Triticale, a new adult male made cereal, is known to be more drought tolerant and high giving up. An experiment comprising eight genotypes each of wheat and triticale was conducted at the NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2002-2003. The experiment was planted in Randomized Complete Block Design. Data were collected on works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and crop index. Data of all the traits were statistically analyzed. All the genotypes were observed to be significantly different for works tallness, spikelets spike-1, and spike length, while non-significantly different for harvest index. Heritability estimates for works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? and spike length were 90 % , 98 % and 84 % , severally. Significant genotypic and phenotypic correlativities of works tallness with spike length and spines spikeaˆ?A? , while non-significant correlativity of crop index with spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and works tallness were observed. Morphologically, triticale appeared to be better than wheat, but the experiment needs to be repeated for acquiring more expressed decisions.

Introduction

Wheat is the most of import cultivated harvest that ranks foremost in land area every bit good as production amongst all the cereals in Pakistan and all over the universe. Due to importance of wheat as a taking nutrient harvest in the agriculture system, many works breeders are engaged in its betterment throughout the universe. There has been an extended research to pyramid such morphological traits that could partition equal part to grain output ensuing in high grain output. The North West Frontier Province comprises several ecological zones holding different climes and the bing wheat cultivars are non giving us good outputs because of unequal wet handiness and an fickle distribution of rain in the state.

Triticale ( Triticosecale Wittmack ) , an intergeneric cross between wheat and rye, has been in tests at CIMMYT as an surrogate harvest for the wet scarced environment. Although some efforts have been made to develop specialised triticale merchandises for human ingestion, the chief utilizations are likely to be as replacement for wheat in human nutrition, or as eatage for carnal ingestion. It has the possible to give better output under wet emphasis conditions. It has proved better in public presentation than wheat sing output, works tallness and other characters ( Ford et al. , 1984 and Kempton et al. , 1986 ) . Dramatic addition in output were recorded in many parts of the universe, peculiarly in those engendering programmes which operated two rhythms of choice per twelvemonth ( Larter and Hsam, 1973, CIMMYT 1987 ) . In state of affairss where output were limited by environmental emphasiss, triticale produced more biomass ( Graham, Geytenbeek and Radicliffe, 1983 ) . It has out yielded the highest giving up wheat assortments used as cheque ( CIMMYT, 1983 ) . All of these groundss prove that triticale can vie with the long constituted cereal harvest like wheat in many state of affairss including drouth.

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Sheoran et Al. ( 1986 ) observed that physiomorphological traits like works tallness and spike length were straight related to give. Harvest index ( Shamsuddin, 1987 ) , works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? and spike length ( Pianchi et al. , 1978 ) were straight related to give. Zaheer ( 1991 ) suggested that output could be increased through choice of workss with more works tallness and more spines spikeaˆ?A? . So, it is hoped that triticale will transcend wheat in public presentation, due to its more works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and crop index. Its public presentation is really good in NWFP and it seems to hold a great range in wet stressed Peshawar vale ( Baluch et al. , 1977 ) .

It is a new harvest in this country and it is required that the triticale may be studied in multi-directions before urging it for commercial cultivation.

The aims of this survey were to: I ) study the genotypic public presentation of triticale in comparing with wheat under the agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar, two ) Determine the genotypic and phenotypic correlativities among traits, and three ) determine the heritability of morphological traits.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in the section of Plant Breeding and Genetics NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in the twelvemonth 2002-2003. Eight genotypes of triticale from CIMMYT ( ITYN 2001 ) and eight cultivars of wheat were studied and compared. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with two reproductions. Each secret plan consisted of 5 rows with row length of 3 m and row to row distance of 30 centimeter. Seed rate for each secret plan was calibrated at the rate of 100 kilograms haaˆ?A? . Urea fertiliser and SSP were applied at the rate of 139 kilograms haaˆ?A? . Datas were recorded on works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and crop index.

Height of the chief tiller was recorded from the land degree to the tip of spike excepting awns on 5 indiscriminately selected spikes at adulthood. Spike length of 5 indiscriminately selected spikes was measured from the base of first spines to the tip of spike excepting awns at adulthood. Plants of three cardinal rows were harvested and weighed for biological output. Harvest index was computed from the available informations of grain output and biological output, utilizing fluxing expression.

