MIS must be gratis from hassles, errors, hindrances and dilemmas while providing a strong means of safety and security both for the organizers as well to the public making the event an enduring ecstatic moment in the history of sports.
According to Section 6 of Explanatory notes of London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Act 2006, ODA has to exercise all the functions with regard to safety and security in protecting the interests of public and sportsmen with the support of police force. London 2012 has worked on all the aspects of security arrangements with Metropolitan Police under the guidance of Sir David Veness who was present in security team in Athens Olympics. Olympic Park security will be on priority with 1000 magnetometers. LOCOG will be headed by a Security Director who will chair Olympic Security Committee.(OSC). A fund of ?25 m has been allocated for venue security out of the total security fund of ?200m from the total budget of ?2.375 bn for coverage of security costs and more funds will be made available on request by the authorities. The security of Olympic village has been a particular concern, as there were instances of barbaric acts in previous Olympics as happened in Munich Olympics  terrorists had taken nine hostages and killed two Athletes.
The present times are witnessing terror all over the world, causing severe damage to the business of aviation, trains and bus industries as bombs are placed in passenger transport system resulting in huge loss of innocent lives as happened in Madrid bombings in 2004, London underground bombings in July, involve mind boggling and relentless efforts to introduce a high intelligence security check system for unscheming conspiracies and camouflages of terror acts.
”All is well, that ends well” as per the maxim, the impending Olympics in London are worthy of highest honor in its rich culture and the unique style in conducting sport competitions. However no scope for elimination of risk areas must be left unattended to avoid unpredictable and unforeseen situations by arranging acute and severe measures of advanced intelligence and security systems, information systems, insurance, medical services and police force. Undoubtedly UK once again regains its glory as one of the luxurious and prestigious city in the world by hosting Olympics in 2012.
The following are the authorities working collectively to achieve a concept ‘Towards a one Planet Olympics’ which would certainly highlight UK leading to acclamation of its economy.
· LOCOG : London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games.
· ODA : Olympic Delivery Authority
· HMG : HM Government
· GLA : Greater London Authority
· BOA : British Olympic Association
· BPA : British Paralympic Association.
Marketing in Olympics is a great opportunity for business persons both for great and small. Opportunities for youth to work as volunteers and assisting jobs are in great numbers each job work carries a significance in a macro event. However, the authorities must act as per the designs, schedule, budget and proper monitoring of events would bring the event into a limelight focus. Selection of artists, musicians, advertising media, rehearsals at venues, construction of stages and venues must prove perfect and produce excellent works. For instance the recent FIFA sport and cultural stage performances were held in great grandeur and to the utmost liking of public all over the world both within the stadium as well television spectators.