The information, after roll uping, were statistically analyzed by utilizing the MSTATC statistical bundle ( MSTATC, Version 2.00 ) and Orthogonal contrast was applied to prove the significance of intervention differences. Phenotypic and genotypic correlativity coefficients were besides worked out utilizing the same bundle. Heritability estimations were calculated from discrepancies among inbred lines ( Hallauer and Miranda, 1981 ) as

Where R is replicates, I?2G is the discrepancy among genotypes as estimated by the expected mean squares, and I?2e is the line x reproduction interaction. Standard mistake for heritability was estimated harmonizing to Hallauer and Miranda ( 1981 ) .

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Plant HEIGHT

Assorted genotypes showed extremely important difference ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) for works tallness ( Table 2 ) . Extraneous contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was extremely important for this trait. The comparative information of wheat and triticale reveal that triticale offers a broad scope of works tallness. Non-significant differences were observed within wheat and triticale genotypes ( Table 2 ) , while contrary to our findings, Ahmad et Al. ( 1994 ) , Allen et Al. ( 1986 ) , Ahmad et Al. ( 2003 ) , Mohammad et Al. ( 2001 ) , Munir et Al. ( 1999 ) , Akbar et Al. ( 2000 ) , Chaudry et Al. ( 1991 ) and Panialvi et Al. ( 1989 ) reported important differences in wheat. One of the possible grounds could be that elect genteelness lines were included in the survey which resulted in the narrow familial differences for this trait. Plant tallness for assorted genotyped ranged between 80.5 and 124.8 centimeter with a average value of 102.87 centimeter ( Table 3 ) . Plant height for triticale genotypes ranged between 108.4 centimeters and 110 centimeter with a average value of 115.2 ( Table 3 ) . Wheat genotypes ranged from 80.5 centimeter to 110 centimeter with a average value of 90.53 centimeter ( Table 3 ) . Heritability estimation for this parametric quantity was found to be 90 % ( Table 3 ) . The high heritability for this trait indicates that a few cistrons control the character under consideration and that it is qualitatively inherited. Consequences of this survey are in conformance with the findings of Rahman and Krostad ( 1991 ) who reported high heritability for this trait in wheat. Mixed genotypes showed important genotypic and phenotypic correlativities for works tallness with spike length and spines spikeaˆ?A? while its genotypic and phenotypic correlativities with harvest index were non-significant ( Table 4 ) . Contrary to our findings, Shah et Al. ( 1988 ) reported negative correlativity between works tallness and crop index. This may be due to the differences of stuffs. Non-significant genotypic and phenotypic correlativities were observed in separate analysis for wheat and triticale genotypes for works tallness with spike length, spines spikeaˆ?A?and harvest index ( Table 4 ) .

SPIKELETS SPIKEaˆ?A?

Highly important differences ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) were observed in assorted genotypes demoing diverse types of wheat and triticale genotypes ( Table 2 ) . Extraneous contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was extremely important for this trait. In the present survey triticale exhibited more spines spikeaˆ?A? than wheat. Non-significant differences ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) were observed within wheat and triticale genotypes ( Table 2 ) . Previously Ahmad et Al. ( 1994 ) found similar consequences. Ahmad et Al. ( 2003 ) , Muhammad et Al. ( 2001 ) , Dautani et Al. ( 1997 ) and Mahmood et Al. ( 1990 ) reported important differences in wheat. Non-significant differences may be due to the fluctuations in stuffs and ecological conditions. Spines spikeaˆ?A? ranged between 17 and 30 in assorted genotypes with a average value of 22.97 ( Table 3 ) . Range of spines spikeaˆ?A? was 25 to 30 for triticale holding a average value of 27.5, while it was 17-20 for wheat with average value of 18.44 ( Table 3 ) . The heritability estimated for this trait was 98 % ( Table 3 ) . Possible account of high heritability could be its high familial discrepancy between wheat and triticale genotypes. However, Mohammad et Al. ( 2001 ) reported low heritability for this trait, while Rahman and Krondstad ( 1991 ) reported both high and low heritability in wheat depending on the familial background. Assorted genotypes showed significantly positive genotypic and phenotypic correlativities for spines spikeaˆ?A? with works tallness, spike length ( Table 4 ) . The genotypic and phenotypic correlativities of spines spikeaˆ?A?with harvest index in wheat genotypes was significantly negative ( Table 4 ) . The genotypic and phenotypic correlativities of spines spikeaˆ?A? with crop index in assorted genotypes of wheat and triticale was non-significant ( Table 4 ) .

SPIKE LENGTH

Assorted genotypes and triticale genotypes showed extremely important differences ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) for spike length ( Table 2 ) . These findings are in understanding with the findings of Pacetti et Al. ( 1993 ) , Khan et Al. ( 2001 ) , Leki et Al. ( 1991 ) , Dautani et Al. ( 1997 ) and Swati et Al. ( 1985 ) who reported extremely important differences for this trait in wheat. Orthogonal contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was extremely important for this trait. Our comparative informations suggests that triticale genotypes showed more spike length than that of wheat. Differences were non-significant ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) in triticale genotypes ( Table 2 ) . The ground for this could be the unvarying familial background of the stuffs for spike length. Data for spike length in assorted genotypes ranged from 9.74 to 13.62 centimeter with a average value of 11.74 centimeter ( Table 3 ) . Range of spike length for triticale genotypes was 11.5 to 13.62 centimeters holding a average value of 12.65 centimeters while it was 9.74 to 12 centimeter for wheat with a average value of 1.093 centimeter ( Table 3 ) . Heritability estimation for this parametric quantity was 84 % ( Table 3 ) . High heritability indicates that this character is less influenced by environment. Reddi et Al. ( 1969 ) reported low heritability estimation for this trait. Mixed genotyped showed significantly positive genotypic and phynotypic correlativity of spike length with spines per spike and works tallness ( Table 4 ) . Non-significant genotypic and phenotypic correlativity were observed in triticale genotypes for spike length with spines spikeaˆ?A? , works tallness and crop index ( Table 4 ) . Non-significant positive correlativity of spike length with works tallness was found which is opposite to the findings of Shahid et Al. ( 2002 ) who reported important positive correlativity between spike length and works tallness in wheat ( Table 4 ) . Correlation of spike length with other traits was found non-significant ( Table 4 ) .

HARVEST INDEX

Assorted genotypes showed non-significant differences ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) for crop index ( Table 2 ) . Ihsannullah and Mohammad ( 2000 ) , Burrio et Al. ( 1990 ) reported non-significant differences in wheat which in line with our findings. The findings of Chowdhury et Al. ( 1989 ) are contradictory to these findings. From non-significant differences between wheat and triticale, it can be inferred that they portion same familial background for this trait and both can be jointly studied. Extraneous contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was non-significant for this character. The value of crop index for assorted genotypes ranged between 5 and 27.8 with a average value of 20.2 ( Table 4 ) . Assorted genotypes showed non-significant phenotypic and genotypic correlativities of harvest index with spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and works tallness ( Table 4 ) .

Decision

The survey entitled as “ Comparative Study of Morphology Traits in Wheat and Triticale ” was conducted in Agricultural University Peshawar during 2002-2003. Datas on works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and crop index showed that all the traits except harvest index were positively correlated with each other. The heritability estimates showed that morphological traits were extremely heritable and they were less influenced by diverse environmental conditions. While comparing works tallness, spines spikeaˆ?A? , spike length and harvest index between wheat and triticale, it can be inferred that triticale appears to be a possible replacement for wheat in rain fed conditions.

Table 1. Cultivar/lines, used during this survey.

No

Parenthood

Lineage

A

Triticale

A

1.

Pollmer_2.1.1

CTY88.547-22RES-IM-0Y-2M=1Y-0M-1B-0Y

2.

ARDI_1.TOPO 1419//ERIZO_9/3/2* KISSA_7-1

CTSS92B00490M-B-1M-1Y-0Y-0B

3.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/K760/DP//X77-387-1/5/LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/CAAL

CTIB0009S-10Y-0Y-0B

4.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/L760/DP//X77-387-1/5LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/CAAL

CTIB93Y00071T-4B-1Y-0Y-0B

5.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/K760/DP//77-387-1/5/LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/ERIZO_11/YOGUI_3

CTIB93Y00070T-10B-4Y-0Y-0B

6.

NIMIR_3ERIZO_12/5GC.3/733.3/733.EB//MPE/3/LAMB_3/4/BUF_2/6/POLLMER_2

CTSS92B00849T-D-1Y-0Y-0B

7.

PFT80413/DLE//ZEBRA 79/3/GNU_5/4/KER_2/5/MANATI_1

CTSS92B00192S-25Y-0Y-0B

8.

RA64/SONNI_4/3/HARE_132/CIVET//STIER_28

CTSS92B00953T-C-1M-1Y-0Y-0B

A

Wheat

1.

TATARA

Released by NIFA

2.

PIRSABAK-85

Released by CCRI

3.

GHAZNAVI-98

Released by NWFP Agri. Uni. Peshawar

4.

DERA-98

Released by ARI ( D.I.Khan )

5.

TAKBEER

Released from ATTILLA

6.

FAKHR-E-SARHAD

Released by NIFA

7.

INQALAB-91

Released by Ayub Agr. Res. Station, Faisalabad

8.

CHANAB

A Released by Ayub Agr. Res. Station, Faisalabad

Table II. Mean Squares of works tallness ( PH ) , spines spikeaˆ?A? ( SLPS ) , spike length ( SL ) and harvest index ( HI ) of wheat and triticale 2002-2003.

S.O.V

Variables Measured

A

Df

Ph

SLPS

Shining path

Hello

A

Wheat

A

Reproduction

1

82.90

7.56

1.71

2.02

Treatments

7

63.87

1.06

0.75**

30.16

Mistake

7

45.2

0.42

0.05

46.13

A

Triticale

A

Reproduction

1

185.64

0.25

0.01

28.09

Treatments

7

48.25

2.85

0.34

8.10

Mistake

7

21.85

0.82

0.44

15.16

A

Assorted Experiment

A

Reproduction

1

258.78

2.53

0.69

6.20

Treatments

15

327.05**

45.63**

1.94**

20.51

Mistake

15

32.03

0.93

0.30

32.48

Table III. Means and scopes of works tallness ( PH ) , spines spikeaˆ?A? ( SLPS ) , spike length ( SL ) and harvest index ( HI ) of wheat and triticale, Peshawar 2002-2003.

A

Wheat

TRITICALE

Assorted EXPERIMENT

Trait

Mean

Scope

Mean

Scope

Mean

Scope

Ph

91NS

81 – 110

115 NS

108 – 125

103**

81 – 125

Shining path

11 **

10 – 12

13 NS

12 – 14

12**

10 – 14

SLPS

18 NS

17 – 20

28 NS

25 – 30

23**

17 – 30

Hello

15 NS

5 – 28

14 NS

5 – 21

20 NS

5 – 28

Table IV. Phenotypic and Genotypic correlativities coefficients among works tallness ( PH ) ,

spike length ( SL ) , spines spikeaˆ?A? ( SLPS ) and harvest index ( HI ) Peshawar, 2002-2003.

Traits

Wheat

Triticale

Assorted Experiment

A

roentgenium

rp

roentgenium

rp

roentgenium

rp

PH VS SL

0.692*

0.256

0.523

0.228

0.899**

0.732**

PH VS SLPS

-0.210

-0.293

0.464

0.401

0.922**

0.836**

PH VS HI

-0.397

-0.030

-0.286

-0.082

-0.370

-0.165

SL VS SLPS

0.173

0.426

-0.194

-0.051

0.840**

0.801**

SL VS HI

-0.070

-0.092

-0.597

-0.370

-0.350

-0.253

SLPS VS

Hello

0.785**

0.510*

0.224

0.045

-0.196

-0.101